candlestick

1850


The Collected Letters, Volume 25


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BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ; 1997; DOI: 10.1215/ed-25-biographical-notes; CL 25: firstpage-25-327-lastpage-25-345

BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES

Adams, William Bridges (1797–1872; ODNB; see TC to MAC, 21 May 1847), railway inventor and unsuccessful manufacturer; lecturer and author, including political pamphlets under name of Junius Redivivus.

Adamson, Robert (d. 1861; see TC to JA, 14 Feb. 1838), manager of the British Linen Bank, Dumfries, where TC kept an account.

Aitken, James, house painter, living at Assembly St., Dumfries, m. to Jean.

Aitken, Jean (“Craw”) Carlyle (1810–88), TC's sister, m. to James.

Aitken, Robert (see TC to JAC, 11 Feb. 1830), TC's maternal uncle.

Aitken, Thomas (1841–69), Jean and James's son, who was deaf.

Albert (1819–61; ODNB), prince consort.

Aldridge, Thomas, cooper, 177 Sloane St., Chelsea.

Alison, Archibald, (1792–1867; ODNB), historian and sheriff of Lanark, 1834–67.

Allingham, William, (1824–89; ODNB), poet; b. in Ireland and worked in a bank, Ballyshannon, ca. 1837; apptd. to customs office, ca. 1846; paid annual visits to London, beginning 1843; introduced to TC by Leigh Hunt; pbd. Poems, 1850, and Day and Night Songs, 1854, with illustrations by Pre-Raphaelites, with whom he had become friends; transferred to customs house at Lymington, 1863; pbd. Laurence Bloomfield in Ireland, 1864; retired from civil service and moved to London, 1870, where he served as sub-ed. of Fraser's Magazine, 1870–74, and ed., 1874–79.

Anderson, Miss (see TC to JAC, 16 Nov. 1840), sister of the Rev. Charles Anderson, who m. the Carlyles; good friend of TC and JWC, living in Moffat.

Apel, Heinrich, author of A Grammar of the German Language (1840), students' edns. of Märchen und Sagen (1838) and Tieck's Der Blaubart (1844), and The Formation of the Words of the German Language (1844).

Argyll. George Douglas Campbell (1823–1900; ODNB), 8th duke of Argyll; politician.

Arndt, Ernst Moritz (1769–1860), German patriot and author; prof. of history, Bonn.

Arnold, Jane. See Forster, Jane.

Ashburton. Harriet Baring, b. Montagu (1805–57; ODNB; see TC to MAC, 8 March 1839), Baroness Ashburton; m., 1825, to 2d Lord Ashburton; whom TC first met 1839.

Ashburton. William Bingham Baring (1799–1864; ODNB see TC to MAC, 8 March 1839), 2d Baron Ashburton; partner in Baring Bros., bankers, and politician.

Ashley. Anthony Ashley Cooper (1801–85; ODNB), styled Viscount Ashley; 7th earl of Shaftesbury, 1851; philanthropist and reformer; engaged in promoting Sunday postal restrictions at this time.

Austin, James (d. 1878), farmer, of the Gill, 6 mi. W of Ecclefechan; m. to TC's sister Mary.

Austin, John (1790–1859; ODNB), jurist; m. to Sarah.

Austin, Mary Carlyle (1808–88), TC's sister; m. to James.

Austin, Sarah, b. Taylor (1793–1867; ODNB; see TC to JWC, 29 Aug. 1831, TC to JWC, 31 Aug. 1831), trans.; m. to John; friends of the Carlyles since the mid-1830s; driven from Paris, where settled, 1844, by the 1848 revolution; now living in Weybridge, Surrey.

Aytoun, William Edmonstoune (1813–65; ODNB), advocate and poet; prof. of rhetoric and belles lettres, Edinburgh; joined the staff of Blackwood's, 1844.

Bacon, Anthony (d. 1786), Cumberland ironmaster of Merthyr Tydvil.

Baillie, Phoebe, JWC's cousin, sister of James Baillie, who spent most of her fortune.

Bain, Alexander (1818–1903; ODNB; see JWC to TC, 11 Sept. 1844), psychologist, logician, and educationist.

Ballantyne, Thomas (1806–71; ODNB; see TC to TB, 23 Feb. 1839), author and journalist; formerly ed. of the Manchester Guardian.

Bamford, Samuel (1788–1872; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 24 Jan. 1843), poet and autobiographer; former weaver.

Beard, Richard (1801/2–85), portrait photographer at the Royal Polytechnic Inst., 309 Regent St., 1841–49; at 34 Parliament St., 1842–56; at 85 King William St., 1842–54, and at no. 31, 1854–69; the first to adopt Talbot type.

Bell, George, farmer of Minsca, nr. Lockerbie, whose eldest son, George, d. 9 Sept.

Blackie, John Stuart (1809–95; ODNB; see TC to JSB, 28 April 1834, and TC to JSB, 16 April 1849), regius prof. of Latin, Marischal College, Aberdeen.

Bölte, Amalie Charlotte Elise Marianne (1811–91; see 22:Introduction, and JWC to HW, 15 July 1847), b. in Rehna, Mecklenberg; came to England, 1839, to work as a governess; began writing and translating and got to know the Carlyles, 1841; admired but often disagreed with TC, while closely attached to JWC; regularly visited them and reported on them to Varnhagen von Ense, in letters here cited as Böltes Briefe.

Bogue, Adam, Haddington farmer.

Brandis (or Brandes) (see TC to CKJB, 27 Dec. 1845, and TC to CR, 18 Feb. 1846), blind Dane who gave TC lessons in Danish.

Brodie, Sir Benjamin Collins (1783–1862; ODNB), distinguished surgeon.

Brontë, Charlotte (1816–55; ODNB), novelist, whose Jane Eyre had been pbd. pseud., 1847, to great acclaim, but whose secret of authorship had been abandoned by 1849, though her Shirley (1849) was also pbd. pseud.

Brookfield, William Henry (1809–74; ODNB; see JWC to WHB, 1 April 1846), clergyman and school inspector.

Brougham. Henry Peter Brougham (1778–1868; ODNB; see TC to MAL, 7 June 1820), Baron Brougham and Vaux, Whig politician.

Brown, Anne, in the Carlyles' service, 1846–48, when she left to marry in Jersey, where she d.

Browning, Robert (1812–89; ODNB), poet; TC's friend since mid-1830s; m., 1846, to Elizabeth, b. Moulton Barrett (1806–61; ODNB); living in Florence since 1847.

Bruce, John (1802–69; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 23 Nov. 1845), lawyer, antiquary, and ed. of Gentleman's Magazine.

Buccleuch. Walter Francis Scott (1806–84; ODNB), 7th duke of Queensberry and 5th duke of Buccleuch, for whom John Carlyle had been family physician, 1838–39.

Buckingham, James Silk (1786–1855; ODNB), author, lecturer, and traveler.

Bunsen. Christian Karl Josias Bunsen (1791–1860; see TC to JCA, 13 Feb. 1839), Baron Bunsen; Prussian ambassador to Britain; known in England as Chevalier Bunsen; m. to Frances.

Bunsen. Frances Bunsen, b. Waddington (d. 1876), Baroness Bunsen; m., 1817, to Christian, of whose career she was extremely supportive.

Bunsen, George Frederick (1824–95), son of C. K. J. and Frances Bunsen.

Burns, James Glencairn (1794–1863), 3d surviving son of Robert Burns; retired lt. col. from E India Co.'s service.

Burns, William Nicol (1791–1872), the poet's second surviving son; retired lt. col. from E India Co.'s service.

Butler, Frances Anne, b. Kemble (1809–93; ODNB), actress and writer, known as Fanny Kemble; divorced from the American Pierce Butler, 1848, but still living in the U.S.

Byng, Gerald Frederick (“Poodle”) (1784–1871; see TC to JWC, 8 July 1844), socialite, member of the Ashburton circle.

Callan, Margaret, b. Hughes (d. ca. 1865; see TC to GCD, 29 May 1849), C. G. Duffy's cousin and sister-in-law.

Cane, Robert (1807–58; ODNB; see TC to JWC, 8 July 1849), M.D., writer on Irish history.

Carleton, William (1794–1868; ODNB; see JWC to TC, 23 Aug. 1846, and TC to JWC, 8 Sept. 1846), Irish novelist.

Carlyle, Alexander (Alick) (1797–1876), TC's brother, who had emigrated with his family to Canada, 1843, and settled at a farm, Bield, 4¼ mi. W of Brantford, Ontario; m. to Janet, b. Clow.

Carlyle, Alexander (1843–1931; see TC to AC, 4 May 1843), Alexander and Janet's son; m., 1879, Mary Aitken, his cousin; later lived with TC and ed. his letters and other writings.

Carlyle, Isabella, b. Calvert (d. 1859), who had long suffered ill health; m. to James, TC's brother.

Carlyle, James (Jamie) (1807–90), TC's brother, farmer at Scotsbrig, m. to Isabella.

Carlyle, Jane Welsh (1831–84), Alexander and Janet's da.

Carlyle, Janet (Jenny), b. Clow (1809–91), m. to TC's brother Alexander.

Carlyle, Jenny (1843–74), James and Isabella's da.

Carlyle, John (1792?–1872; see TC to JCE, 2 Sept. 1818, and TC to AC, 15 Aug. 1840), TC's half-brother; emigrated to N America, 1837, eventually settling at Brantford, Ontario.

Carlyle, John (Little John) (b. 1836), James and Isabella's son.

Carlyle, John Aitken (Jack or “the Doctor”) (1801–79; ODNB), TC's brother; physician and trans.

Carlyle, Margaret Aitken (1771–1853), TC's mother; living with James and Isabella Carlyle at Scotsbrig.

Carlyle, Thomas (1833–1921; see TC to JAC, 24 Dec. 1833), Alexander and Janet's oldest son.

Carrel, Nicolas Armand (1800–1836; see TC to JWC, 6 Aug. 1836), French journalist and political leader.

Chadwick, Edwin (1800–1890; ODNB; see TC to JSM, 24 Sept. 1833), sanitary reformer.

Chalmers, Thomas (1780–1847; see JWC to TCH, 21 May 1827, and TC to DTH, 20 Jan. 1843), Scottish church leader, theologian and social leader; known to and admired by the Carlyles.

Chalmers (sometimes called Chambers) family (see JWC to TC, 7 Sept. 1846, JWC to TC, 16 Sept. 1847, and JWC to TC, 17 Jan. 1848); piano-playing neighbors at 4 Cheyne Row.

Chambers, Robert (1802–71; ODNB), publisher, author, and ed. of Chambers's Edinburgh Journal.

Chancellor, George, stabler, 1 Cheyne Row.

Chapman, Edward (1804–80), partner in Chapman & Hall, TC's publishers since 1843.

Chapman, John (1821–94; ODNB; see TC to JCH, 21 March 1844), publisher and author, who acted as agent for American firms.

Childs, John (1784–1853; ODNB; see TC to JCHI, 24 Sept. 1841), printer of Bungay, Suffolk.

Chorley, Jane, b. Wilkinson (?1779–1851; see TC to JWC, 25 July 1843), John Chorley's mother.

Chorley, John Rutter (1806–67; ODNB; see TC to JWC, 25 July 1843, and TC to JWC, 8 Aug. 1845), the Athenaeum's chief reviewer for works in German, Italian, and Spanish, who occasionally accommodated the Carlyles by making small purchases and overseeing certain tasks for them.

Chorley, Mary Ann (Phoebe) (1805?–63; see TC to JWC, 25 July 1843), John Chorley's sister.

Christie, William Dougal (1816–74; ODNB; see TC to WDC, 26 Feb. 1840), barrister; one of the founders of the London Lib.

Christison, Robert (1797–1882; ODNB), prof. of medicine, Edinburgh.

Clarendon. George W. F. Villiers (1800–1870; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 4 Feb. 1847), 4th earl of Clarendon; viceroy of Ireland, 1847–52.

Clifford, Sir Augustus William James (1788–1877; ODNB), bart., usher of the black rod and rear-adm.; patron of the arts and collector.

Cobden, Richard (1804–65; ODNB), radical M.P., former leader of the Anti-Corn Law League.

Cochrane, John George (1781–1852; ODNB see TC to WDC, 7 Dec. 1840), chief librarian of the London Lib., 1841–52.

Cockerell, Charles Robert (1788–1863; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 28 Oct. 1834), architect.

Cockerell, Frederick Pepys (1833–78; ODNB), second son of Charles Cockerell; also became an architect.

Cole, Henry (1808–82; ODNB; see TC to HGR, 11 Aug. 1835), senior asst. keeper in the Public Record Office, from which he was given leave, 1849, to sit on the exec. committee of the Great Exhibition; known to the Carlyles since the 1830s.

Coleridge, Sara (1802–52; ODNB), da. of S. T. Coleridge and ed. of his works; widow of Henry Nelson Coleridge (1798–1843).

Colton, Mr., son of Charles Caleb, author of Lacon; otherwise unidentified.

Cook, Ann, in the Carlyles' service, 1835–37; dismissed for stealing.

Cook, Eliza (1812–89; ODNB), popular poet, journalist, and ed. of Eliza Cook's Journal, 1849.

Corrie, Alexander and family of Newfield Farm, nr. Scotsbrig.

Cowell, Edward Byles (1826–1903; ODNB), scholar; friend of Edward FitzGerald; currently working in his father's malt-making business at Ipswich.

Craik, George Lillie (“Creek”) (1798–1866; ODNB), author; prof. of English lit. and history, Queen's College, Belfast, since 1849; friend of the Carlyles since 1835.

Craven, Pauline Marie Armande Aglaé, b. de la Ferronays (1808–91; ODNB), author; b. in England of French émigrés but usually living on the Continent, where her husband Augustus Craven was attached to English legations; friend of Aubrey De Vere, Milnes, and others in the Ashburton circle; later wrote memoirs, novels, and historical works.

Crowe, Catherine, b. Stevens (1790–1872; ODNB; see JWC to JF, 10 July 1841), novelist and writer on the supernatural.

Cunningham, Allan (1784–1842), writer and sculptor; friend of the Carlyles.

Dahlmann, Friedrich Christoph (1785–1860; see TC to CKJB, 27 Sept. 1844), German politician and historian; prof. of history and political science, Bonn; author of Geschichte der Englischen Revolution (Leipzig, 1844).

Darby, Margaretta (see JWC to JW, 29 March 1843), Geraldine Jewsbury's old schoolmistress, living at High Laver Rectory, Ongar, Essex.

Darley, George (1795–1846; see TC to HTA, 7 March 1841), poet and playwright and friend of the Carlyles.

Darwin, Erasmus Alvey (1804–81; see TC to JAC, 15 June 1835, and TC to JAC, 17 Feb. 1837), the Carlyles' close friend since 1835; Charles Darwin's brother.

Davies, John Llewelyn (1826–1916; ODNB), Broad Church divine and Christian socialist; B.A., Trinity College, Cambridge, 1848; fellow of Trinity, 1850; ordained, 1851; rector of Christ Church, Marylebone, 1856–89; vicar of Kirkby Lonsdale, Westmoreland, 1889–1908; follower of F. D. Maurice and promoter of trade unions and of education for women and workingmen; author of many theological works.

Delane, John Thadeus (1817–79; ODNB), ed. of the Times, 1841–77.

Denison, N. I., possibly Nathaniel Denison, of Daybrook House, Nottingham, or related to him.

De Quincey, Thomas (1785–1859; ODNB), journalist and critic; author of Confessions of an English Opium Eater; friend and memoirist of the Lake Poets; friend of the Carlyles since 1827 (see TC to ADBM, 20 Nov. 1827); in old age was to speak of JWC as “the most angelic woman I ever met” (Wilson, Carlyle 2:40).

Deuchar, David (1743–1808), engraver.

De Vere, Aubrey Thomas (1814–1902; ODNB; see JWC to TC, 20 Nov. 1848), Irish poet and essayist, whom TC had known since 1848.

De Vere, Mary, b. Rice (d. 1856), Lady; widow of Sir Aubrey De Vere (1788–1846), 2d bart., and mother of Aubrey De Vere; Lord Monteagle's sister.

Dickens, Charles (1812–70; ODNB), novelist, friend of the Carlyles since the early 1840s.

Dobbie, Edward (1773–1857; see TC to JWC, 9 March 1842), Mary Russell's father; a retired minister.

Donaldson sisters of Haddington (see TC to JAC, 3 June 1840): Jean (1770–1860), JWC's godmother; Jess (1774–1860); and Catherine (Kate) (1779–1856); friends of JWC's mother.

Doyle, Sir Francis Hastings Charles (1810–88; ODNB), 2d bart., poet; m., 1844, Sidney Williams Wynn, Charlotte Wynn's youngest sister; related to Rosina Bulwer Lytton's mother's family and trustee for Rosina on her separation from her husband.

Duffy, Charles Gavan (1816–1903; ODNB; see TC to MAC, 28 April 1845), Irish nationalist and ed. of the Nation, whom TC met, 1843, and visited in Ireland, 1846 and 1849.

Duffy, Susan, b. Hughes (d. 1878), C. G. Duffy's 2d wife; m. 1846.

Dumpy (Recca), Charles Redwood's maidservant.

Eadie, John (1813/14–76; ODNB), minister of Lansdowne church, Glasgow; prof. of biblical lit., United Secession Divinity Hall, 1843; LL.D., Glasgow, 1844; D.D., St. Andrews, 1850; prolific writer of popular and scholarly theological works.

Eastnor. Charles Somers Cocks (1819–83), styled Viscount Eastnor, later 3d Earl Somers; m., 1850, to Virginia Pattle.

Eddisbury. See Stanley, Edward John, and Stanley, Henrietta.

Emma, servant girl from Essex, who came to the Carlyles for several weeks in Aug. 1850.

Erskine, Thomas (1788–1870; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 1 Feb. 1838), of Linlathen, Dundee, theologian and former advocate.

Espinasse, Francis (1823–1912; see TC to FEHD, 28 Aug. 1841), journalist and man of letters; formerly with the Manchester Examiner and, since 1848, sec. of the National Public School Assoc.; protégé of TC.

Ewart, James, grocer, High St., Annan.

Fanny, Irish servant, employed Oct., who fell ill within days but returned, end of Aug. 1852.

Farie, Gilbert (1808–52; see TC to JAC, 20 Nov. 1846), Robert's brother.

Farie, Robert (1813–82; see TC to JAC, 20 Nov. 1846), nonpracticing barrister of independent means; trans. of German works; known to the Carlyles since 1846.

Farrer, Annie Louisa (b. ca. 1828; see TC to JAC, 11 Sept. 1848), member of the Ashburton circle.

Farrer, Mary, Annie's sister.

Farrer, Mary, b. Anstruther (d. 1860), mother of Annie Louisa and Mary Farrer; m. 1st, 1803, Henry Mitford (1769–1803); m. 2dly, 1809, Farrer Grove Spurgeon Farrer (1783–1826).

Fergus, John (d. 1865; see JWC to TC, 17 July 1837), Kirkcaldy friend of the Carlyles, M.P. for Fife; Elizabeth Pepoli's brother.

Ferguson, Samuel (1810–86; ODNB), Irish poet and antiquary.

FitzGerald, Edward (1809–83; ODNB; see TC to EF, 18 Aug. 1842), poet and trans.; TC's friend since 1842.

Fleming, Henry (“The Flea” and “Jenkin's Hen”) (d. 1876; see TC to JWC, 15 July 1844), asst. sec. of the poor law board, socialite, and intimate of the Ashburton circle.

Fletcher, Eliza, b. Dawson (1770–1858; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 10 Feb. 1833), widow of Archibald Fletcher (1746–1828), Edinburgh Whig lawyer, who lived at Grasmere.

Ford, Richard (1796–1858; ODNB), critic and author of books on Spain.

Forster, Jane Martha (“K”), b. Arnold (1821–99), da. of Thomas Arnold, renowned headmaster of Rugby; m., 15 Aug. 1850, W. E. Forster.

Forster, John (“Fuz”) (1812–76; ODNB), historian, biographer, and ed. of the Examiner since 1848; friend of the Carlyles since the late 1830s and TC's literary advisor.

Forster, William Edward (1818–86; ODNB; see TC to JOST, 14 Dec. 1842), Bradford woolen trader; formerly a Quaker; later prominent Liberal politician; friend of the Carlyles since the early 1840s; m., 15 Aug., Jane Arnold.

Frewen, Thomas (1811–70; see TC to TF, 21 Dec. 1849), with whom TC had corresponded about Cromwell.

Fuller, Sarah Margaret. See Ossoli, Margaret.

Gallenga, Antonio Carlo Napoleone (1810–95; ODNB; see JWC to ABJ, 7 Oct. 1842), exiled Italian-born educator, journalist, and author.

Galloway, Thomas (1796–1851; ODNB), Scottish-born mathematician; F.R.S. and F.R.A.S., 1829; former teacher of mathematics at Sandhurst; registrar of Amicable Life Assurance Co. since 1833.

Galt, John (1779–1839), Scottish novelist, who lived in Canada, 1824 and 1826–29.

Garibaldi, Giuseppe (1807–82), Italian revolutionary gen.; member of Young Italy, 1833; in exile in S America, 1834–48; met Mazzini in Lombardy, 1848; involved in defense of Rome, 1848–49.

Garnier, Joseph Henry (see TC to JSM, 27 May 1835, and 1JWC to JW, 6 May 1844), German journalist, native of Baden, sometime refugee in London where he suffered bouts of madness.

Garthwaite, Tom, Ecclefechan tailor.

Gaskell, Elizabeth Cleghorn, b. Stevenson (1810–65; ODNB), writer and author of Mary Barton (1848), second cousin of Frances Wedgwood. She had met the Carlyles on her visit to London, spring 1849 (see JWC to JW, 17 May 1849), and maintained a slightly uneasy relationship.

Gaskell, Mary, b. Williams Wynn (d. 1869; see TC to RC, 23 July 1842), m., 1832, to James Milnes Gaskell of Thornes House, Yorkshire.

Gilfillan, George (1813–78; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 29 Oct. 1840, and TC to JWC, 12 Aug. 1843), author and Presbyterian minister.

Glyde, John, Jr., local historian, author of The Moral, Social, and Religious Conditions of Ipswich in the Middle of the Nineteenth Century (Ipswich, 1850), Illustrations of Old Ipswich (Ipswich, 1889), and other books on Suffolk and Norfolk.

Gordon, John Thomson (1813–65), advocate, 1835; sheriff of Aberdeen, 1847–48; rector, Marischal Coll., 1849–50; sheriff of Midlothian, 1848–65.

Gorham, George Cornelius (1787–1857; ODNB), vicar of Brampford Speke, 1847–57; alleged to be unorthodox in the matter of infant baptism and refused institution to the living by his bishop but obtained institution by verdict of privy council, 1850.

Graham, Elizabeth (see TC to WG, 15 Sept. 1820), William Graham's surviving sister.

Graham, William (1770–ca. 1857; see TC to WG, 15 Sept. 1820, and later vols.), TC's old friend, living on the slopes of Burnswark, where he formerly farmed, 3 mi. N of Ecclefechan.

Greig, John (1779–1858; see TC to AC, 5 Feb. 1836), Scottish-born lawyer and banker in Canandaigua, N.Y.; emigrated, 1797.

Grey, Maria Georgina, b. Shirreff (1816–1906; ODNB), promoter of women's education and suffrage.

Grier, Mary (d. 1861; see TC to JCA, 26 Dec. 1843, and TC to JCA, 25 March 1847), possibly a relative of James Aitken.

Grisi, Giulia (1811–69), Italian operatic soprano.

Guizot, François Pierre Guillaume (1787–1874; see TC to MAC, 26 Feb. 1848), French historian and politician; premier, 1840–48; forced into political retirement by the 1848 revolution; TC met him in March 1840 (see TC to JAC, 17 March 1840).

Gullen, William, a teacher of TC at the Ecclefechan parish school.

Gully, James Manby (1808–83; ODNB), physician famous for hydropathic treatment of disease at Malvern, 1842–71.

Hamilton, Sir William (1788–1856; ODNB; see TC to JOFE, 3 June 1820, TC to JAC, 16 April 1828, and Reminiscences 381–86), bart.; prof. of logic and metaphysics, Edinburgh, since 1836; old friend of and important influence on TC.

Hanna, William (1808–82; ODNB; see TC to WH, 22 Nov. 1847), theological writer; son-in-law and biographer of Thomas Chalmers (see TC to TCH, 20 Feb. 1847).

Hanning, Janet Carlyle (1813–97; death date corrected from that given in earlier vols.), TC's sister, separated from her husband, Robert; now living at Maxwelltown, Dumfries, with her das. Margaret and Mary.

Hanning, Robert (d. 1878), who had emigrated to America, 1841; m. to Janet, but separated.

Hartmann, Carl (1818–57; see JWC to JW, 17 May 1849), German-born painter and engraver.

Hartmann, Moritz (1821–72), German poet and novelist of Bohemian origin; came to London, April 1850; refused to learn English; said the English were cold because of their weather.

Haynau, Baron Julius von (1786–1853), Austrian gen.; notorious for his cruelty as military dictator in Italy, 1848–49, and Hungary, 1849–50.

Helps, Arthur (1813–75; ODNB), writer and historian of private means; clerk to the privy council, 1860; friend of the Carlyles for the past decade; m. to Bessy.

Helps, Bessy, b. Fuller (see JWC to TC, 17 July 1843, and JWC to HW, 31 Jan. 1845), m. to Arthur Helps.

Henry. See Rawlins, Henry.

Herford, Edward (1814/15–96), Manchester solicitor, 1837–68; coroner for Manchester, 1849–96; prominent layman of the Church of England; co-founder of the English Church Union, 1861.

Herz, Henriette, b. de Lemos (1764–1847), famous beauty whose salon in Berlin was frequented by German thinkers.

Hickson, William Edward (1803–70; ODNB; see TC to AC, 18 Feb. 1836), ed. of the Westminster Review.

Hiddlestone, Margaret, JWC's mother's former servant.

Hill, Lord George A. (1801–79; see TC to JAC, 18 June 1849), Protestant improving landlord of Donegal, Ireland, whom TC visited in 1849.

Hill, Rowland (1795–1879; ODNB), inventor of penny postage.

Hogg, James (1806–88; ODNB), ed. Hogg's Weekly Instructor, (name changed to The Instructor, 1849), 1845–59; pbd. the principal works of George Gilfillan and the collected works of Thomas De Quincey.

Hoggan, Edward, of Bellevue, Thornhill.

Hope, David (d. 1857; see TC to DH, 23 March 1822, and TC to JJO, 20 Dec. 1843), Glasgow merchant, friend of William Graham.

Hope, William J. (see TC to DH, 11 June 1835), David's brother, whom TC had known in Edinburgh during his student days.

Hunt, James Henry Leigh (1784–1859; ODNB), essayist, poet, and former neighbor of the Carlyles.

Hunt, Thornton Leigh (1810–73; ODNB see TC to MAC, 16 March 1833), journalist; co-founder and co-ed. with G. H. Lewes of the Leader; oldest son of Leigh Hunt; m. to Kate, b. Gliddon; was to have four children by Agnes Lewes; known to the Carlyles since he was a boy.

Hunt, Vincent (1823–52; see TC to JWC, 18 Aug. 1842), Leigh Hunt's son.

Hunter, Jacob (see JWC to JW, 19 Oct. 1842, and TC to JBO, 7 June 1845), physician; friend of John Carlyle.

Inglis, Sir Robert Harry (1786–1855; ODNB), bart., Tory politician.

Ireland, Jane, from Lancaster; the Carlyles' servant, 1834–35.

Isabella (“Pessima”) (see JWC to HW, 14 Nov. 1846, and JWC to SS, 29 Dec. 1846), the Carlyles' servant from Edinburgh, 1846.

Jackson, Catherine, b. Cecil, JWC's old E Lothian friend; da. of Walter Cecil; Cecilia Stuart-Menteth's sister.

Jeffrey, Lord Francis (1773–1850; ODNB; see TC to AC, 26 Jan. 1820, and later vols.), lawyer, judge, and literary critic, early friend and benefactor of the Carlyles.

Jewsbury, Geraldine Endsor (1812–80; ODNB; see TC to GEJ, 12 April 1840), author and friend of the Carlyles, particularly and increasingly of JWC, since the early 1840s.

Johnston(e), George (see TC to JAC, 25 Nov. 1842, and TC to JAC, 20 May 1846), physician turned farmer, living in Gloucester.

Jones, Robert Oliver (1811–86), barrister; called to bar, 1850; stipendiary magistrate, Cardiff, 1858; inherited Fonmon from his uncle Robert (1773–1834), presumably the “late Jones” (TC to JWC, 19 Aug.); m., 1843, Alicia, b. Thomas (d. 1851).

Kay, John (1742–1826), Scottish miniature painter and caricaturist.

Ker, Stewart (b. 1802; see TC to SK, 26 Dec. 1841), businessman.

Kinglake, Alexander William (1809–91; ODNB), author of the popular Eothen (1844), an account of his tour of the Near and Middle East and later historian of the Crimean War.

Kingsley, Charles (1819–75; ODNB), author, Broad Churchman, and Christian socialist; m., 1844, to Fanny.

Kingsley, Fanny, b. Grenfell (1814–91); m. to Charles.

Knight, Charles (1791–1873; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 4 Feb. 1839), author and educational publisher.

Landor, Walter Savage (1775–1864; ODNB; see TC to RWE, 1 April 1840), poet and man of letters whom TC had known since 1836; separated from his wife and living in Bath.

Langebek, Jacob (1710–75), Danish writer, founder of the Danish Soc. for the Study of Danish Lang. and History.

Larken, Edmund Roberts (1810–95), liberal clergyman, wealthy incumbent of a Lincolnshire parish.

Larkin, Henry (1820–99), collector or cashier for Chelsea Steamer Co.; partner in engineering business; worked on TC's indexes from 1856; author of Extra Physics and the Mystery of Creation (1878), with an appendix (written in 1858) giving an analysis of Sartor Resartus, and of Carlyle and the Open Secret of His Life (1886).

Laurence, Samuel (1812–84; ODNB; see TC to JCA, 6 July 1838), portrait painter and friend of the Carlyles.

Laurie, Sir Peter (1778–1861; ODNB), London sadler; b. nr. Haddington; made a fortune from an Indian army contract and retired, 1827; sheriff, 1823; knighted, 1824; alderman, 1826; lord mayor, 1832; master of the Saddler's Co., 1833; chairman of the Union Bank, 1839–61. TC met him among City men in Edward Irving's circle, “a long-sighted satirical Ex-Saddler … and nothing better,—nay something of an Ex-Scotchman too, which I could still less forgive” (Reminiscences 245).

Lawlor, Denys Shine (see TC to JWC, 17 July 1849), a noted “Repeal Landlord,” whom TC visited at Castle Lough, Killarney, 1849.

Lawrence, Abbott (1792–1855), Boston merchant, U.S. minister to Gt. Britain, 1849–52; m., 1819, to Katherine, b. Bigelow.

Ledru-Rollin, Alexandre Auguste (1808–74; see TC to JWC, 10 April 1848), French radical politician and advocate of universal suffrage; minister for the interior in provisional govt. and candidate for pres., 1848.

Leitch, Dr., friend of John Carlyle, with disfigured face, living nr. Keswick.

Lewald, Fanny (1811–89), German novelist, writer of travel books, and champion of women's rights; Amalie Bölte's friend and TC's admirer.

Lewes, Agnes, b. Jervis (1822–1902; see TC to JAC, 26 Aug. 1848), m., 1841, to G. H. Lewes, by whom she had four sons; with her husband's sanction she turned to Thornton Hunt, by whom she had four children, 1850–57, the first being Edmund, b. 16 April.

Lewes, George Henry (“Ape”) (1817–78; ODNB; see TC to UC, 16 Oct. 1839), author, journalist, and co-ed. with Thornton Hunt of the Leader; known to the Carlyles since 1835.

Lewis, George Cornewall (1806–63; ODNB; see TC to JOST, 11 Sept. 1836), politician; financial sec. to the treasury, 1850–52; known to TC since mid-1830s.

Lewis, Sir Thomas Frankland (1780–1855), of Harpton Court, co. Radnor, father of TC's friend George Cornewall Lewis; created 1st bart., 1846.

Liddle, Mr., member of the Liddle family of Liverpool, friends of the Welshes.

Liddle, Mrs. (d. 1850), possibly the wife or sister-in-law of Mr. Liddle or possibly the widow or sister-in-law of the “doll like” Mr. Liddle (d. 1846; see JWC to TC, 7 July 1844, and JWC to JW, 19 May 1846).

Lind, Jenny (1820–87; ODNB), Swedish soprano.

Lindesay (or Lindsay), Harriot H. (d. 1878), sister of Charlotte Williams Wynn; widow of John Lindsay (d. 1848).

Linnell, John (1792–1882; ODNB), portrait painter.

Linton, William James (1812–97; ODNB; see TC to GCD, 29 Sept. 1849), engraver, poet, and radical political reformer.

Lockhart, John Gibson (1794–1854; ODNB; see earlier vols.), man of letters; ed. of the Quarterly Review.

Lombe, Edward (1823–52), philanthropist; rector of Swanton Morley, Norfolk.

Louis Napoleon. See Napoleon, Louis.

Louis Philippe (1773–1850), king of France, 1830–48; deposed in revolution of Feb. 1848.

Lowe, Robert (1811–92; ODNB), politician, later 1st Viscount Sherbrooke.

Lucas, Frederick (1812–55; ODNB; see TC to JF, 16 May 1840), Roman Catholic journalist and politician; ed. of the Tablet.

Lynn (Linton from 1858), Eliza (1822–98; ODNB), novelist and misc. writer; on staff of Morning Chronicle.

Lytton, Sir Edward George Earle Lytton Bulwer (formerly Bulwer; new name taken 1843) (1803–73; ODNB; see TC to JSM, 23 March 1839, bart.; novelist, dramatist, and poet, whom TC did not respect personally and from whom he kept a wary distance; formerly a Liberal M.P. but temporarily out of politics; m., 1827, to Rosina, but separated, 1836.

Lytton, Rosina, b. Wheeler, Lady Bulwer Lytton (1802–82; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 15 April 1839), novelist; officially separated from her husband, Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton, since 1836, and with some reason feeling herself unjustly treated, attacked him through her fiction.

Maberly, Col. William Leader (1798–1885; ODNB), joint sec. of the Gen. Post Office.

Maccall, William (1812–88; ODNB; see TC to WM, 5 Aug. 1848), author, Unitarian preacher, and protégé of TC, who said that Maccall had taken up Unitarianism and was “now completely stranded” (Espinasse 199).

M'Diarmid, Anne, b. M'Knight (d. 1850; see TC to JWC, 27 Sept. 1838, and TC to JWC, 12 Aug. 1843), m., 1819, to John.

M'Diarmid, John (1790–1852; ODNB; see TC to AC, 10 Jan. 1821), ed. of the Dumfries Courier.

Macdonald, Grace, the Carlyles' first Craigenputtoch servant, 1828–ca. 1832.

Macgregor, Anne Jane (see JWC to JW, 5 March 1844), m. to Jeannie Welsh's cousin Walter Macgregor.

Macleay, Kenneth (1802–78; ODNB), Scottish miniature and landscape painter living in Edinburgh; an original member of the Royal Scottish Acad., 1826.

Macready, Catherine Frances, b. Atkins (1806–52); m. to William.

Macready, Christina (Nina) Letitia (1830–50), oldest child of William and Catherine Macready.

Macready, William Charles (1793–1873; ODNB), actor-manager; m. to Catherine, both friends of the Carlyles since 1839.

Mahon, Philip Henry Stanhope (1805–75; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 11 March 1839), styled Viscount Mahon; historian and politician. TC was to note of him, for Varnhagen: “Lord Mahon (pronounce Mahoon,—name comes from Port Mahon in Minorca, I believe): a Politician, used to follow Peel; Historian too (Modern England,— readable and clear but thin): eldest son of Earl Stanhope (representative of Ld Chesterfield, or somehow related to him): ‘man of fashion’ withal; has written Vie de Condé in French, &c” (MS: Jagiellonian Univ.).

Mannings. Frederick George Manning, m. to Maria, b. Rue (see TC to JAC, 3 Sept. 1849, and TC to JAC, 17 Nov. 1849); both convicted of murder, Oct. 1849; hanged, 13 Nov. 1849.

Marcet, Jane, b. Haldimand (1769–1858; ODNB), popular Swiss-born writer of children's and educational books.

Mario. Stage name of Giovanni Matteo Mario di Candia (1810–83), Italian operatic singer; partner of Giulia Grisi from 1839.

Marshall, Catherine, b. Spring Rice (1813–53; see TC to JWC, 18 April 1841), da. of Lord Monteagle; m. to Henry Cowper Marshall.

Marshall, Henry Cowper (1808–84; see TC to JWC, 18 April 1841), James Garth's brother; m., 1838, to Catherine.

Marshall, James (see TC to JMA, 3 June 1847, and TC to MAC, 19 June 1847), originally from Ayrshire, sec. and asst. to the grand duke and duchess of Weimar.

Marshall, James Garth (1802–73; see TC to MAC, 12 June 1838, and TC to JGM, 13 Oct. 1846), Leeds flax manufacturer and M.P.; m., 1841, to Mary Alicia.

Marshall, Mary Alicia Pery, b. Spring Rice (1812–75; see TC to MAC, 15 Feb. 1838, and TC to JWC, 9 April 1838), da. of Lord Monteagle; m. to James Garth Marshall.

Martin, Frances (1832–1922), educ. at Queen's College, later supt. of Ladies College, 1853–68.

Masson, David (1822–1907; ODNB; see JWC to TC, 24 July 1843), journalist, biographer, and ed.

Maurice, Frederick Denison (1805–72; ODNB; see JWC to JCA, 13 Aug. 1835), Broad Church leader and Christian socialist; prof. of English lit. and history, King's College, London; m. 2dly, 1849, to Georgiana, b. Hare (see TC to JWC, 5 April 1849).

Maynard, George (d. 1850), Sophie's son.

Maynard, Sophie, butcher's wife, 42 Paradise Row, Chelsea.

Mazzini, Giuseppe (1805–72; see TC to JSM, 6 Dec. 1839), Italian revolutionary and friend of the Carlyles, especially of JWC, since the late 1830s.

Menteath or Menteth. See Stuart-Menteth.

Merivale, Herman (1806–74; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 15 July 1840, and TC to JOST, 14 July 1841), civil servant; undersec. for colonies.

Mildmay, Henry Bingham (1828–1905; see JWC to TC, 1 July 1849), Lord Ashburton's nephew; Humphrey Francis's brother.

Mildmay, Humphrey Francis (1825–66; see TC to RWE, 1 July 1849), son of Humphrey St. John and Anne Eugenia; later M.P. for co. Hereford.

Mildmay, Humphrey St. John (1794–1853; see TC to RWE, 17 April 1849), M.P. for Southampton; director of the Bank of England; m. 1st, 1823, Anne Eugenia, b. Baring (d. 1839), Lord Ashburton's eldest sister; m. 2dly, 1843, Marianne Frances, b. Harcourt Vernon (d. 1873).

Mill, John Stuart (1806–73; ODNB), philosophical writer, logician, and economist; administrator at India House since 1823; friend and admirer of TC in spite of the burning of the MS of vol. 1 of The French Revolution; differed with TC about the Negro question; thought that the Carlyles disapproved of his relations with Mrs. Harriet Taylor.

Mills, Mary (d. 1854), JWC's mother's servant.

Milner-Gibson, Thomas (1806–84; ODNB; see JWC to JW, 4 Sept. 1842), Liberal politician; M.P. for Manchester, 1841–57.

Milnes, Richard Monckton (1809–85; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 14 July 1836), M.P., society figure, and author, friend of the Carlyles since the late 1830s.

Mitchell, Helen (see JWC to MAC, 27 Oct. 1840, and JWC to JCA, 1 May 1849), the Carlyles' maid, 1837–46; left to keep house for her brother; returned, 1848–49; dismissed for outrageous drunkenness.

Montagu, Sir George (1750–1829), admiral.

Montagu, James (d. 1868), admiral, son of Adm. Sir George.

Montagu, John William (d. 1882), admiral, son of Adm. Sir George.

Montagu, Lady Olivia (d. 1922), da. of 6th duke of Manchester; m., 1850, Charles Augustus Bennet (1810–99), styled Lord Ossulston, later 6th earl of Tankerville.

Monteagle. Thomas Spring Rice (1790–1866; ODNB; see TC to JSM, 2 May 1836, and TC to MAC, 15 Feb. 1838), 1st Baron Monteagle, Whig politician; m. 2dly, 1841, to Mary Anne, b. Marshall (1800–1889), sister-in-law of his two eldest das.

Moschzisker, Franz Adolf, prof., Univ. of Leipzig.

Moxon, Edward (1801–58; ODNB), publisher.

Mulock, Dinah Maria (1826–87; ODNB; see JWC to JF, 13 Nov. 1849), author.

Murray, John (1778–1843), publisher and founder of the firm.

Myers, Frederic (1811–51; ODNB; see TC to JWC, 2 Sept. 1841), perpetual curate, St. John's, Keswick; m. 2dly, 1842, to Susan Harriet.

Myers, Susan Harriet, b. Marshall. James and Henry Marshalls' second sister; m. to Frederick.

Napoléon, Louis (1808–73), pres. of France since Dec. 1848; known to TC when in exile in London, 1846–47 (see TC to MAC, 26 May 1849).

Neuberg, Joseph (1806–67; see TC to JN, 21 Dec. 1839), German-born retired businessman in Nottingham, where, said TC, he had “married an elderly, sickly but devoutly gifted kind of lady, whom he worshipped, but in a few years lost” (K. J. Fielding, “New Notes for The Letters: I. Carlyle's Sketch of Joseph Neuberg,” Carlyle Annual 13 [1992–93]:6); naturalized Briton, 1845; currently living in Germany.

Neuberg, Rosette (or Rosetta) (d. 1898; see JWC to JN, 3 July 1849), Joseph Neuberg's sister.

Newman, John Henry (1801–90; ODNB), a leader of the Tractarians; received into the Roman church, 1845; established an English branch of the brotherhood of St. Philip Neri at the Oratory, Birmingham, 1847; pbd. sermons, 1849, and lectures on “Anglican Difficulties” (1850).

Newton, Elizabeth, b. Nodes (1779–1865; see JWC to TC, 3 Aug. 1845), Elizabeth Paulet's mother, living in Manchester.

Newton, Robert Nodes (1813?–64 see JWC to TC, 5 Aug. 1845), textile manufacturer; m. to Sarah Ann (b. 1821?); father of three sons and three das; living at Longcar Cottage, Barnsley.

O'Hagan, John (1822–90; ODNB; see TC to JOCH, 1 May 1845), lawyer and member of Young Ireland.

Ossoli, Sarah Margaret, b. Fuller (1810–50; see TC to JAC, 8 Oct. 1846), American critic and social reformer; visited Carlyles, 1846; m., 1847, Marquis Giovanni Angelo Ossoli in Rome; drowned along with husband and son in wreck off Fire Island, N.Y., 19 July 1850.

Owen, Richard (1804–92; ODNB; see 1TC to JWC, 26 Aug. 1842), naturalist; first Hunterian prof. of compar. anatomy and physiology, Royal College of Surgeons, 1836–56.

Parker, John William (1792–1870; ODNB; see TC to ES, 14 May 1847), publisher and printer; pbd. Fraser's Magazine, 1847–63.

Patmore, Coventry Kersey Dighton (1823–96; ODNB), poet; asst. in British Museum Lib., 1846; close friend of Tennyson and Ruskin.

Patten, Mrs., Manchester friend who lived near Jewsbury, whose husband was a painter; see JWC to JW, 17 Aug. 1843.

Pattle, Virginia (1829–1910), m., 2 Oct. 1850, Lord Eastnor.

Paulet, Elizabeth (Betsey), b. Newton (1806–79; see TC to JWC, 19 July 1841), wealthy, high-spirited, socially and politically liberal; strong feminist; a friend of Jewsbury's and then of JWC's, of Seaforth Hall, nr. Liverpool; m. to Mark Étienne.

Paulet, Julia (b. ca. 1830), da. of Elizabeth and Mark Étienne Paulet.

Paulet, Mark Étienne (d. 20 May 1850; see TC to JWC, 19 July 1841), apparently a Swiss businessman at Liverpool, where he was Swiss consul; m. to Elizabeth.

Paxton, Joseph (1803–65; ODNB), gardener and architect; designer of the Crystal Palace and knighted at its opening, 1851; employee and friend of the duke of Devonshire, for whom he was administrator at Chatsworth.

Peel, Sir Robert (1788–1850; ODNB), 2d bart., former prime minister.

Pepoli, Count Carlo (1796–1881; see JWC to JCA, 13 Aug. 1835), poet and librettist; Italian political exile; prof. of Italian, Univ. Coll., London, 1838–46; m. to Elizabeth.

Pepoli, Countess Elizabeth, b. Fergus (ca. 1788–1862; see JWC to TC, 12 Oct. 1835, and JWC to TC, 9 April 1841), longtime friend of the Carlyles; John Fergus's sister; m., 1839, to Carlo Pepoli.

Piper, John (see JWC to TC, 11 Sept. 1847), the Carlyles' postman.

Piper, Mrs., m. to John; occasional servant at Cheyne Row.

Power, Marguerite (1815–67; ODNB), author, ed. of the annual Keepsake, 1851–57.

Prescott, William Hickling (1796–1859), American historian; author of History of the Conquest of Mexico, 3 vols. (Boston, 1843), and History of the Conquest of Peru (Boston, 1847); m. to Susan, b. Amory.

Prior, Mrs. (see JWC to JW, 20 July 1843, JWC to TC, 22 July 1843), the elder Edward Sterling's apparently widowed sister, living in Brighton; Anthony Sterling's aunt.

Procter, Bryan Waller (“Barry Cornwall”) (1787–1874; ODNB; see TC to JBW, 23 June 1824, and TC to JBW, 31 Aug. 1832), poet and barrister, m. to Anne Benson.

Procter, Anne Benson, b. Skepper (b. 1799; see JBW to TC, 14 Oct. 1823), m., 1824, to Bryan Waller; both longtime friends of the Carlyles.

Pulszky, Ferencz (or Franz) (1814–97), Hungarian politician and writer, living in exile after failure of the 1848–49 revolution, first in England and then in the U.S. and Italy before returning to Hungary, 1866; m. to Thérèse.

Pulszky, Thérèse (1819–66), author; da. of a Viennese banker and German mother; m., 1848, to Ferencz Pulszky; author of Aus dem Tagbuch einer Ungarischer; mit einer historischer Einleitung, 2 vols. (Leipzig, 1850), and Sagen und Erzählungen aus Ungarn (Berlin, 1851?) trans. as, respectively, Memoirs of a Hungarian Lady and Tales and Traditions of Hungary (1851); died of cholera in Hungary.

Pusey, Edward Bouverie (1800–1882; ODNB; see TC to RWE, 26 Sept. 1840), an early leader of the Anglo-Catholic movement.

Rawlins, Henry, John Forster's factotum.

Rawlinson, Henry Creswicke (1810–95; ODNB), retired officer in E India Co.; now consul in Bagdad and expert Assyriologist.

Redwood, Charles (1802–54; see TC to CR, 9 Jan. 1840), Welsh solicitor and TC's admirer.

Reichenbach, Count Oskar von (b. 1815; see JWC to JW, 12 Sept. 1844), Silesian landowner; deputy to Frankfurt parliament, 1848–49; forced into exile and came to England with his family, 1850; m. to Hedvig, b. Plattnauer; living at Paulton's Sq., Chelsea.

Rich, Mary, b. Mackintosh (1789–1876; see JWC to FW, 7 March 1838), Frances Wedgwood's widowed half-sister, living in Woolwich.

Robertson, John (d. 1875; see TC to JSM, 30 Oct. 1837, and JWC to JW, 26 Feb. 1845), journalist.

Robson, Charles, of Levey, Robson & Franklyn, printers, 23 Gt. New St., Fetter Lane; TC's printer since 1837.

Rossetti, William Michael (1829–1919; ODNB), writer, critic, and civil service clerk; brother of the poets Christina and Dante Gabriel and ed. of their works.

Rudge, Edward (1820–96), curate of St. Luke's, Chelsea, 1844–50.

Rush, James Blomfield (1800?–1849), tenant farmer on the estate of Isaac Jermy, who, sympathizing with other claimants to the estate to which Jermy had succeeded, 1838, shot and killed him and his son Isaac Jermy Jermy, 28 Nov. 1848; tried in Norwich, for six days beginning 29 March 1849, convicted, and hanged in front of Norwich Castle, 21 April 1849.

Ruskin, Euphemia (Effie) Chalmers, b. Gray (1828–97), m., 1848, to John Ruskin.

Ruskin, John, (1819–1900; ODNB), author, art critic, and emerging social reformer, m. to Euphemia; spent winters of 1849 and 1850 in Venice; pbd. two vols. of Modern Painters (1843, 1846) and Seven Lamps of Architecture (1849); already a celebrity and already influenced by TC's writings.

Russell, Arthur John Edward (1825–92), Lady William Russell's middle son.

Russell, Elizabeth Ann, b. Rawdon (1794?–1874), widow of Lord George William Russell (1790–1846), maj. gen., 3d son of 6th duke of Bedford and Lord John's brother; always known as Lady William Russell; one of JWC's “select quality friends … who loved her like a daughter, and was charmed with her talents and graces; often astonishing certain quality snobs by the way she treated her, the untitled queen. ‘Mr. Carlyle a great man, yes; but Mrs. Carlyle, let me inform you, is no less great as a woman’” (Reminiscences 160).

Russell, Francis Charles Hastings (1819–91; ODNB), Lady William Russell's oldest son; M.P. for Bedfordshire, 1847–72; 9th duke of Bedford, 1872.

Russell, Lord John (1792–1878; ODNB), prime minister since 1846.

Russell, Mary, b. Dobbie (d. 1875; see TC to AC, 7 April 1832), m. to Dr. James Russell, of Holmhill, Thornhill; friends of JWC and her mother.

Russell, Odo Leopold William (1829–84; ODNB), Lady William Russell's youngest son; diplomat, at foreign office, 1850–52; later 1st Baron Ampthill.

Salmon, Henry (b. ca. 1800), rector of Swarraton, Hants, 1831–74, nr. the Grange.

Sampson, Robert (see TC to JAC, 6 Nov. 1848), tailor and draper, 2 Princes St., Leicester Sq.

Sand, George, pseud. of Amandine Aurore Lucie Dudevant, b. Dupin (1803–76; see TC to MN, 21 June 1841), French novelist.

Sandwich. John William Montagu (1811–84), 7th earl of Sandwich; Lady Ashburton's brother.

Schwabe, Adolf Salis (1800–1853), German-born Manchester calico printer and philanthropist; m. to Julie.

Schwabe, Julie (1819–97; see TC to JWC, 3 April 1848), m. to Adolf; friend of Richard Cobden.

Scott, Alexander John (1805–66; ODNB; see TC to JWC, 22 Aug. 1831, and TC to AJS, 25 Jan. 1838), prof. of English lang. and lit., Univ. College, London, since 1848; living in Woolwich; friend and neighbor of Mary Rich.

Scott, Ann, b. Ker (d. 1888; see TC to AKS, 16 Feb. 1838), m. to A. J. Scott.

Senior, Nassau William (1790–1864; ODNB), political economist.

Shirreff, Emily Anne Eliza (1814–97; ODNB), women's educationist; collaborated with her sister, Maria Grey, in writing and in founding the National Union for Improving the Education of Women of All Classes, 1871–83; on exec. committee of Girton Coll., Cambridge, 1870–97.

Sketchley, Penelope (see JWC to JW, 21 Nov. 1842, and JWC to JW, 12 Nov. 1843), picture copier, formerly of Liverpool.

Smith, John Stores (1828–92/93; see TC to JSS, 14 Oct. 1848), Manchester businessman, writer, and social commentator; acclaimed by John Evans, Lancashire Authors and Orators (1850) for his work for the Lancashire Public School Assoc. and his Social Aspects (1850) dealing with mammonism and the inferior position of women; influenced by TC (Evans 254), whose “wonderful mind” he praises.

Smith, Julia (1799–1883; see JWC to TC, 7 April 1841), friend of Harriet Martineau and Frances Wedgwood; known to the Carlyles since at least the early 1840s.

Smythe, William James (1816–87; ODNB), army officer; stationed in Halifax, Nova Scotia, 1848–49; currently in charge, apparently as maj., of artillery officer training at Woolwich.

Spedding, James (1808–81; ODNB; see JWC to JCA, 13 Aug. 1835, and JWC to JW, 12 March 1843), authority on Francis Bacon; retired from the Colonial Office, 1841; friend of TC's since the mid-1830s.

Spedding, Thomas Story (1800–1870; see TC to TSS, 17 Feb. 1838), Cumberland landowner of Greta Bank, nr. Keswick; James Spedding's brother; friend of TC since the early 1840s; m. 2dly, 1839, to Frances Emily, b. Headlam (d. 1896).

Sprague, Elizabeth, the Carlyles' maid, Helen Mitchell's replacement, 1849 to Aug. 1850; dismissed for rudeness and troublesomeness.

Spring Rice. See Monteagle.

Squire, William (1809–80; see TC to EF, 10 July 1847.), forger of papers relating to Cromwell that TC accepted as genuine.

Stahr, Adolf (1805–76), German author; Prussian preacher's son; for health reasons went to Italy, 1845, where he and Fanny Lewald fell in love; m. Lewald in Berlin, 1854, after failure of his first marriage.

Stanley, Edward George Geoffrey Smith (1799–1869; ODNB), Baron Stanley of Bickerstaffe; opponent of free trade; colonial sec., 1833–34, 1841–46; resigned, Jan. 1846, when Peel declared in favor of free trade (see TC to RMM, 4 Feb. 1846).

Stanley. Edward John Stanley (1802–69; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 27 Feb. 1840), Whig politician, created Baron Eddisbury of Winnington, 1848; succeeded as 2d Baron Stanley of Alderley, 23 Oct. 1850; m. to Henrietta Maria.

Stanley, Henrietta Blanche (1829–1921), da. of Lord and Lady Eddisbury (Stanley).

Stanley, Henrietta Maria, b. Dillon (1807–95; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 27 Feb. 1840), Baroness Eddisbury of Winnington, 1848; Baroness Stanley of Alderley, 23 Oct. 1850; m. to Edward John; both longtime friends of the Carlyles.

Sterling, Anthony Coningham (1805–71; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 2 Dec. 1836, and later vols.), retired army capt. on half-pay; friend of the Carlyles since 1837; guardian of his deceased brother John's children, except the eldest son; m. to Charlotte.

Sterling, Charlotte, b. Baird (d. 1863; see JWC to HW, 12 Nov. 1844) and JWC to HW, 9 Jan. 1845), m., 1829, to Anthony Sterling; subject to attacks of insanity and jealousy of JWC.

Sterling, Edward Coningham (b. 1831; see JWC to HW, 9 Jan. 1845), John's eldest son, who had lived in Manchester with F. W. Newman.

Sterling, Hester, b. Coningham (d. 1843), John and Anthony's mother; m. Edward Sterling (1773–1847).

Stewart, James Hope (see TC to JAC, 15 Aug. 1839), business agent and gentleman farmer of Gillenbie Rig farm, nr. Scotsbrig; TC's old friend.

Stirling, Jane Wilhelmina (1804–59; see JWC to JWS, 10 July 1848), Thomas Erskine's cousin; amateur musician.

Stirling, William (1818–78; ODNB; see TC to WS, 24 Feb. 1848), historical writer and art expert of Keir, Stirling.

Story, Joseph (1779–1845), assoc. justice, U.S. Supreme Court, 1811–45, and prof. of law, Harvard Univ., 1829–45.

Story, William Wetmore, (1819–95), American sculptor; son of Justice Joseph Story; A.B., Harvard, 1838, LL.B., 1840; practiced law in Boston; m., 1843, Emelyn Elderedge (d. 1894); studied sculpture and painting in Italy, 1847–50; settled permanently in Rome, 1856; close friend of Robert and Elizabeth Browning.

Strachey, Edward (1812–1901; ODNB; see TC to ES, 2 June 1838), author; son of TC's friends Julia and Edward Strachey (see TC to JCE, 12 Jan. 1822); m. to Elizabeth.

Strachey, Elizabeth, b. Wilkieson (d. 1855; see TC to ES, 28 Aug. 1844), m., 1844, to Edward Strachey.

Stuart-Menteth, Cecilia Louisa, b. Cecil (d. 1874), niece of Sir William Drummond of Logie Almond and great grand-da. of the 3d earl of Dunmore; m., 1826, to Charles Granville Stuart-Menteth (d. 1880), barrister, son of Sir Charles Granville Stuart Menteth.

Strudwicke, William, apparently sec. of the Whittington Club, 37 Arundel St.

Suhm, Peter Frederik (1728–98; see TC to WS, 28 July 1848), Danish historian.

Sumner, Charles Richard (1790–1874; ODNB), bishop of Winchester, 1827–69.

Swanwick, Anna (1813–99; ODNB; see JWC to AB, 23 Dec. 1843), author and trans.

Taylor, Henry (1800–1886; ODNB; see TC to MAC, 10 Nov. 1831), author and civil servant; m. to Theodosia Alice.

Taylor, Theodosia Alice, b. Spring Rice (1818–91; see JWC to TC, 9 Sept. 1838); Lord Monteagle's da.; m. to Henry Taylor.

Taylor, Tom (1817–80; ODNB), dramatist and journalist; contrib. to Punch, and its ed., 1874–80.

Tennyson, Alfred (1809–92; ODNB), poet; friend of the Carlyles since early 1840s; offered laureateship, 5 Nov. 1850, after publication of In Memoriam, 1 June; m. to Emily.

Tennyson, Emily Sarah, b. Sellwood (1813–96); m., 13 June 1850, to Alfred Tennyson; met the Carlyles, early Oct., when guests at Coniston.

Terrot, Charles Hughes (1790–1872; ODNB; see JWC to JW, 15 June 1843), bishop of Edinburgh, 1841–72, and JWC's old, unwanted, and boring admirer.

Thackeray, William Makepeace (1811–63; ODNB; see JWC to TC, 3 Aug. 1837, and TC to JAC, 12 Aug. 1837), novelist; friend of the Carlyles since the 1830s.

Thom, Mr., a would-be writer and former seaman; otherwise unidentified.

Thom, David (1795?–1862; see TC to DTH, 20 Jan. 1843), minister of Bold St. Chapel, Liverpool; controversial theological author.

Thornton, Francis Vansittart (1816–95), rector of Chilton Candover, Hants, nr. the Grange, 1848–64; m., 1847, Mary Cholmondelay.

Toulmin, Camilla Dufour (1812–95; ODNB; see JWC to TC, 23 Aug. 1846), misc. writer; author of poems and stories about the poor; m., 1848, Newton Crosland, London wine merchant; friend of Geraldine Jewsbury, whom she thought like JWC; said that JWC was “one of the cleverest women in the world” but “so true a woman that all her ambition centered in and was for her husband” (Toulmin, Landmarks of a Literary Life [1893] 240–41).

Trelawny, Edward John (1792–1881; ODNB), author and adventurer; friend of Byron and the Shelleys; lived at Usk, Monmouthshire.

Tucker, Nathaniel Beverley (1784–1851; see TC to NBT, 25 Oct. 1846), Virginia lawyer, planter, and slaveholder.

Varnhagen von Ense, Karl August (1785–1858; see TC to KAVE, 31 Dec. 1837), German soldier, diplomat, and biographer with whom TC had corresponded since 1837 and to whom TC often sent autographs; learned much about the Carlyles from Amalie Bölte's correspondence.

Ward, Samuel Gray (1817–1917; see TC to RWE, 6 Dec. 1841), Emerson's and Margaret Fuller's close friend in Boston, Mass.

Watts, Thomas (1811–69; ODNB; see TC to TW, 15 Feb. 1848), member of the staff, British Museum Lib.

Wedgwood, Frances (Fanny), b. Mackintosh (1800–1889; see TC to HWE, 11 Dec. 1836), friend of the Carlyles since late 1836; m., 1832, to Hensleigh Wedgwood.

Wedgwood, Hensleigh (1803–91; ODNB; see TC to HWE, 11 Dec. 1836), mathematician and philologist; m. to Frances.

Wellington. Arthur Wellesley (1769–1852; ODNB), 1st duke of Wellington.

Welsh, Alexander (Alick), oldest son of JWC's maternal uncle John; m., 1848, to Sophie.

Welsh, Ann (d. 1877; see TC to JWC, 10 March 1842, and JWC to JW, 26 June 1843), JWC's paternal aunt, living in Edinburgh.

Welsh, Elizabeth (d. 1877; see TC to JWC, 10 March 1842, and JWC to JW, 26 June 1843), JWC's paternal aunt living in Edinburgh.

Welsh, Grace (1782–1842), JWC's mother.

Welsh, Grace (d. 1867; see TC to JWC, 11 March 1842, and JWC to JW, 26 June 1843), JWC's paternal aunt living in Edinburgh.

Welsh, Helen (ca. 1813–53), da. of JWC's uncle John Welsh.

Welsh, Jeannie (1798?–1828), JWC's maternal aunt.

Welsh, Jeannie (“Babbie”), da. of JWC's uncle John Welsh.

Welsh, John (d. 1853), JWC's maternal uncle; merchant; a retired brass and copper founder; living at 20 Maryland St., Liverpool.

Welsh, John (1824–59; ODNB; see JWC to MW, 20 Aug. 1842), meteorologist; son of JWC's paternal uncle George (1793–1835) and Margaret; apptd. asst. at Kew Observatory, 1850.

Welsh, John (d. 1860), youngest of the Liverpool Welshes.

Welsh, John May (1824–56; see TC to JBO, 7 June 1845), lawyer; eldest son of JWC's paternal uncle Robert (1786–1841).

Welsh, Margaret (Maggie), da. of JWC's uncle John Welsh.

Welsh, Margaret, b. Kissock (1803–88; see JWC to MW, 22 Feb. 1841, and JWC to MW, 28 Feb. 1846), widow of JWC's paternal uncle George (1793–1835); mother of John, meteorologist.

Welsh, Mary (d. 1838), wife of JWC's maternal uncle John.

Welsh, Robert (1786?–1841; see TC to JWC, 29 April 1841, and JWC to MW, 8 July 1842), solicitor, JWC's paternal uncle.

Welsh, Sophy, b. Martin, m. to Alexander Welsh.

Welsh, Walter (ca. 1799–1879; see JWC to JW, 8 Jan. 1843), son of JWC's maternal uncle John; minister at Auchtertool, Fife, since 1842.

Weston, George, builder, 4 Arthur St., Chelsea.

White, Mrs. (see JWC to JW, 27 Feb. 1849), sometime servant at Cheyne Row.

White, William Hale (1831–1913; ODNB), novelist, literary critic, philosophical writer, and civil servant; entered Cheshunt College with aim of becoming an independent minister; later expelled from New College, St. John's Wood, for unorthodoxy; preached occasionally in Unitarian chapels; met and became friends with John Chapman and George Eliot in early 1850s; became a civil servant, 1854; best known for the semiautobiographical novels The Autobiography of Mark Rutherford (1881) and Mark Rutherford's Deliverance (1885).

Wigan, Alfred Sydney (1814–78; ODNB), actor.

Wilberforce, Samuel (“Soapy Sam”) (1805–73; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 26 Nov. 1845), bishop of Oxford since 1845; the Ashburtons' friend whom TC had previously rather disliked.

Wilkinson, James John Garth (1812–99; ODNB; see TC to JJGW, 2 Aug. 1838), physician and Swedenborgian.

Wilson, John (1785–1854; ODNB; see TC to JOFE, 3 June 1820, and Reminiscences 366–81), author; critic known as “Christopher North”; prof. of moral philosophy, Edinburgh, 1820–51; known to TC since late 1826.

Wrentmore, Isaac, solicitor, of 11 Cheyne Walk and 50 Lincoln's Inn Fields.

Wright, Elizur (1804–85; see TC to RWE, 18 April 1846), American journalist, reformer, and actuary.

Wynn, Charles Watkin Williams (1775–1850; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 17 July 1845), politician; Charlotte's father.

Wynn, Charlotte Williams (1807–69; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 17 July 1845), diarist; friend of Varnhagen von Ense.

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