The Collected Letters, Volume 27


BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES; 1999; DOI: 10.1215/ed-27-biographical-notes; CL 27: 390-lastpage-27-405


Notes on the Carlyles' contemporaries who are referred to more than once or twice in the present volume are given below, with cross references to earlier information. Otherwise they are accounted for in headnotes and footnotes as they occur. These entries are not listed in the main index.

Adamson, Robert (d. 1861; see TC to JA, 14 Feb. 1838), manager of the British Linen Bank, Dumfries.

Aird, Thomas (1802–76; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 29 March 1833) poet, journalist, miscellaneous writer, and ed. of the Dumfries Herald.

Airlie, David Graham Drummond, 7th earl (1826–81); m. Henrietta Blanche, b. Stanley, 23 Sept. 1851; representative peer of Scotland, 1850–81; lord high commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland. He lived at Cortachy Castle in Forfarshire.

Airlie, Henrietta Blanche, 7th countess (1829–1921), b. Stanley, m. to Lord Airlie, Sept. 1851; friend and confidante of JWC and admirer of TC.

Aitken, Jean (“Craw”) Carlyle (1810–88), TC's sister, m. to James, house painter of Assembly St., Dumfries. They had sons, James (1836–71), Thomas (1841–69), who was deaf, and a da., Margaret.

Albert, (1819–61; ODNB), prince consort.

Allingham, William (1824–89; ODNB; see TC to WA, 4 Sept. 1850), poet; b. in Ireland and worked in a bank, Ballyshannon, ca. 1837; apptd. to customs office, ca. 1846; paid annual visits to London, from 1843; introduced to TC by Leigh Hunt; pbd. Poems, 1850, and Day and Night Songs, 1854, with illustrations by Pre-Raphaelites, with whom he had become friends; transferred to customs house at Lymington, 1863; pbd. Laurence Bloomfield in Ireland, 1864; retired from the civil service and moved to London, 1870; sub-ed., Fraser's Magazine, 1870–74, and ed. 1874–79.

Anne, servant at Cheyne Row from June 1851; she became ill, early summer 1852. She had three das.

Argyll, George Douglas Campbell (1823–1900; ODNB), 8th duke, Whig politician.

Arndt, Ernst Moritz (1769–1860), German patriot and author, prof. of history at Bonn.

Ashburton, Harriet Baring, b. Montagu (1805–57; ODNB; see TC to MAC, 8 March 1839, later vols. and 26:introduction), TC's admired friend; they first met, 1839; m. 1823 William Bingham Baring (1799–1864; ODNB; see TC to MAC, 8 March 1839 and later vols.), 2nd Baron Ashburton, partner in Baring Bros., bankers, and politician.

Augustenberg, Christian (1798–1869), duke of Holstein; son of Friedrich Christian II (1765–1814), Schiller's benefactor; see Works 25:246.

Austin, Mary Carlyle (1808–88), TC's sister, m. to James (d. 1878), farmer of the Gill, 6 mi. W of Ecclefechan; their eldest da. was Margaret (1831–74).

Baring, Lydia Emily (d. 1868) and Louisa Baring (d. 1888), Lord Ashburton's unmarried sisters.

Bath, John Alexander Thynne (1831–96; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 12 Oct. 1844), 4th marquess, m. 1861 Frances Isabella Catherine Vesey, da. of Viscount de Vesci.

Beck, Baroness von (d. 1851), a Hungarian, who claimed her husband had died on the barricades in Vienna in 1848 and that she was known to Kossuth. She came to England and had the first part of her autobiography pbd. by Richard Bentley, but on going to Birmingham to meet friends of the Hungarian political refugees, including George Dawson, she was said to be recognized as a former spy, under the name of Racidula, of Viennese origin. Her secretary, Constant Derra, was arrested with her; but when she was examined by magistrates 30 Aug. 1851, she collapsed and died. No charges were pursued against Derra, whose good faith was unquestioned, but protracted disputes and inquiries followed, which dragged far into 1852 without settling whether she was really acting for the Austrians or perhaps for both sides, as well as being paid by a new branch of the British police set up to survey foreign refugees. See indexed accounts in the Times and Athenaeum in 1851 and 1852.

Bell, Thomas, tenant of Craigenputtoch, probably related to George of Minsca.

Blanc, Jean Joseph Louis (1811–82; see TC to MAC, 22 March 1848, and TC to LA, 29 Jan. 1849), French socialist leader, liked by TC (see TC to JWC, 4 April 1849), exiled in London since 1848.

Bloomfield, John Arthur Douglas (1802–79; ODNB), 2nd baron, minister at Berlin, 1851–60, m. 1845 the Hon. Georgiana, b. Liddell (b. 1822).

Bölte, Amalie Charlotte Elise Marianne (1811–91; see 22:introduction, and JWC to HW, 15 July 1847), German writer and trans., in England as a governess, 1839–51; close friend of the Carlyles; regular correspondent of Varnhagen von Ense; she had returned to Dresden, summer 1851.

Braid, Betty, JWC's old nurse now living in Edinburgh.

Brookfield, William Henry (1809–74; ODNB; see JWC to WHB, 1 April 1846), well-connected clergyman and school inspector, m. 1841, Jane Octavia, b. Elton (1821–96). After her close friendship with Thackeray, differences arose between him and the Brookfields; all parties were befriended by the Ashburtons.

Browning, Elizabeth Barrett, b. Moulton Barrett (1806–61; ODNB), poet; admirer of TC; m., 1846, to Robert Browning; mainly living on the Continent since 1846. Robert Wiedeman Barrett (“Pen”) (1849–1912) was their only child.

Browning, Robert (1812–89; ODNB), poet; TC's friend since mid-1830s; they had come to like and admire each other.

Bunsen, Christian Karl Josias (1791–1860; see TC to JCA, 13 Feb. 1839), baron; known in Britain as Chevalier Bunsen; Prussian ambassador to Britain, 1841–54; m., 1817, to Frances, b. Waddington (1791–1876; ODNB). Their son George was resident in Aachen.

Calvert, Robert (Isabella's brother) of Manchester, apparently in business.

Carlyle, Alexander (Alick) (1799–1876), TC's brother who emigrated with his family to Canada, 1843, settled at the Bield, 4½ mi. W of Brantford, Ontario; m. 1830 to Janet, b. Clow (1808–91).

Carlyle, Alexander (1843–1931; see TC to AC, 4 May 1843), Alexander and Janet's son; m. Mary Carlyle Aitken, 1879, lived with TC and ed. the Carlyles' letters and TC's other writings.

Carlyle, James (1807–90), TC's brother Jamie, farmer at Scotsbrig, m. 1834 to Isabella, b. Calvert (d. 1859), who had long been ill. Their children included James (1835–71), John (b. 1836), and Janet (Jessie or Jenny) (1843–74).

Carlyle, Jane Welsh (1831–84), Alexander and Janet's da., m. Robert Sims, early 1852.

Carlyle, John (1792?–1872), TC's half-brother; emigrated to N America, 1837, eventually settling at Brantford, Ontario, m. to Peggy. He had three sons, John, James, and William.

Carlyle, John Aitken (“Jack,” “The Doctor”), TC's brother, physician and trans., m. 2 Nov. 1852 to Phoebe Elizabeth Hough Watt, b. Fowler (d. 1854), a widow from nr. Moffat with four sons.

Carlyle, Margaret Aitken (1771–1853), TC's mother, living with James and Isabella Carlyle at Scotsbrig.

Carlyle, Thomas (1833–1921), Alexander and Janet's oldest son.

Chalmers, Francis (often called Chambers) and family (see JWC to TC, 7 Sept. 1846, and JWC to TC, 16 Sept. 1847); wealthy neighbor with piano-playing das. at 4 Cheyne Row.

Chalmers, Dr. Thomas (1780–1847; ODNB; see JWC to TCH, 21 May 1827, and TC to DTH, 20 Jan. 1843), Scottish church leader and theologian; known to and admired by the Carlyles.

Chambers, Robert (1802–71; ODNB), publisher, author, and ed. of Chambers's Edinburgh Journal.

Chapman, Edward (1804–80), partner in Chapman & Hall, TC's publisher since 1843.

Chapman, John (1821–94; ODNB; see TC to JCH, 21 March 1844), freethinking publisher and author, an agent for American firms; proprietor of the Westminster Review.

Chorley, John Rutter (1806–67; ODNB; see TC to JWC, 25 July 1843, and TC to JWC, 8 Aug. 1845), the Athenaeum's chief reviewer for works in German, Italian, and Spanish; highly regarded by TC.

Clanricarde, Ulick John de Burgh (1802–74; see JWC to HW, 5 Feb. 1847), 1st marquess and 14th earl.

Clarendon, George W. F. Villiers (1800–1870; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 4 Feb. 1847), 4th earl; viceroy of Ireland, 1847–52.

Clark, E. P., Boston bank cashier, agent for TC in the U.S.; see TC to RWE, 17 Nov. 1843.

Clough, Arthur Hugh (1819–61; ODNB; see TC to AHC, 17 Dec. 1845, and TC to JWC, 3 April 1849), poet; he had been an admirer of TC when at Oxford and introduced himself; he resigned his fellowship being unable to subscribe to the Thirty-Nine Articles; was appointed principal of Univ. Hall, London, 1849–51; prof. of English lang. and lit., Univ. Coll., London, 1850–51; resigned, 25 Dec. 1851. After failing to gain employment, he left for the U.S., 30 Oct.

Cochrane, John George (1781–1852; ODNB; see TC to WDC, 7 Dec. 1840), chief librarian of the London Library, 1841–52; he d. 4 May.

Coningham, William (1815–84; see TC to MAC, 24 Oct. 1839), Anthony Sterling's maternal cousin; art collector, and Liberal candidate in 1852 gen. election. He had pbd. Twelve Letters by John Sterling (1851).

Cooper, Thomas (1805–92; ODNB; see TC to TCO, 1 Sept. 1845), Chartist, journalist, and lecturer: after being politically active he was jailed, 1843–45; he had met TC some time in 1847–48.

Croker, John Wilson (1780–1857; ODNB; see JWC to TC, 9 Oct. 1847), Tory politician, essayist contributor to and ed. of the Quarterly Review.

Dalwig, Baron, Prussian cavalry officer, from Giessen, grandson of one of Frederick the Great's generals, visited London as a friend of the Reichenbachs. See TC's note in JWC to TC, [27 July].

Darwin, Erasmus Alvey (1804–81; see TC to JAC, 15 June 1845, and TC to JAC, 17 Feb. 1837), the Carlyles' close friend since 1835; Charles Darwin's brother.

Davies, John Llewelyn (1826–1916; ODNB; see TC to JLD, 7 May 1850), Broad Church clergyman and Christian Socialist; B.A., Trinity Coll., Cambridge, 1848; fellow of Trinity, 1850; rector of Christ Church, Marylebone, 1856–89; vicar of Kirkby Lonsdale, Westmoreland, 1889–1908; follower of F. D. Maurice and promoter of trade unions and of education for women and workingmen; author of many theological works.

Dawson, George (1821–76; ODNB; see JWC to TC, 13 Aug. 1845), founder and minister of the Church of the Saviour in Birmingham and follower of TC and Emerson, on whom he lectured.

Derby, Edward George Geoffrey Smith Stanley, (1799–1869; ODNB), 14th earl, formerly Baron Stanley of Bickerstaffe; Conservative opponent of free trade; colonial sec., 1833–34, 1841–46; resigned when Peel declared in favor of free trade (see TC to RMM, 4 Feb. 1846); brilliant spokesman on foreign affairs, 1848–51; failed to form a Conservative govt., 1851; succeeded as 14th earl, 1851; formed a protectionist ministry (Feb. 1852); failed to gain a majority in July gen. election, and resigned on defeat of the budget in Dec. He was m., 1825, to Emma Caroline, b. Wilbraham.

Dickens, Charles (1812–70; ODNB), novelist; started the weekly Household Words, 1850; began Bleak House in March; friend of the Carlyles since the early 1840s; m., 1836, to Catherine Thompson, b. Hogarth (d. 1879).

Dilberoglue family; Stavros (b. ca. 1821; see JWC to TC, 23 Aug. 1846), Corfu-born Manchester merchant, a close friend of the Jewsburys; he lived with his mother and beautiful younger sister, Calliope.

Disraeli, Benjamin (1804–81; ODNB), Tory politician and novelist; after driving Sir Robert Peel from office and assuming leadership of the protectionist party, Disraeli became chancellor of the exchequer in Derby's govt., Feb. till Dec.; not personally known to TC.

Dobbie, Rev. Edward (1773–1857; see TC to JWC, 9 March 1842), Mary Russell's father, a retired minister.

Dobell, Sydney Thompson (1824–74; ODNB), poet and critic; a leading member of the “Spasmodic” School; author of The Roman (1850). TC had met him at Malvern with his wife, Emily, b. Fordham, m. 1844.

Donaldson sisters of Haddington: Jean (1770–1860), JWC's godmother; Jess (1774–1860); and Catherine (Kate) (1779–1856); friends of JWC's mother.

Donne, William Bodham (1807–82; ODNB), poet and trans., a friend of FitzGerald and James Spedding, former Cambridge “Apostle,” widowed and living with sons in Bury Sand living witht. Edmunds; he wrote for various quarterlies, and had apparently declined the editorship of the Edinburgh Review. Appointed chief librarian of the London Lib., 12 June.

Duffy, Charles Gavan (1816–1903; ODNB; see TC to MAC, 28 April 1845), Irish nationalist and ed. of the Nation, whom TC visited in Ireland in 1846 and 1849; independent M.P. for New Ross, 1852; his 2nd wife was Susan, b. Hughes (d. 1878).

Eckermann, Johann Peter (1792–1854; see TC to G25 Sept. 1828), Goethe's friend and literary asst. with whom TC had corresponded since 1828, see TC to JPE, 20 March 1830; now fallen on hard times.

Ellice, Edward, the elder (“Bear”) (1783–1863; ODNB), active politician, financier, and deputy gov. of the Hudson's Bay Co., close friend and colleague of Lord Ashburton.

Emerson, Ralph Waldo (1803–82; see TC to JAC, 27 Aug. 1833), New England Transcendentalist, philosopher, essayist, and poet. He first met TC, Aug. 1833; in spite of their differences, they felt close ties.

Erskine, Thomas (1788–1870; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 1 Feb. 1838), of Linlathen, Dundee, theologian and long-retired advocate.

Espinasse, Francis (1823–1912; see TC to FEHD, 28 Aug. 1841), journalist and writer; formerly with the Manchester Examiner and, since 1848, sec. of Lancashire Public School Assoc.; protégé of TC.

Falloux, Count Frédéric A. P. de (1811–86), French politician; minister of public instruction, 1848–49, now retired after the coup d'état of 1851.

Fanny or “Irish Fanny” of JWC to TC, [27 July], who may be the same as a servant called Fanny who came Jan. 1851 and left in March because of deafness. It is not possible to be sure about distinguishing the two Fannys from other servants who are mentioned.

Farie, Robert (1813–82; see TC to JAC, 20 Nov. 1846), nonpracticing barrister of independent means; trans. of German works; known to the Carlyles since 1846.

Farrer, Annie Louisa (b. ca. 1828; see TC to JAC, 11 Sept. 1848), member of the Ashburton circle, injured her Achilles tendon, late 1852.

Farrer, Mary, Annie's older sister; broke her nose in an accident in Sept.

Farrer, Mary, b. Anstruther (d. 1860), Annie and Mary's mother; m. first, 1803, Henry Mitford (1769–1803); second, 1809, Farrer Grove Spurgeon Farrer (1783–1826).

Fergus, John (d. 1865; see JWC to TC, 17 July 1837), of Kirkcaldy; M.P. for Fife. He and his sisters, Jessie Fergus, Jane Royd, and Elizabeth Pepoli, were old friends of the Carlyles.

FitzGerald, Edward (1809–83; ODNB; see TC to EF, 18 Sept. 1842), poet and trans., TC's friend since 1842, who lived in Suffolk.

Fleming, Henry (d. 1876; see TC to JWC, 15 July 1844), asst. sec. of the poor law board, socialite, and intimate of the Ashburton circle.

Forster, John (“Fuz”) (1812–76; ODNB; see TC to GE, 15 Feb. 1832, and TC to JF, 17 Jan. 1839), historian, journalist, biographer, and ed. of the Examiner since 1848; friend of the Carlyles since the late 1830s and TC's literary adviser.

Fraser, Mrs. William, b. Vivian, separated from William Fraser, former barrister and ed. of the Foreign Review and Continental Miscellany who had brought a case in 1844 against William Bagley, accusing his own wife of adultery; see TC to JC, 21 Feb. 1844. The Carlyles had strongly supported Mrs. Fraser.

Froude, James Anthony (1818–94; ODNB; see TC to JWC, 3 April 1849), journalist and man of letters. He first met the Carlyles, June 1849; was living in Wales, then Devon, and visiting London, dealing with J. W. Parker of Fraser's, and turning from theology to Tudor history.

Fuller, Margarett, b. Crane (1789–1859), widow of Timothy Fuller (1775–1835), Sarah's mother who had a son Richard.

Fuller, Sarah Margaret. See Ossoli.

Garthwaite, Tom, Ecclefechan tailor.

Gaskell, Elizabeth Cleghorn, b. Stevenson (1810–65; ODNB), writer; author of Mary Barton and Cranford, serialized in Household Words; second cousin of Frances Wedgwood, she much admired TC, met the Carlyles in London in 1849, and subsequently kept up a slightly uneasy relationship; m. 1832, to William (1805–84; ODNB), Unitarian minister, Cross St. Chapel, Manchester, and prof. of English lit. and history, Manchester New Coll., 1846–53.

Gillies, Margaret (1803–87; ODNB), Scottish-born painter and portraitist; feminist and Unitarian, closely assoc. with Dr. Thomas Southwood Smith. She was sister to Mary (d. 1870), author.

Gladstone, William Ewart (1809–98; ODNB), politician at the point of recognition as a dominant political leader, still Conservative, and responsible for the defeat of the Derby ministry on Disraeli's Dec. budget, when Gladstone replaced him as chancellor of the exchequer. The wish to force James Lacaita on the London Lib. brought him into principled conflict with TC, who saw him as a “long-headed fellow” without “convictions.”

Glen, Archibald, brother of William, in the textile business in Glasgow, and by 1852 a commission agent; see TC to AG, 7 June 1839.

Glen, William (1803–52), formerly a student of Glasgow Univ., one of two sons of Rev. Archibald Glen; he studied law in London, was a follower of TC, “full of fire and love” (TC to JWC, 24 Aug. 1831). He went mad, but TC managed to secure his release from an insane asylum in Glasgow and arranged for him to board with Peter Austin (James Austin's brother) of Carstammon, nr. Craigenputtoch. TC studied Greek and maths with him while TC was at Craigenputtoch, see vols. 5, 6, 7.

Gordon, John (d. 1882; see TC to AC, 29 March 1827); school inspector, old friend of TC.

Graham, Clementine Stirling (1782–1877), heiress, descendant of John Graham of Claverhouse, 1st viscount Dundee; a neighbor and friend of Thomas Erskine, famed for her impersonations of elderly Scots ladies of an earlier generation.

Graham, William (1770–ca. 1857; see TC to WG, 15 Sept. 1820 and later vols.), TC's old friend, who lived on the slopes of Burnswark, 3 mi. N of Ecclefechan, where he had formerly farmed.

Green, Charles (1785–1870; ODNB), English balloonist; he made more than 500 ascents between 1821 and 12 Sept. 1852.

Grundy, Thomas, shoemaker, 44 St. Martin's Lane; see TC to JAC, 14 Dec. 1849.

Guizot, François Pierre Guillaume (1787–1874, see TC to MAC, 26 Feb. 1848), French historian and former politician; premier, 1840–48; forced into political retirement by the 1848 revolution, on which he wrote historical works. TC had met him in March 1840 (see TC to JAC, 17 March 1840). His mother, Elizabeth-Sophie, b. Bonicel (1764–1848), came with him to England.

Gully, James Manby (1808–83; ODNB), physician, who ran a successful water-cure establishment at Malvern, 1842–71, to which he invited the Carlyles, Aug. 1851, and where he lived with his younger sisters, Ann and Helen, and three children Charles, Susanna, and William. His first wife died in 1838. He m. again in 1841, separating after eighteen months.

Hanna, William (1802–82; ODNB; see TC to WH, 22 Nov. 1847), theological writer; son-in-law and biographer of Thomas Chalmers (see TC to TCH, 20 Feb. 1847), the fourth vol. of whose biography was published in 1852.

Hanning, Janet (1813–97); TC's sister, m. Robert (d. 1878) who had emigrated to Canada, 1841; she rejoined him in Hamilton, Ontario, Aug. 1851, with their two das., Margaret (b. 1838) and Mary (b. 1840).

Helps, Arthur (1813–75; ODNB), writer and historian of private means; clerk to the privy council, 1860; friend of the Carlyles for the past decade; m. to Bessy, b. Fuller (see JWC to TC, 17 July 1843). His mother was Ann, b. Frisquet.

Herzen, Alexander Ivanovitch (1812–70), outstanding Russian writer and radical exiled from 1847, who was to settle for a time in Britain; see Introduction. He was disillusioned by the 1848 revolutions and became a pioneer advocate of peasant socialism. In going on to bring out Olyarna Evera, the Pole Star (1852–57), and Kolokol, the Bell (1857–67), he published the first uncensored Russian periodicals. His autobiography, My Past and Thoughts, is a great work of Russian literature.

Hiddlestone, Margaret, JWC's mother's former servant.

Hudson, George (1800–1871; ODNB; see TC to JCA, 9 July 1847), the “Railway King”; see “Hudson's Statue,” Latter-Day Pamphlets, Works TC to JC, 22 July 1846, for TC on his dishonesty in promoting railway shares.

Hunt, James Henry Leigh (1784–1859; ODNB), essayist, poet, autobiographer, the Carlyles' friend and former neighbor.

Hunter, Dr. Jacob (see TC to JAC, 19 Sept. 1848 and earlier refs.), physician of Moffat; John Carlyle's friend.

Irving, Edward (1792–1834; ODNB; see TC to RM, 12 Feb. 1817, later vols., and Reminiscences), the Carlyles' great friend, a religious leader and preacher.

Jeffrey, Francis Lord (1773–1850; ODNB; see TC to AC, 26 Feb. 1820, and later vols.), Whig lawyer, judge, lord advocate, literary critic, and ed. of Edinburgh Review, 1803–29; the Carlyles' friend from 1826.

Jewsbury, Geraldine Endsor (1812–80; ODNB; see TC to GEJ, 12 April 1840), novelist, reviewer, and general writer; a friend of the Carlyles, and increasingly of JWC, since the early 1840s. She lived as housekeeper with her brother Frank (or Francis) Harding (1819–78). Her eldest brother, Thomas Smith, (b. 1802), also lived in Manchester.

Jones, John Edward (1806–62; ODNB; see TC to JF, 12 Dec. 1846), was appointed assistant librarian in the London Lib., 1844; on Cochrane's death, he was a candidate for the librarian's post to which he was never appointed in his remaining years at the library.

Ker, Alan, (1819–85; see TC to JWC, 19 July 1844), barrister, Ann Scott's nephew; m. 1850 Mary Tennyson, Alfred's sister; apptd. attorney gen. in Antigua, 1851, and sailed there with his wife in early 1852.

Kingsley, Charles (1819–75; ODNB), author, Broad Churchman, and Christian Socialist; m. 1844 Fanny Grenfell; author of Alton Locke (1850) and Yeast (1851).

Kossuth, Lajos (1802–94), led the Hungarian insurrection, 1848–49, against Austria, but in Aug. 1849 was driven into exile in Turkey, where he was imprisoned, 1849–51. He reached France and came to England, 21 Oct. 1851, then left for U.S. and returned to England, 1852.

Lacaita, James Philip (Giacomo Filippo) (1813–95; ODNB), Italian scholar and politician; naturalized British, 1855; he had been legal adviser to the British legation at Naples, where he helped Gladstone gather information about “King Bomba's” misrule. He came to London in Jan. 1852. He had powerful friends through Gladstone, Panizzi, and his in-laws; he m. Maria Clavering (d. 1853), da. of Sir Thomas Clavering, after the Library affair. He was professor of Italian, Queen's Coll., Harley Street, 1853–56.

Landor, Walter Savage (1775–1864; ODNB; see TC to RWE, 1 April 1840), poet and man of letters, whom TC had known since 1836; separated from his wife and living in Bath.

Lansdowne, Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice (1780–1863; ODNB; see TC to JF, 17 Jan. 1839), third marquis; Whig leader, pres. of the council under Melbourne and Lord John Russell; respected as patron of arts and literature; known to TC since they joined in founding the London Lib.

Larkin, Henry (1820–99), collector or cashier for Chelsea Steam Co.; partner in engineering business; worked on TC's indexes from 1856; author of Extra Physics and the Mystery of Creation (1878), with an appendix (written in 1858) giving an analysis of Sartor Resartus, and of Carlyle and the Open Secret of His Life (1886).

Laurence, Samuel (1812–84; ODNB; see TC to JCA, 6 July 1838), portraitist and friend of the Carlyles; he sketched or painted many of TC's circle; a close friend of James Spedding.

Ledru-Rollin, Alexandre Auguste (1808–74; see TC to JWC, 10 April 1848), lawyer, radical politician, and advocate of universal suffrage; minister for the interior in provisional govt. and candidate for the presidency, 1848. He was deported 13 June 1849 after leading an unsuccessful demonstration against the govt. and returned to France in 1870.

Lenthall, Francis Kyffin, of 36 Mount St. Grosvenor Sq., and Bessels-Leigh, Abingdon, descendant of William Lenthall (1591–1662).

Lewes, George Henry (“Ape”) (1817–78; ODNB; see TC to UC, 16 Oct. 1839), author, journalist, and co-ed. with Thornton Hunt of the Leader; known to the Carlyles from 1835; m. 1841 Agnes, b. Jervis (1822–1902; see TC to JAC, 26 Aug. 1848, and 25:biographical note), they had a family of four children, but she had already turned to Thornton Hunt by whom she had had two children; and in 1852 Lewes's friendship developed with Marian Evans (George Eliot).

Louis Napoleon (1808–73), pres. of France since his election, 1849; he seized power by a coup d'état, 2 Dec., 1851, when he was declared emperor, assuming the title of Napoleon III.

Lyttelton, George William (1817–76; ODNB), 4th baron, politician and educationist, who had been a member of the London Library committee with TC; see TC to AC, 26 June 1840, and TC to LOL, 14 Jan. 1841.

Macaulay, Thomas Babington (1800–1859; ODNB), historian and Whig M.P. for Edinburgh, 1839–47. After his defeat in the general election of 1847 he had turned to literature and pbd. 2 vols. of his History of England (1848). In the general election of 1852 he triumphed again at Edinburgh, but suffered a decline in health though he continued to write.

Maccall, William (1812–88; ODNB; see TC to WM, 5 Aug. 1848), impoverished writer, Unitarian preacher, lecturer; friend and protégé of TC; m., 1842, Alice b. Haselden of Bolton.

M'Diarmid, John (1790–1852; ODNB; see TC to AC, 10 Jan. 1821), ed. Dumfries Courier; m. 1819, Anne, b. M'Knight (d. 1850; see TC to JWC, 27 Sept. 1838, and TC to JWC, 12 Aug. 1843). He wrote various minor works and was remembered as a friend of TC, Allan Cunningham, and Burns's widow; he died 18 Nov.

Mackenzie, James (1780–1870), Writer to the Signet; third son of Henry (1745–1831), author of the popular novel The Man of Feeling (1771).

M'Queen, John (d. 1849), grazier and former tenant of Craigenputtoch.

M'Queen, Tom, former tenant of Craigenputtoch.

Macready, Letitia Margaret (1794–1858), Macready's sister.

Macready, William Charles (1793–1873; ODNB), former actor-manager, m. to Catherine Frances, b. Atkins (1806–52); he and his wife had been the Carlyles' friends from 1839. They had retired to Sherborne, Dorset, 1850. Catherine died 18 Sept.

Magnus, Edouard (1799–1872), German portrait painter, scholar, and writer on art; prof. of fine art in Berlin Kunstakademie since 1844.

Mahon, Philip Henry Stanhope, Viscount (1805–75; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 11 March 1839), historian and politician. See 25:biographical note.

Marshall, James (see TC to JMA, 3 June 1847, and TC to MAC, 19 June 1847), originally from Ayrshire, he was asst. to the grand duke and duchess of Weimar.

Martha, “the dearest little girl” (JWC to KS, [25 July]), age 15, who lived locally and sometimes helped at Cheyne Row; JWC was fond of her.

Masson, David (1822–1907; ODNB; see JWC to TC, 24 July 1843), journalist, biographer, and ed.; prof. of English lang. and lit. at Univ. Coll., London, from 1852; close friend of the Carlyles.

Maurice, John F. D. (1805–72; ODNB; see JWC to JCA, 13 Aug. 1835), Broad Church leader and Christian Socialist; prof. of English lit. and history, King's College, London; m. secondly, 1849, to Georgiana Hare. He was attacked at this time for his liberal theology.

Mazzini, Giuseppe (1805–72; see TC to JSM 6 Dec. 1839), Italian revolutionary and friend of the Carlyles, since the late 1830s. In Italy, 1848–49, he returned to London, 1849, but continued to keep alive active resistance to Austrian domination.

Mill, John Stuart (1806–73; ODNB), philosophical writer, logician, economist; administrator (examiner) at India House since 1823; his earlier friendship with and admiration of TC sharply lessened because of many differences in temperament and on social questions; he believed that TC, like other friends, disapproved of his marriage, April 1851, to Harriet Taylor (1807–58), widow of John Taylor (1796–1849), who strongly influenced his thinking. The MS of vol. 1 of TC's French Revolution had been burnt while in her care.

Mills, Mary (d. 1854), JWC's mother's former servant.

Milman, Henry Hart (1791–1868; ODNB; see TC to HHM, 3 March 1840, and TC to RMM, 10 March 1848), dean of St. Paul's and early reviewer of Sartor, m. 1824 to Mary Ann; well-known to TC.

Milnes, Richard Monckton (1809–85; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 14 July 1836 and later), Conservative M.P., society figure, author; the Carlyles' friend since the late 1830s; m. 1851, Annabel (or Annabella), b. Crewe; their da., Amicia, was born 3 Aug. On going to Vienna after his marriage, the govt. would not allow him to enter Hungary because of his support for the 1848 revolution. Disappointed expectations and disagreement made Milnes lose practical interest in politics after 1851. He refused the lordship of the Treasury under Palmerston, whom he now followed, and devoted himself to literature.

Mitchel, John (1815–75; ODNB; see TC to CGD, 19 Jan. 1846), Irish revolutionary nationalist and journalist, admirer of TC, transported to Tasmania. His mother was Mary, b. Haslett; see JWC to TC, 23 Aug. 1846. He was to escape to San Francisco in 1853.

Mitchell, Helen (see JWC to MAC, 27 Oct. 1840, and JWC to JCA, 1 May 1849), the Carlyles' maid, 1837–46; left to keep house for her brother in Dublin; returned, 1848–49; dismissed for outrageous drunkenness and said to have killed herself.

Montégut, Jean Baptiste Joseph Émile (1825–96), critic and translator; he had joined the staff of the Revue des Deux Mondes, 1847, and wrote widely on British and American literature, including TC.

Morgan, probably Joseph, carpenter and builder, 8 Cook Yard and 64 Davies St., Berkeley Sq. (recommended by A. Helps) who undertook 5 Cheyne Row's renovation this year. See JWC to MR, 13 July. There was a George Morgan, architect and surveyor, 22 Parliament St.

Mulock, Dinah Maria (1826–87; ODNB; see JWC to JF, 13 Nov. 1849), novelist.

Murray, Patrick Aloysius (1811–82; ODNB; see TC to JWC, 6 July 1849), prof. of theology at Maynooth, 1841–82. TC had met him, 1849.

Neuberg, Joseph (1806–67; see TC to JN, 21 Dec. 1839, and 25:biographical note), German-born retired businessman in Nottingham; naturalized Briton, 1845. He met TC in 1848; he helped him as an unpaid sec., translated his work, and accompanied him on visits to Germany in 1852 and 1858. He settled in Hampstead in 1852. His sister was Rosette or Rosetta (d. 1898; see JWC to JN, 3 July 1849); she later married a Mr. Frankau (d. 1856).

Newton, Elizabeth, b. Nodes (1779–1865; see JWC to TC, 3 Aug. 1845), Elizabeth Paulet's mother, who lived in Manchester.

Newton, Robert Nodes (1813?–64; see TC to JAC, 4 Sept. 1847), textile manufacturer; m. to Sarah Ann Newton (b. 1821?), father of three sons and three das.; who lived at Longcar Cottage, Barnsley. In bitter dispute with Frank Jewsbury.

Norton, Charles Eliot (1827–1908), was to be an author, close friend, and editor of TC, the only surviving son of prof. Andrews Norton (1786–1853; see TC to RWE, 1 June 1837); in commerce, 1846–49, traveling abroad, 1849, in England, June 1850 to Jan. 1851, when he returned to the U.S., remaining in business for the time being. He did not meet TC until March 1869.

Ossoli, Sarah Margaret, b. Fuller (1810–50; see TC to JAC, 8 Oct. 1846, and TC to RWE, 30 Nov. 1847), American writer, poet, lecturer, and social reformer who visited the Carlyles Oct. 1846 on her way to France and then Rome. She had a son by Count Giovanni Angelo Ossoli (1820–50); all three were drowned off Fire Island, N.Y., 19 July 1850.

Paget, John (1808–92; ODNB), studied at York, Paris, and in Italy; qualified as a doctor; m. 1837, Polyxena Wesslingi (d. 1878), widow of the Hungarian Baron Ladislaus Báuffy, and developed his wife's estates in Hungary. He was a prominent Unitarian.

Palmerston, Henry John Temple (1784–1865; ODNB), 3rd viscount; with a slight break he was Whig foreign sec., 1830–41, 1846–51, an able and independent believer in active diplomacy in support of liberalism and British interests overseas. He had gone too far in recognizing Louis Napoleon after his coup d'état in 1851 without consultation; he was dismissed, but remained in the govt. as home sec.

Panizzi, Anthony (1797–1879; ODNB), naturalized British but Italian immigrant, keeper of printed books at the British Museum whose management of the catalogue and library TC had long disapproved of; see TC to LOA, 6 Feb. 1849.

Parker, John William (1792–1870; ODNB; see TC to ES, 14 May 1847), publisher and printer, pbd. Fraser's Magazine 1847–63. His son was John William Parker (1820–60).

Paterson, Mrs. David (1791–1867), Thomas Erskine's sister, m. to Capt. James Paterson (1795–1856); see TC to JWC, 12 Sept. 1843.

Patmore, Coventry Kersey Dighton (1823–96; ODNB), poet; asst. in printed book dept., British Museum Lib., 1846; close friend of Tennyson and Ruskin.

Peel, Sir Robert (1788–1850; ODNB), 2nd bart., former prime minister.

Pepoli, Count Carlo (1796–1881; see JWC to JCA, 13 Aug. 1835), poet, prof. of philosophy, Bologna, then a political exile after the revolution against papal govt., 1831. Prof. of Italian, Univ. Coll., London, 1838–46; m., 1839, the Carlyles' old friend Elizabeth Fergus (ca. 1788–1867; see JWC to TC, 12 Oct. 1835, and JWC to TC, 9 April 1841) of Kirkcaldy. Pepoli was a deputy in the Roman republic, and in 1859 returned to Bologna.

Phillips, George Searle (18151816–89; ODNB), misc. writer, journalist, sec. of the Huddersfield Mechanics' Institute, who wrote under the pseud. “January Searle.” TC had met him in Aug. 1847; see TC to JAC, 27 Aug. 1847. He influenced John Tyndall, John Stores Smith, and other admirers of TC at this time.

Philp, Dr. John (1794–1853), L.R.C.P., Edinburgh, 1814; surgeon for Kirkcaldy district; medical officer, Kirkcaldy prison; in practice in High St., Kirkcaldy, since 1837; “a sensible fellow” who attended Helen Welsh.

Piper, John (JWC to TC, 11 Sept. 1847), the Carlyles' postman of 15 Radnor St., King's Rd., Chelsea; his wife was occasionally a servant at Cheyne Row.

Plattnauer, Richard, a Prussian exile, brother of Hedwig von Reichenbach; apparently introduced to the Carlyles by Godefroy Cavaignac; liberal or even revolutionary exile (see JWC to HW, 5 July 1847); he was subject to periods of insanity. The Carlyles befriended him (see JWC to JW, 29 Aug. 1844); he had been a private tutor, recently returned to England, and lived there and on the Continent.

Preuss, Johann David Erdmann (1785–1868), teacher and historian, known for his works on Prussian history. His Friedrich der Grosse, Eine Lebensgeschichte, 4 vols. (Berlin, 1832–34), was followed by his edn., Oeuvres de Frédéric le Grand, 31 vols. Berlin (1846–57); they were closely documented, giving detailed information for future historians, but TC was not alone in finding them excessive.

Radowitz, Joseph Maria von (1797–1858), Prussian gen., friend and adviser of Crown Prince Frederick William and director of military education; an early advocate of German union.

Rauch, Christian Daniel (1777–1857), sculptor, founder of the Berlin school of sculpture. His monument of Frederick, opposite the royal palace on the Unter den Linden, was said to be the grandest in Europe.

Redwood, Charles (1802–54; see TC to CR, 9 jan. 1840), solicitor and TC's admirer of Bovington, S Wales.

Reichenbach, Count Oskar von, (b. 1815; see JWC to JW, 12 Sept. 1844), Silesian landowner, liberal deputy to Frankfurt parliament, 1848–49; forced into exile, he came to London with his family, 1850; m. Hedwig, b. Plattnauer; they lived at Paulton's Sq., Chelsea. Their son was also named Oskar.

Reumont, Alfred von (1808–87), diplomat and historian, had written on Italian history and Renaissance art.

Robson, Charles of Levey, Robson, & Franklyn, printers, 23 Gt. New St., Fetter Lane. Robson had been TC's printer since 1837.

Ruskin, John (1819–1900; ODNB), author, artist, and social reformer, who had m., April 1848, Euphemia Chalmers, b. Gray (1827–97), and spent the winters of 1849 and 1850 in Venice. He had pbd. two vols. of Modern Painters, (1843, 1846), and The Seven Lamps of Architecture (1849). The Stones of Venice appeared 1851–53. A friend of TC, he was strongly influenced by him.

Russell, Elizabeth Ann, b. Rawdon (1794?–1874), m., 1817, Lord George William Russell (1790–1846), maj. gen., second son of 6th duke of Bedford and Lord John's brother; always known as Lady William Russell; one of JWC's “select quality friends … who loved her like a daughter” (Reminiscences 187); see 25:biographical note.

Russell, Lord John (1792–1878; ODNB), prime minister, 1846–51; foreign sec. for a short period, 1852–53.

Russell, Mary, b. Dobbie (d. 1875; see TC to AC, 7 April 1832), m. to Dr. James Russell, of Holmhill, Thornhill, close friends of JWC and her mother.

Saffi, Aurelio Count (1819–90), Italian poet and politician; had been a triumvir with Mazzini governing the short-lived Roman republic; in exile in Switzerland in 1850 and London from 1851.

Sand, George, pseud. of Amandine Aurore Lucie Dudevant, b. Dupin (1803–76; see TC to MN, 21 June 1841, and TC to GEJ, 13 Dec. 1848), French novelist, with a strong influence on JWC and many of her friends; after taking an active part in the 1848 revolution and provisional govt., she had retired to Nohant.

Sandwich, Mary Anne Julia Louisa Harriet, b. Lowry-Corry (1781–1862; see TC to MAC, 3 Sept. 1848), dowager countess, m. 1804 George John Montagu (1773–1818), 6th earl of Sandwich; she was Lady Harriet Ashburton's mother; fond of JWC.

Senior, Nassau William (1790–1864; ODNB), political economist whom the Carlyles had known since the mid-1830s; m. 1821 to Mary Charlotte, b. Mair; in the Ashburton circle.

Sketchley, Penelope (see JWC to JW, 21 Nov. 1842, and JWC to JW, 12 Nov. 1843), picture copier, formerly from Liverpool; and her mother who was trying to find a publisher for a religious novel.

Spedding, James (1808–81; ODNB; see JWC to JCA, 13 Aug. 1835, and TC to TSS, 20 Sept. 1845), authority on Francis Bacon; former sec. in the colonial office, from which he had retired, 1841.

Spedding, Thomas Story (1800–1870; see TC to TSS, 17 Feb. 1838), Cumberland landowner of Greta Bank, nr. Keswick; James's brother; friend of TC since the early 1840s; m. secondly, 1839, to Frances Emily, b. Headlam (d. 1896).

Stanley, Edward John (1802–69; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 27 Feb. 1840), Whig politician, created Baron Eddisbury of Winnington, 1848, succeeded as second Baron Stanley of Alderley, 1850; m. to Henrietta Maria, b. Dillon (1807–95; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 27 Feb. 1840), old friends of the Carlyles, but she closer than her husband.

Stephen, Sir James (1789–1859; ODNB; see JWC to JCA, 13 Aug. 1835), under-sec. for colonies, 1836–47; prof. of modern history, Cambridge Univ., 1849–59.

Sterling, Anthony Coningham (1805–71; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 2 Dec. 1836 and later), capt. in 73rd Foot on half-pay; friend of the Carlyles since 1837 and guardian of his brother John's das., though not of his eldest son. A dedicated admirer of JWC, but differences between them had arisen; m. 1829 to Charlotte b. Baird (d. 1863; see JWC to HW, 12 Nov. 1844, and JWC to HW, 9 Jan. 1845) who suffered attacks of insanity and jealousy of JWC.

Sterling, John (1806–44; ODNB; see TC to JSM, 27 May 1835). His son, Edward Coningham (b. 1831; see JWC to HW, 9 Jan. 1845), had lived in Manchester with prof. Francis William Newman, his “sole Guardian,” according to his father's will. His das. were Anna Charlotte (Lotta) (1833–67), Kate (Catherine Susan) (1834–69), and Julia Maria (1836–1910).

Stirling, William (1818–78; ODNB; see TC to WS, 24 Feb. 1848), historical writer, art expert, especially on Spain, and M.P.; of Keir, Stirling.

Stodart, John Riddle (d. 1871; see JWC to TC, 5 Sept. 1849), JWC's old suitor, m. 1826 to Jemima Henrietta, b. Brown (1807–65).

Tennyson, Alfred (1809–92; ODNB), poet; friend of the Carlyles since early 1840s; they shared a great mutual regard; poet laureate and author of In Memoriam, 1850. He m., 1850, Emily Sarah, b. Sellwood (1813–96).

Thackeray, William Makepeace (1811–63; ODNB; see JWC to TC, 3 Aug. 1837, TC to JAC, 12 Aug. 1837, and later vols.), novelist; friend of the Carlyles since the 1830s and intimate of the Ashburton circle. After Vanity Fair (1847–48) and Pendennis (1849–50), he was writing Henry Esmond, pbd. Oct. 1852, and lectured in the U.S. His two das. were Anne Isabella (1837–1919) and Harriet Marian (1840–75).

Thiers, Louis Adolphe (1797–1877; see TC to LAAL, 20 Oct. 1845), French politician and historian; m. 1833 Elise, b. Dosne (ca. 1812–80). In 1851 he was a champion of order in the constituent and legislative assemblies, but he was arrested and exiled, 2 Dec. 1851. He lived in exile but returned to France, 1852, and worked on his Histoire du Consulat et de l'Empire. He was the Ashburtons' friend.

Thirlwall, Connop (1797–1875; ODNB), bishop, historian, and liberal theologian of St. David's; see TC to JOST, 19 June 1839.

Twisleton, Hon. Edward Turner Boyd (1809–74; ODNB), public servant; B.A. Oxford, 1829; fellow of Balliol Coll., 1830–38; barrister, 1835; asst. poor law commissioner, 1839. He was chief commissioner of the poor laws in Ireland, 1839–49, when he resigned in protest at govt. policy. In 1850 he visited the U.S. to investigate public schools in New England; he met Ellen Dwight (d. 1862) of Boston, whom he m. 19 May. He was a close and respected friend of the Carlyles.

Varnhagen von Ense, Karl August (1785–1858; see TC to KAVE, 31 Dec. 1837), Prussian soldier, diplomat, and biographer with whom TC had corresponded since 1837; TC wrote “Varnhagen von Ense's Memoirs,” 1838, Works TC to DL, 3 May 1854. His persistent curiosity about the Carlyles was met by his letters from Amalie Bölte. He was a keen collector of autograph manuscripts, to which TC helped to contribute; m. 1814, Rahel Antonie Friederike Levin (1771–1833; see TC to KAVE, 31 Dec. 1837). He and TC met in Berlin, 1 Oct.

Villiers, Elizabeth Charlotte, b. Liddell (see TC to LA, 29 Jan. 1849), widow of Edward Ernest Villiers (1806–43).

Warburton, Bartholomew Elliot George (known as Eliot) (1810–52; ODNB), miscellaneous writer, author of Memoirs of Prince Rupert and the Cavaliers, 3 vols. (1849), and The Crescent and the Cross, or Romance and Realities of Eastern Travel, 2 vols. (1845). He qualified as a barrister and was a friend of Milnes. M. 1848 to Matilda Jane, b. Grove (1820–61). D. in fire at sea, on the Amazon, 4 Jan.

Watt, Phoebe Elizabeth Hough, b. Fowler (1814?–54), da. of late John of Horton Hall, N. Staffs., with four sons, m. to John Carlyle, 2 Nov.

Watts, Thomas (1811–69; ODNB; see TC to TW, 15 Feb. 1848), member of the staff, British Museum Lib.

Weber, Dr., Austrian-born traveling doctor for the Ashburtons with whom he went abroad this summer.

Wedgwood, Frances (“Fanny”), b. Mackintosh (1800–1889; see TC to HWE, 11 Dec. 1836), the Carlyles' friend, though beginning to be less close, m. to Hensleigh Wedgwood (1803–91; ODNB; see TC to HWE, 11 Dec. 1836), mathematician and philologist, Erasmus A. Darwin's cousin.

Welsh, Ann (d. 1877), sister of Elizabeth Welsh (d. 1877) and Grace Welsh (d. 1867), JWC's paternal aunts in Edinburgh (see TC to JWC, 26 March 1842, and JWC to JW, 26 June 1843).

Welsh, Grace (1782–1842), JWC's mother.

Welsh, Helen (ca. 1813–53), da. of JWC's maternal uncle, John Welsh.

Welsh, Jeannie (1798?–1828), JWC's maternal aunt; for her death, see TC to JAC, 16 April 1828 and Carlyle, Reminiscences 127–29.

Welsh, Jeannie (“Babbie”), Helen's sister; m. 1853 Andrew Chrystal.

Welsh, Dr. John (1776–1819), JWC's father, b. 14 April.

Welsh, John (d. 1853) JWC's maternal uncle, retired brass and copper founder, who lived at 20 Maryland St., m. to Mary (d. 1838); for her death, see TC to AC, 15 Oct. 1838.

Welsh, John (1824–59; ODNB; see JWC to MW, 20 Aug. 1842), meteorologist; son of JWC's paternal uncle George (1793–1835) and Margaret; apptd. asst. at Kew Observatory, 1850; known for balloon ascents, 1852.

Welsh, John (d. 1860), youngest of the Liverpool Welshes.

Welsh, John May (1824–56; see TC to JBO, 7 June 1845), lawyer, eldest son of JWC's paternal uncle Robert.

Welsh, Margaret, (b. 1821, “Maggie”), da. of uncle John of Liverpool.

Welsh, Margaret, b. Kissock (1803–88; see JWC to MW, 22 Feb. 1841, and JWC to MW, 28 Feb. 1846), widow of JWC's paternal uncle George (1793–1835).

Welsh, Robert (1784?–1841; see TC to JWC, 29 April 1841, and JWC to MW, 8 July 1842), JWC's paternal uncle, an Edinburgh solicitor, the fourth Welsh brother.

Wilberforce, Samuel (“Soapy Sam”) (1805–73; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 26 Nov. 1845, and TC to JWC, 31 Jan. 1851), bishop of Oxford since 1845; friend of the Ashburtons.

Wilson, Jane (1790–1890), friend of the Carlyles since 1835, who lived with her brother Thomas (d. 1872) at 2 Upper Eccleston St., Belgrave Sq.

Woolner, Thomas (1825–92; ODNB), sculptor and poet; member of Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood; left for Australia, July 1852; returned 1854.

Wynn, Charlotte Williams (1807–69; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 17 July 1845), friend of Varnhagen von Ense.