candlestick

1854-June 1855


The Collected Letters, Volume 29


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BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ; 2001; DOI: 10.1215/ed-29-biographical-notes; CL 29: firstpage-29-349-lastpage-29-362

BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES

Notes on the Carlyles' contemporaries who are referred to more than once in the present volume are given below, cross-referenced to earlier information. Otherwise, they are accounted for in headnotes and footnotes as they occur. These entries are not listed in the main index.

Abeken, Bernard Rudolf (1780– 1866; see TC to JAC, 15 Oct. 1852), Prussian literary scholar and foreign office official.

Aberdeen, George Hamilton Gordon (1784–1860; ODNB), 4th earl, prime minister, Dec. 1852 to 30 Jan. 1855.

Adamson, Robert (d. 1861; see TC to JA, 14 Feb. 1838), manager of the British Linen Bank, Dumfries.

Aird, Thomas (1802–76; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 29 March 1833), poet, journalist, miscellaneous writer, and ed. of Dumfries Herald.

Airlie, Henrietta Blanche, b. Stanley (1829–1921), 7th countess; JWC's friend and confidante; m. 1851 to Lord Airlie, David Graham Drummond (1826–81), 7th earl. They lived at Cortachy Castle, Forfarshire.

Aitken, Jean (“Craw”) Carlyle (1810–88), TC's sister, m. to James, housepainter of Assembly St., Dumfries. Their sons were James or Jamie (1836–71), who had gone to Glasgow to be a clerk in Nov. 1853, Thomas (1841–69), who was deaf, and John, and their das. were Margaret (b. 1845), Mary, and Anne (1838/39–88).

Albert (1819–61; ODNB), prince consort.

Allingham, William (1824–89; ODNB; see TC to WA, 4 Sept. 1850), poet; b. in Ireland where he worked in a bank; visited London annually from 1843; apptd. to customs office, ca. 1846; introduced to TC by Leigh Hunt; pbd. Poems (1850) and other works.

Anderson, Andrew, medical graduate, Edinburgh, 1816; see TC to JAC, 22 Nov. 1829; in Birmingham, 1830–33, and Dumfries where he married an heiress; see TC to JAC, 15 Aug. 1834. The family had a financial collapse in 1831 and moved to Moffat; see TC to JAC, 4 March 1831. His sister, Miss Anderson of Stroquhan, had been tutoring in Islington in 1840; see TC to JAC, 16 Nov. 1840. In February 1854 his son wrote to TC asking for money.

Anne, servant at Cheyne Row from Nov. 1853 to March 1858; see NLM TC to MAC, 16 Oct. 1822. She replaced Fanny. There was another Anne, older, who had three das.; with the Carlyles from June 1851 (see TC to MAC, 11 June 1851, and JWC to MR, 6 Jan. 1852), she became ill in March 1852, returned to the Carlyles in April but left 20 July 1852; see JWC to FJ, 15 July 1852.

Ashburton, Harriet Baring, b. Montagu (1805–57; ODNB; see TC to MAC, 8 March 1839, later vols., 26:introduction, and 28:Introduction); she was the center of a literary and political circle, was TC's warmly admired friend, and the cause of JWC's jealousy; they first met, 1839; m., 1825, to William Bingham Baring (1799–1864; ODNB; see TC to MAC, 8 March 1839, and later vols.), 2nd Baron Ashburton, partner in Baring Bros., bankers, and politician.

Austin, Mary Carlyle (1808–88), TC's sister, m. to James (d. 1878), farmer of the Gill, 6 mi. W of Ecclefechan. Their children included Margaret (1831–74) and Jessie (b. 1834).

Bacon, Delia Salter (1811–59; see 28:introduction), American working in England, 1853–57, to prove that a group led by Francis Bacon wrote Shakespeare's plays; pbd. Philosophy of the Plays of Shakespere Unfolded (1857); she returned to London from St. Albans, Dec. 1854, and lived at 12 Spring St., Sussex Gdns. She became insane, 1857.

Ballantyne, Thomas (1806–71; ODNB; see TC to TB, 23 Feb. 1839), author and journalist; associated with several publications including the Leader and, by 1855, the Illustrated London News; anthologized TC and other writers.

Bell, George, farmer of Minsca, nr. Lockerbie, whose eldest son George d. 9 Sept. 1851.

Bell, Thomas, tenant of Craigenputtoch from 1852, probably related to George of Minsca. His wife had twin das. in April 1854. Thomas died, 23 Sept. 1854, age 28, at Minsca; the children apparently also died about the same time. His brother, George of Whitecastles, died 31 March 1855.

Blackie, John Stuart (1809–95; ODNB; see TC to JSB, 28 April 1834, and TC to JSB, 16 April 1849); regius prof. of Latin, Marischal Coll., Aberdeen, 1839; prof. of Greek, Edinburgh, 1852; m., 1842, Eliza, b. Wylde.

Bölte, Amalie Charlotte Elise Mariana (1811–91; see 22:introduction, and JWC to HW, 15 July 1847), German writer and trans., in England as a governess, 1839–51; close friend of the Carlyles; regular correspondent of Varnhagen von Ense; she had returned to Dresden, summer 1851, where she met TC briefly in 1852 (see TC to JWC, 25 Sept. 1852).

Bosworth, Thomas (1823/24?–99), publisher and bookseller, 215 Regent St.; described in the Bookseller (Aug. 1899) as “the last of the scholarly booksellers.”

Breadalbane, John Campbell (1796–1862; ODNB), 2nd marquess; lord chamberlain.

Brookfield, William Henry (1809–74; ODNB; see JWC to WHB, 1 April 1846), well-connected clergyman and school inspector, m. 1841, Jane Octavia, b. Elton (1821–96); their children were Magdalene (b. 1850) and Arthur (b. 1853). After her close friendship with Thackeray, differences arose between Thackeray and the Brookfields; all parties were friends of the Ashburtons.

Brown, Samuel (1817–56; ODNB; see TC to JWC, 27 Aug. 1843), chemist, atomic theorist, lecturer, and writer, originally from Haddington; m. 1849, his cousin Helen, b. Littlejohn. He admired TC, who largely returned his liking; now seriously ill (see TC to JAC, 24 Jan. 1851 and E. Arbuckle, “Dr Samuel Brown of Edinburgh,” Carlyle Annual 11 [Spring 1990]).

Bunsen, Christian Karl Josias (1791–1860; see TC to JCA, 13 Feb. 1839), baron; known in Britain as Chevalier Bunsen; Prussian ambassador to Britain, 1841–54; m. 1817 to Frances, b. Waddington (d. 1876; ODNB). Their son, George, lived in Aachen.

Butler, Charles (1802–97; see TC to JCA, 18 Nov. 1853), lawyer, financier, land speculator, entrepreneur, and philanthropist, welcome in Britain for his part in handling the threat by some American states, in the 1840s, to repudiate their bonds; met TC, Nov. 1853, and looked after his Illinois bonds.

Byng, Hon. G. F. (“Poodle”) (1784–1871; see TC to JWC, 8 July 1844), socialite, formerly a clerk in the foreign office; member of the Ashburton circle.

Carlyle, Alexander (Alick) (1797–1876), TC's brother who emigrated with his family to Canada, 1843, settled at the Bield, 4½ mi. W of Brantford, Ontario; m. 1830 to Janet, b. Clow (1808–91). Their fifth da. Euphemia was born 27 Dec. 1853 and died 21 March 1854. They had six sons, Robert (1851–1932) the youngest, and four daughters.

Carlyle, Alexander (1843–1931; see TC to AC, 4 May 1843), Alexander and Janet's son; m. Mary Carlyle Aitken, 1879, lived with TC and ed. the Carlyles' letters and TC's other writings.

Carlyle, James (Jamie) (1807–90), TC's brother, farmer at Scotsbrig; m. 1834 to Isabella, b. Calvert (d. 1859), who had long been unwell. Their children included James (1835–71), working in Glasgow as a clerk, John (b. 1836), Thomas (1838–41), and Janet (Jessie or Jenny) (1843–74).

Carlyle, Jane Welsh (1831–84), see Sims.

Carlyle, John (1792?–1872), TC's half-brother, emigrated to N America, 1837; he had let his previous farm as it was “new, consequently hard to till,” and bought a small farm at Mount Pleasant, near Brantford, Ontario, by May 1855; m. to Margaret (Peggy), b. Benn, (1798–1867). They had five children, Janet (1818–89), Mary (1821–50), John (1825–97), James (1830–1900), and William (1833–1911). The two youngest were schoolteachers; William was expected to teach in Brantford high school, autumn 1855.

Carlyle, John Aitken (Jack, “The Doctor”) (1801–79; ODNB), TC's brother, physician and trans.; m. 2 Nov. 1852 to Phoebe Elizabeth Hough Watt, b. Fowler (d. 1854), a widow from nr. Moffat with four sons (see Watt). She died in childbirth, 19 Aug.

Carlyle, Margaret Aitken (1771–1853), TC's mother, had been living with James and Isabella Carlyle at Scotsbrig. She died 25 Dec. 1853.

Carlyle, Thomas (1803–55; ODNB), an Edinburgh advocate and Irvingite apostle living in Albury, Surrey; often confused with TC. He d., 28 Jan. 1855, and was buried in Albury parish church.

Carlyle, Thomas (1833–1921), Alexander and Janet's oldest son; moved to Hamilton in April, and returned to the Bield in Aug. 1855.

Chalmers, Francis (sometimes called Chalmer or Chambers) and family (see JWC to TC, 7 Sept. 1846, and JWC to TC, 16 Sept. 1847); wealthy neighbor at 4 Cheyne Row.

Chalmers, Dr. Thomas (1780–1847; ODNB; see JWC to TCH, 21 May 1827, and TC to DTH, 20 Jan. 1843), Scottish church leader and theologian; known to and admired by the Carlyles.

Chapman, Edward (1804–80), partner in Chapman & Hall, TC's publisher since 1843.

Chapman, John (1821–94; ODNB; see TC to JCH, 21 March 1844), freethinking publisher and author, an agent for American firms; proprietor of the Westminster Review.

Chorley, John Rutter (1806–67; ODNB; see TC to JWC, 25 July 1843, and TC to JWC, 8 Aug. 1835), reviewer for the Athenaeum; highly regarded by TC, see Carlyle, Reminiscences 154; he helped in supervising the building of the soundproof room.

Chrystal, Jeannie, b. Welsh; m. 28 April 1853 Andrew Chrystal from Glasgow; (see TC to JWC, 10 Aug. 1849, and JWC to JW, 11 May 1851). Her regular correspondence with JWC had ended.

Clarendon, George W. F. Villiers (1800–1870; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 4 Feb. 1847), 4th earl; foreign secretary.

Clough, Arthur Hugh (1819–61; ODNB; see TC to AHC, 17 Dec. 1845, and TC to JWC, 3 April 1849), poet; appointed principal of Univ. Hall, London, 1849–51; prof. of English lang. and lit., Univ. Coll., London, 1850–51; resigned. He left for the U.S., 30 Oct. 1852, and returned June 1853, to take up a post, secured for him by Lady Ashburton, TC and others, as examiner in the education office. M. 13 June 1854 Blanche Smith.

Cole, Henry (1808–82; ODNB; see TC to HGR, 11 Aug. 1835); known to the Carlyles since the 1830s; on the exec. committee of the Great Exhibition, 1851; see TC to TSS, 29 Jan. 1851; British commissioner at the Paris exhibition, 1855.

Coutts, Angela Georgina Burdett (1814–1906; ODNB), wealthy philanthropist who administered her own private charities; friend of Disraeli, Gladstone, and Dickens.

Crabbe, Rev. George (1785–1857; ODNB), of Bredfield Rectory, Woodbridge, Suffolk, where he lived with his das. Mary and Caroline. He was the son of the poet George Crabbe (1754–1832); friend of FitzGerald, who frequently stayed with him.

Darwin, Erasmus Alvey (1804–81; see TC to JAC, 15 June 1835, and TC to JAC, 17 Feb. 1837), the Carlyles' close friend since 1835; Charles Darwin's brother. He had moved to 57 Queen Anne St., Cavendish Sq., 1853.

Davidson, David (1811–1900; see JWC to HW, 22 Dec. 1851), major; army officer in India and inventor; later lieut.-col. and KCB; he invented telescopic sights for rifles, shown at the Great Exhibition, 1851, and the collimating telescope, 1855, which was adopted by the army, 1863.

Delane, John Thadeus (1817–79; ODNB), editor of the Times, 1841–77, attacked the govt. for its conduct of the Crimean War.

Derby, Edward George Geoffrey Smith Stanley (1799–1869; ODNB), 14th earl, formerly Baron Stanley of Bickerstaffe; see 27:biographical note; prime minister, Feb. to Dec. 1853.

Dickens, Charles (1812–70; ODNB), novelist; friend of the Carlyles since the early 1840s; m., 1836, to Catherine Thomson, b. Hogarth (d. 1879). With TC, petitioned for a pension for the Lowe sisters.

Donaldson sisters of Haddington: Jean (1770–1860), JWC's godmother; Jess (1774–1860); and Catherine (Kate) (1779–1852); friends of JWC's mother; paternal aunts of John William.

Donaldson, John William (1811–61; ODNB; see TC to JWC, 31 Aug. 1842), philologist; headmaster of King Edward's School, Bury St. Edmunds, from 1841. The school declined under Donaldson; he resigned 1855. He went to live in Cambridge, where he became a tutor.

Donne, William Bodham (1807–82), poet and trans., a friend of FitzGerald and James Spedding, former Cambridge “Apostle.” He wrote for various quarterlies. Appointed chief librarian of the London Lib., 12 June 1852.

Duffy, Charles Gavan (1816–1903; ODNB; see TC to MAC, 28 April 1845), Irish nationalist and ed. of the Nation, whom TC visited in Ireland in 1846 and 1849; independent M.P. for New Ross, 1852–55; m. Susan, b. Hughes (d. 1878), his 2nd wife, 1846. They emigrated to Australia with their three children, Nov. 1855.

Eckermann, Johann Peter (1792–1854; see TC to G, 25 Sept. 1828), Goethe's friend and literary asst. with whom TC had corresponded since 1828, see TC to JPE, 20 March 1830; fallen on hard times, he died 3 Dec. 1854. His son was Karl (1834–91), painter and engraver.

Eliot, George (pseudonym) (1819–1880; ODNB), born Mary Ann (later Marian) Evans. Formed a lifelong relationship with G. H. Lewes, 1854. Pbd. influential “Carlyle's Life of Sterling” Westminster Review, 1852, vol. 57:247–51.

Ellice, Edward (“Bear”) (1783–1863; ODNB), active politician and deputy gov. of the Hudson's Bay Co.; close friend and colleague of Lord Ashburton.

Emerson, Ralph Waldo (1803–82; see TC to JAC, 27 Aug. 1833), philosopher, essayist, poet, and Transcendentalist. He first met TC, Aug. 1833; in spite of their differences, they had close ties. Delia Bacon was one of many Americans he introduced to TC.

Erskine, Thomas (1788–1870; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 1 Feb. 1838), of Linlathen, Dundee, theologian and long-retired advocate.

Everett, Edward (1794–1865; see TC to MAC, 13 May 1844), one-time Emersonian, Unitarian clergyman, orator, and politician, now strongly opposed to Emerson and liberal Unitarianism. TC came to know him when he was U.S. minister to Britain, 1841–45. He had been elected senator for Massachusetts, 4 March 1853, resigned 1 June 1854, having served only 15 months of a six-year term.

Farie, Robert (1813–82; see TC to JAC, 20 Nov. 1846), nonpracticing barrister of independent means; trans. of German works; known to the Carlyles since 1846.

Farrer, Annie Louisa (b. ca. 1826; see TC to JAC, 11 Sept. 1848), lively member of the Ashburton circle, and Mary, her older sister (see JWC to TC, 7 Sept. 1852). Their mother was Mary, b. Anstruther (d. 1860; see 27:biographical note).

Fergus, John (1797–1865; see JWC to TC, 17 July 1837), of Kirkcaldy; flax manufacturer on a large scale; M.P. for Fife, 1847–59. He and his sisters, Elizabeth Pepoli, Jessie (Janet) Fergus (b. 1794), Charlotte Nixon (1795–1852), and Jane (b. 1804), m. Robert W. Royd, 1841, were old friends of the Carlyles. There was a fifth sister, Isabella (b. 1798), m. Hugh Lumsden, 1824.

FitzGerald, Edward (1809–83; ODNB; see TC to EF, 18 Sept. 1842), poet and trans., TC's friend since 1842, who lived in Suffolk. He left Boulge Cottage, Woodbridge, Suffolk, in 1852 because of his father's bankruptcy and lived mainly at Farlingay Hall, Woodbridge, the home of Job Smith and his wife. John (1803–79) was his older brother, who lived at Boulge Hall, which he inherited when his mother, Mary Frances, b. FitzGerald, died, Jan. 1855. Their father, John Purcell (1775–1852), took his wife's family name after her father's death.

Forster, John (“Fuz”) (1812–76; ODNB; see TC to GE, 15 Feb. 1832, and TC to JF, 17 Jan. 1839), historian, journalist, biographer, and ed. of the Examiner, 1848–55; friend of the Carlyles since the late 1830s; TC's literary adviser.

Forster, William Edward (1818–86; ODNB; see TC to JOST, 14 Dec. 1842), Bradford woolen trader; formerly a Quaker; later prominent Liberal politician; friend of the Carlyles since the early 1840s; m., 1850, Jane, b. Arnold.

Fraser, Mrs., who let her house, 14 Montpelier Sq. Brompton, to John A. Carlyle, 1855.

Froude, James Anthony (1818–94; ODNB; see TC to JWC, 3 April 1849), journalist and man of letters. He first met the Carlyles, June 1849, and knew them better after coming to live in London in 1860; he had become a historian.

Gilchrist, Alexander (1828–61; ODNB), biographer.

Glen, Archibald, brother of William of Carstammon, see TC to AG, 7 June 1839; at 86 Millet St., Glasgow; in the textile business and by 1852 a commission agent.

Glen, Margaret, b. Scott (1789–1868), from Powfoot; m., 1810, the Rev. William Glen (1778–1849), Scottish missionary and translator; see TC to RM, 14 June 1815, TC to MAC, 19 April 1849 and Carlyle, Reminiscences 222–26. Their son John (b. 1817) obtained TC's help in getting her a Civil List pension in 1853 (see TC to MAC, 6 Sept. 1853).

Glover, John H. (d. 1860), librarian at Buckingham Palace.

Goderich, George Frederick Samuel Robinson (1827–1909; ODNB; see TC to CK, 21 March 1851), viscount; Christian Socialist, Liberal M.P. for Huddersfield, 1853–57; m. 1851, Henrietta Anne Theodosia (1833–1907), b. Vyner. His father was Frederick John Robinson (1782–1859; ODNB), 1st earl of Ripon; prime minister, 1827–28.

Gordon, John (1797–1882; see TC to AC, 29 March 1827, and TC to JADO, 20 May 1843), first gen. sec. of Edinburgh univ., 1833–43 (see TC to MN, 22 June 1832); school inspector, 1844–50, 1854–73 (see TC to TA, 1 May 1840); old friend of TC.

Graham, William (1770–ca. 1857; see TC to WG, 15 Sept. 1820, TC to JAC, 20 Nov. 1846, and other vols.), TC's old friend, living retired and in some decline on the slopes of Burnswark, where he had formerly farmed, 3 mi. N of Ecclefechan. Elizabeth was his sister.

Granville, George Leveson-Gower (1815–91; ODNB), 2nd earl; president of the privy council, 1852–54; m. 1840 to Maria Louisa, the duke of Dalberg's da.

Grey, Lord Thomas Philip De (1781–1859; ODNB), Lord Goderich's uncle.

Grote, Harriet, b. Lewin (1792–1878; ODNB), biographer; m. 1820 George Grote (1794–1871; ODNB); see TC to JSM, 18 July 1833.

Guizot, François Pierre Guillaume (1787–1874; see TC to MAC, 26 Feb. 1848), French historian and former politician; premier, 1840–48; forced into political retirement by the 1848 revolution, after which he wrote historical works. TC had met him in March 1840 (see TC to JAC, 17 March 1840).

Hammond, Edmund (1802–90; ODNB), permanent undersec. at the foreign office under Lord Clarendon, 1854–73.

Hanning, Janet (1813–97), TC's sister; m. Robert (d. 1878), who had emigrated to Canada in mysterious disgrace, 1841; she rejoined him in Hamilton, Ontario, Aug. 1851, with their two das., Margaret (b. 1838) and Mary (b. 1840). They had two other das., born in Canada, Catherine (b. 1852 or 1853) and Jane.

Helps, Arthur (1813–75; ODNB), writer and historian of private means; clerk to the privy council, 1860; friend of the Carlyles for the past decade; m. to Bessy, b. Fuller (see JWC to TC, 17 July 1843).

Hiddlestone, Margaret, JWC's mother's former servant.

Hope, David (d. 1857; see TC to DH, 23 March 1822, and TC to JAC, 26 Aug. 1841 and later), merchant of 3 Victoria Pl., W. Regent St., living at 5 Wellington Pl., Sauchiehall St., Glasgow; previously of Fleming & Hope.

Hudson, George (1800–1871; ODNB; see TC to JCA, 9 July 1847), M.P. for Sunderland, 1845–59, the “Railway King”; for TC on his dishonesty in promoting railway shares, see “Hudson's Statue,” Latter-Day Pamphlets, Works TC to JC, 22 July 1846.

Hunt, James Henry Leigh (1784–1859; ODNB), essayist, poet, and former neighbor of the Carlyles; Thornton Leigh Hunt's father.

Hunt, Thornton Leigh (1810–73; ODNB; see TC to MAC, 16 March 1833), journalist; co-founder and co-ed. with G. H. Lewes of the Leader; eldest son of Leigh Hunt; known to the Carlyles since his boyhood. M. to Kate, b. Gliddon; he had three children by Agnes Lewes (see 25:biographical note), Edmund (April 1850; see JWC to TC, 4 Aug. 1850), Rose (Oct. 1851), and Ethel (1853); a fourth child was born later.

Hunter, Dr. Jacob (see JWC to JW, 19 Oct. 1842, and TC to JBO, 7 June 1845), physician; wrongly identified in earlier volumes as being of Moffat (see TC to JAC, 19 Sept. 1848, TC to JWC, 9 Sept. 1850, and 25:biographical note, and elsewhere); John Carlyle's friend.

Hunter, Robert Hope Alston, physician of Moffat, L.R.C.S. and lic. midw., Edinburgh, 1825; staff surg. half-pay; corr. hon. mem. Bombay Med. & Phys. Soc.; many contributions to various journals (Medical Directory for Scotland [1856]).

Inglis, Henry (1806–85; corrected dates; see TC to JAC, 29 Nov. 1827), senior partner in H. & W. Inglis, writers to the signet, Edinburgh; misc. writer whom the Carlyles had known since the 1820s (see TC to HI, 31 March 1829); later one of the disgraced directors of the City of Glasgow Bank, see TC to HI, 21 Oct. 1835.

Irving, Edward (1792–1834;ODNB; see TC to RM, 12 Feb. 1817, later vols., and Carlyle, Reminiscences), the Carlyles' great friend; religious leader and preacher.

Janvier, Francis de Haes (1817–85), poet and miscellaneous writer.

Jewsbury, Geraldine Endsor (1812–80; ODNB; see TC to GEJ, 12 April 1840), novelist, reviewer, and general writer; a friend of the Carlyles, and particularly of JWC, since the early 1840s. She had two brothers: Thomas Smith (b. 1802), the elder, and Francis (Frank) Harding Jewsbury (1819–78), m. 1853 Emily, b. Vanburgh; both brothers lived in Manchester. Jewsbury lived with Frank till 1854. She moved to 3 Oakley St., near King's Road, Chelsea, summer 1854.

Ker, Alan (1819–85), eldest son of Robert of Greenock; attorney gen. Antigua, 1851–54; chief justice of Nevis, 1854–56, and Dominica, 1856–61; m. 1851, Mary b. Tennyson, (1810–84), Alfred's sister.

Laing, David (1793–1878; ODNB), Scottish antiquary, sec. of the Bannatyne Club, 1823–61, fellow of the Soc. of Antiquaries of Scotland, 1826, librarian to the Signet Lib., hon. prof. of antiquities to the Royal Scottish Academy, 1854.

Lansdowne, Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice (1780–1863; ODNB; see TC to MAC, 13 Jan. 1839), 3rd marquess; Whig politician; pres. of the privy council under Grey, Melbourne, and Russell; respected as patron of the arts and lit.; known to TC since they joined in founding the London Lib.

Laurence, Samuel (1812–84; ODNB; see TC to JCA, 6 July 1838), portraitist and friend of the Carlyles; he sketched or painted many of TC's circle; a close friend of James Spedding. He left for the U.S. in Dec. 1853, arriving Jan. 1854.

Layard, Austen Henry (1817–94; ODNB); politician and excavator of Nineveh; rector of Aberdeen University, 1855; Liberal M.P. for Aylesbury, 1852–57. As an observer in the Crimea, he saw the charge of the Light Brigade; he criticized the conduct of the war and the army leadership, particularly the duke of Newcastle, and the aristocratic monopoly of the army; popular with the press, Palmerston wanted him in his govt., but the queen objected to his criticism of the aristocracy; Layard rejected office unless Palmerston appointed other M.P.s critical of the conduct of the war.

Lechmere, Charles, deputy keeper in the state paper office, 12 Duke St., Westminster.

Lemon, Robert (1800–1867; ODNB), archivist, chief clerk in the state paper office.

Lewes, George Henry (“Ape”) (1817–78; ODNB; see TC to UC, 16 Oct. 1839), author, journalist, and co-ed., with Thornton Hunt, of the Leader; known to the Carlyles from 1835; m. 1841 to Agnes, b. Jervis (1822–1902; see TC to JAC, 26 Aug. 1848), with a family of three surviving children. She had already turned to Thornton Hunt by whom she was to have four children. In 1852 Lewes's friendship developed with Marian Evans (George Eliot). They left for Germany together, July 1854, but the Carlyles remained on friendly terms.

Lockhart, John Gibson (1794–1854; ODNB; see earlier vols.); biographer of Sir Walter Scott; m. 1820 Sophie, Scott's da.; ed. Quarterly Review, 1825–53. For TC's opinion of him, see JWC to JOST, 27 Jan. 1842. He moved to Abbotsford where he died, 25 Nov. 1854.

Louis Napoleon, see Napoleon III.

Lowe, Ann Elizabeth (ca.1777–1860), and Frances Meliora Lucia (ca.1783–1866); das. of Mauritius Lowe (1746–93), painter and friend of Samuel Johnson. Ann was Johnson's goddaughter and a beneficiary of his will. They were living in poverty at 5, Minerva Pl., Old Kent Rd., Deptford. TC and others were petitioning for a govt. pension for them from May 1855.

Lowe, Robert (1811–92; ODNB), politician, leader writer for the Times, M.P. for Kidderminster, 1852–59; joint sec. of the board of control, 1852–55, and paymaster-gen., 1855–58; m. 1836 to Georgiana, b. Orred (d. 1884).

Marshall, James (see TC to JMA, 3 June 1847, and TC to MAC, 19 June 1847), originally from Ayrshire; asst. to the grand duke and duchess of Weimar; married with children (see TC to MAC, 17 March 1853); his son died at the end of 1854.

Marshall, James G. (1802–73; see TC to MAC, 15 Feb. 1838, and TC to MAC, 12 June 1838, TC to JGM, 13 Oct. 1846), Leeds flax manufacturer and M.P. for Leeds, 1847 to July 1852; m. 1841 Mary Alicia Pery, b. Spring Rice (1812–1875).

Martineau, Harriet (1802–76; ODNB; see TC to LEM, 21 Feb. 1841), journalist and writer, esp. on public affairs; once a Unitarian, now a freethinker; known to the Carlyles since 1836, she and TC usually held each other in mutual esteem; occasionally, she and JWC were in disagreement. She lived at Ambleside.

Martineau, James (1805–1900; ODNB; see JWC to TC, 17 July 1843), Unitarian clergyman; m. 1828 Helen, b. Higginson (1804–77); Harriet's brother.

Maurice, John Frederick D. (1805–72; ODNB; see JWC to JCA, 13 Aug. 1835), Broad Church leader and Christian Socialist; prof. of English lit. and history, 1840, and prof. of theology, 1846, King's Coll., London; dismissed in October 1853 after his Theological Essays were pbd. to strong criticism from conservative churchmen (see TC to LA, 3 Nov. 1853). M. secondly, 1849, Georgiana, b. Hare (see TC to JWC, 5 April 1849).

Mazzini, Giuseppe (1805–72; see TC to JSM, 6 Dec. 1839, and 28:Introduction), Italian revolutionary; friend of the Carlyles since the late 1830s. He was usually based in London but continued to promote active resistance to Austrian domination.

Mill, John Stuart (1806–73; ODNB), philosophical writer, logician, economist; administrator (Examiner) at India House since 1823; his earlier friendship with and admiration of TC sharply lessened because of many differences in temperament and on social questions; he believed that TC, like other friends, disapproved of his marriage, April 1851, to Harriet Taylor (1807–58), widow of John Taylor (1796–1849), who strongly influenced his thinking.

Mills, Mary (d. 1854), JWC's mother's former servant.

Milnes, Richard Monckton (1809–85; ODNB; see TC to to JAC, 14 July 1836), Conservative M.P., society figure, author, the Carlyles' friend since the late 1830s; m. 1851 Annabel, b. Hungerford (Crewe); their da. Amicia was born 3 Aug. 1852. Disappointed expectations and disagreements made Milnes lose practical interest in politics after 1851. He refused the lordship of the treasury under Palmerston, whom he now followed, and devoted himself to literature.

Montégut, Jean Baptiste Joseph Émile (1825–96), critic and translator; he had joined the staff of the Revue des Deux Mondes, 1847, and wrote widely on British and American literature, including TC.

Napoleon III (Louis Napoleon) (1808–73), president of France from 1849 to Dec. 1851, when he seized power; he was declared emperor, assuming the title Napoleon III, 1852. He m., 1853, Eugénie, b. de Montijo (1826–1920).

Neuberg, Joseph (1806–67; see TC to JN, 21 Dec. 1839, and 25:biographical note), German-born retired Nottingham businessman; naturalized Briton, 1845. He met TC in 1848; helped him as an unpaid sec., translated his work, and twice accompanied him on visits to Germany. In Germany for most of 1853, from Oct. he lived in Willesden. He was helping TC with work on Frederick. He visited Germany early Sept. 1854 but was back and in poor health by the middle of Oct. His sister was Rosette or Rosetta (d. 1898; see JWC to JN, 3 July 1849); she m., probably 1853, a Mr. Frankau (d. 1856), and had two children. Mr. Frankau may be Adolph Frankau, general merchant and importer of foreign fancy goods, meerschaum pipes, 25 Clements Lane. In the 1856 P. O. Guide, his home was listed at 31 Adelaide Rd., and in 1857 at 12 Oakley Villas, but he was not listed by 1858, Mrs. Frankau being listed at 25 Oakley Villas, Adelaide Rd., which she shared with Neuberg.

Newton, Robert Nodes (1813?–64; see TC to JAC, 4 Sept. 1847), textile manufacturer; m. to Sarah Ann Newton (b. 1821?), with three sons and three das.; they had lived at Longcar Cottage, Barnsley; brother of Elizabeth Paulet of Seaforth, nr. Liverpool (d. 1879), the Carlyles' former friend. He and his wife appear to have separated some time after a bitter quarrel in 1852 involving Frank Jewsbury (see JWC to FJ, 6 July 1852, and JWC to FJ, 10 July 1852); in April–May 1854, Sarah Ann was working as a nurse in London before taking a position as lady's companion, encouraged by JWC.

Palmerston, Henry John Temple (1784–1865; ODNB), 3rd viscount Palmerston; m. 1839, Emily, b. Lamb, formerly Lady Cowper (b. 1787). Whig foreign minister, 1846–52, then home sec. until he became prime minister in February 1855. His strong, militaristic stand against Russia had popular and press approval, but he was wildly over optimistic about the progress of the war; a populist but strongly opposed to the widening of the vote.

Panizzi, Anthony (1797–1879; ODNB), Italian immigrant and naturalized Briton; distinguished keeper of printed books at the British Museum, of whose management of catalogue and library TC strongly disapproved; see TC to LOA, 6 Feb. 1849.

Parker, John William (1792–1870; ODNB; see TC to ES, 14 May 1847), publisher and printer; pbd. Fraser's Magazine, 1847–63. His son was also John William Parker (1820–60), ed. of Fraser's from 1847.

Patmore, Coventry Kersey Deighton (1823–96; ODNB), poet; asst. in printed book dept., British Lib., 1846; close friend of Tennyson and Ruskin.

Pepoli, Elizabeth, b. Fergus (1792–1867; see JWC to TC, 12 Oct. 1835, and JWC to TC, 9 April 1841), countess, old Kirkcaldy friend of the Carlyles; m., 1839, Count Carlo Pepoli (1796–1881; see JWC to JCA, 13 Aug. 1835), poet, prof. of philosophy, Bologna; a political exile after the revolution against papal govt., 1831; prof. of Italian, Univ. Coll., London, 1838–46. He was a deputy in the Roman republic; he returned to Bologna, 1859.

Piper, John (see JWC to TC, 11 Sept. 1847), the Carlyles' postman of 15 Radnor St., King's Rd., Chelsea; his wife occasionally helped at Cheyne Row.

Plattnauer, Richard, brother of Hedwig von Reichenbach; apparently introduced to the Carlyles by Godefroy Cavaignac; liberal or revolutionary exile from Prussia (see JWC to HW, 5 July 1847); he was subject to periods of insanity. The Carlyles befriended him (see JWC to JW, 29 Aug. 1844); he had been a private tutor. He lived on the Continent and in England.

Preuss, Johann David Erdmann (1785–1868), teacher and historian, known for his Friedrich der Grosse. Eine Lebensgeschichte, 4 vols. (Berlin, 1832–34), and Oeuvres de Frédéric le Grand, 31 vols. (Berlin, 1846–57); they were closely documented, giving detailed information, but TC was not alone in finding them overloaded with detail.

Pringle, Janet, b. Hunter, m. to Dr. Pringle of Lann Hall, nr. Thornhill; JWC's cousin (see JWC to MR, 30 Dec. 1853). They had three sons.

Procter, Bryan Waller (pseud. “Barry Cornwall”) (1787–1874; ODNB; see TC to JBW, 23 June 1824, and TC to JAC, 31 Aug. 1832), poet and barrister, m. 1824, Anne Benson, b. Skepper (b. 1799; see JBW to TC, 14 Oct. 1823); old friends of the Carlyles.

Raglan, Fitzroy James Somerset (1788–1855; ODNB), 1st baron, field marshal and commander of the British forces in the Crimea. He was blamed for the troops' appalling suffering in the winter of 1854–55. The Times was particularly harsh. After his death from dysentery in the Crimea, 25 June 1855, inefficient officers, mismanagement of supplies, and govt. negligence were also seen to have been responsible.

Redwood, Charles (1802–54; see TC to CR, 9 Jan. 1840), solicitor of Bovington, S. Wales, who deeply admired TC. He died 21 April 1854.

Reichenbach, Oskar von (b. 1815; see JWC to JW, 12 Sept. 1844), count, Silesian landowner, liberal deputy to Frankfurt parliament, 1848–49; forced into exile, he came to London with his family, 1850; m. to Hedwig, b. Plattnauer, a close friend of JWC; they lived at Paulton's Sq., Chelsea. Their son was also Oskar. They emigrated to the U.S. 20 April 1853.

Roebuck, John Arthur (1802–79; ODNB), radical M.P. for Sheffield, friend of J. S. Mill. He had had a stroke in 1852, which left him infirm; see TC to JAC, 10 Sept. 1852. By moving a resolution in the Commons, 26 Jan. 1855, for a parliamentary select committee of inquiry into the conduct of the Crimean War, he forced the resignation of Aberdeen's govt.; he chaired the committee on the army before Sebastopol, which met 26 March to 18 June 1855.

Ronca, Dominic, carpenter, 6 Cheyne Row, whose cocks disturbed TC.

Ruskin, John (1819–1900; ODNB), author, artist, and social reformer, who had m., April 1848, Euphemia Chalmers, b. Gray (1827–97), and spent the winters of 1849 and 1850 in Venice. The marriage was unconsummated and annulled, 1855. He had pbd. two vols. of Modern Painters (1843, 1846), The Seven Lamps of Architecture (1849), and The Stones of Venice (1851–53). A friend of TC, he was strongly influenced by him.

Russell, Lord John (1792–1878;ODNB), prime minister, 1846–51; foreign sec., 1852–53. Member of the cabinet without office, 1853; in favor of parliamentary reform and a strong line against Russia. He became president of the privy council, June 1854, and secretary of the colonies, Feb. 1855; resigned, July 1855.

Russell, Mary, b. Dobbie (d. 1875; see TC to AC, 7 April 1832), m. to Dr. James Russell, of Holmhill, Thornhill, close friends of JWC and her mother.

Saffi, Aurelio (1819–90), count, poet, and politician; had been in the triumvir with Mazzini governing the short-lived Roman republic, 1848; in exile in Switzerland, 1850, and London from 1851. He was with Mazzini in the Milan uprising, Feb. 1853.

Sand, George, pseud. of Amandine Aurore Lucie Dudevant, b. Dupin (1803–76; see 27:biographical notes), French novelist.

Sandwich, Mary Anne Julia Louisa Harriet, b. Lowry-Corry (1781–1862; see TC to MAC, 3 Sept. 1848), dowager countess, m., 1804, George John Montagu (1773–1818), 6th earl of Sandwich; Lady Ashburton's mother.

Saxe-Weimar, Karl Alexander (1818–1901), grand duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach from 1853 (on the death of his father, Karl Friedrich (1783–1853)) to 1901. He traveled widely in his youth and was greatly influenced by Goethe's work; m., 1842, Sophie Luise (1824–97), daughter of William II of the Netherlands. He presided over the “silver age” of Weimar intellectual life; founded the Landesmuseum, 1863, and from 1860 was responsible for the foundation and development of the Cultural Academy.

Scott, William Bell (1811–1890; ODNB; see TC to WBS, 1 April 1848, and TC to JCA, 2 March 1851), poet, painter, and miscellaneous writer.

Senior, Nassau William (1790–1864; ODNB), political economist, whom the Carlyles had known since the mid-1830s; m., 1821, Mary Charlotte, b. Mair; in the Ashburton circle. His son was Nassau John (1822–91).

Sims, Jane Welsh, b. Carlyle (1831–84), Alexander and Janet's da., m. Robert Sims, early 1852.

Smith, Job (d. 1862) and his wife (d. 1859), from 1852, tenant farmers at Farlingay Hall, where Edward FitzGerald sometimes lived. Mrs. Smith suffered bouts of insanity.

Spring Rice, Stephen (1814–65), commissioner of customs and son of TC's friend Lord Monteagle; see TC to JOST, 28 July 1842; m., 1839, Ellen Mary, b. Frere.

Stanley, Edward John (1802–69; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 27 Feb. 1840), Whig politician, created Baron Eddisbury of Winnington, 1848; succeeded as 2nd Baron Stanley of Alderley, 1850; m. to Henrietta Maria, b. Dillon (1807–95; ODNB); both Stanley and his wife were friends of the Carlyles, but she closer than her husband.

Stephen, Sir James (1789–1859; ODNB; see JWC to JCA, 13 Aug. 1835), under-sec. for colonies, 1836–47; prof. of modern history, Cambridge Univ., 1849–59. His son, James Fitzjames (1829–94; ODNB), future close friend of TC and Froude, was studying law.

Sterling, Anthony Coningham (1805–71; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 2 Dec. 1836 and later), capt. in 73rd Foot on half-pay until 1854; friend of the Carlyles since 1837, and guardian until Oct. 1853 of his brother John's das. (see JWC to KS, 19 Dec. 1853), though not of the eldest child, Edward. He had been a devoted admirer of JWC, but differences between them had arisen; m., 1829, Charlotte, b. Baird (d. 1863; see JWC to HW, 12 Nov. 1844, and JWC to HW, 12 Nov. 1844), who suffered attacks of insanity and was jealous of JWC. Brigade-major and assistant adjutant-general in the Highland division in the Crimea, 1854–55. He was critical of the command in the Crimea but disapproved of open criticism in the press and of Roebuck's committee. His Letters from the Army in the Crimea; Written during the Years 1854, 1855 & 1856 by a Staff Officer who was there was pbd. for private circulation (1857); publicly pbd. as The Highland Brigade in the Crimea (1895).

Sterling, John (1806–44; see TC to JSM, 27 May 1835), the Carlyles' close friend, poet, and journalist. His son, Edward Coningham (b. 1831; see JWC to HW, 8 Jan. 1845), had lived in Manchester with prof. F. W. Newman, his “sole Guardian,” by his father's will; he was managing the farm at Headley. His das. were Julia Maria (1836–1910), Catherine Susan (Kate) (1834–60), JWC's close friend and protégée, and Anna Charlotte (Lotta) (1833–67). TC had pbd. his life, 1851.

Sutherland, Harriet Elizabeth Georgiana Leveson-Gower, b. Howard (1806–68; ODNB), duchess; m., 1823, George Granville Leveson-Gower (1786–1861), 2nd duke; a great friend of the queen. The duchess made Stafford House a center for various philanthropic movements.

Tait, Robert Scott (1816–97), portrait painter and pioneer photographer so far largely unrecognized; a friend of the Carlyles, whom he met in 1853. He exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1848–75. His first portrait of TC, now at Carlyle's House, was painted 1854–55, shown at the R.A., 1856; see I. W. Dyer, Bibliography of Carlyle's Writings (1928) frontispiece. He took photographs of and for the Carlyles, of their house, and for use in Frederick. His well-known A Chelsea Interior (now at Carlyle's House), painted 1857–58, exhibited at the R.A., 1858, made use of photographs. It has often been reproduced.

Taylor, Henry (1800–1886; ODNB; see TC to MAC, 10 Nov. 1831), author and civil servant; m. Theodosia Alice, b. Spring Rice (1818–91; see JWC to TC, 9 Sept. 1838), Lord Monteagle's da.; they had two sons, the eldest of which was Aubrey (1845–76 ), and three das., Eleanor, Una, and Ida.

Tennyson, Alfred (1809–92; ODNB), poet; friend of the Carlyles since early 1840s; they had a strong mutual regard; poet laureate, 1850. He m., 1850, Emily Sarah, b. Sellwood (1813–96).

Thackeray, William Makepeace (1811–63; ODNB; see JWC to TC, 3 Aug. 1837, TC to JAC, 12 Aug. 1837, and later vols.), novelist; friend of the Carlyles since the 1830s, and intimate of the Ashburton circle. M., 1836, Isabella G. C., b. Shawe (d. 1894), who was mentally ill from 1840. He had been deeply devoted to Jane Brookfield, but broke off in 1852. After Vanity Fair (1847–48) and Pendennis (1849–50), he wrote Henry Esmond, pbd. Oct. 1852, which was dedicated to Lord Ashburton, who with his wife had acted as an intermediary with the Brookfields. He lectured in the U.S., 1852; he suffered ill health the later part of 1854, when he also traveled in Italy and Europe. His two das. were Anne Isabella (1837–1919), and Harriet Marian (1840–75).

Thirlwall, Connop (1797–1875; ODNB; see TC to JOST, 19 June 1839), bishop of St. David's, Wales.

Todhunter family; owners of livery stables; details uncertain.

Twisleton, Hon. Edward Turner Boyd (1809–74; ODNB), public servant; B.A., Oxford, 1829; fellow of Balliol Coll., 1830–38; barrister, 1835; assistant poor law commissioner, 1839. He was chief commissioner of the poor laws in Ireland, 1839–49, when he resigned in protest at govt. policy. In 1850 he visited the U.S. to investigate public schools in New England and met Ellen Dwight (1828–62) of Boston, whom he m. 19 May 1852. He was a close and respected friend of the Carlyles. His wife became an even closer friend of JWC.

Varnhagen von Ense, Karl August (1785–1858; see TC to KAVE, 31 Dec. 1837), Prussian soldier, diplomat, and biographer, with whom TC had corresponded since 1837; TC wrote “Varnhagen von Ense's Memoirs,” 1838, Works TC to DL, 3 May 1854. His persistent curiosity about the Carlyles was met by his letters from Amalie Bölte. He was a keen collector of autograph manuscripts, to which TC helped to contribute. He m., 1814, Rahel Antonie Friederike Levin (1771–1833; see TC to KAVE, 31 Dec. 1837). He and TC had met in Berlin, 1 Oct. 1852 (see 27:319 -->TC to JAC, 3 Oct. 1852).

Vaughan, Henry Halford (1811–85; ODNB); regius prof. of modern history, Oxford (1848–58).

Victoria (1819–1901; ODNB), queen since 1837; m. Albert, 1840.

Wake, Henry T. (1830–1914), Quaker, friend of Ruskin, designer of TC's bookplate (see JWC to HTW, 23 Dec. 1853), and later an antiquarian bookseller in Fritchley, Derbyshire.

Watt, Arthur (b.1844?), William (b. 1843?), Henry (b.1839?), at sea, and Tom (b.1838?), in school in Germany; John Carlyle's stepsons.

Waylen, James (1810–94; see TC to JWA, 13 March 1848), Wiltshire historian.

Wedgwood, Frances (Fanny), b. Mackintosh (1800–1889; see TC to JHLH, 10 Dec. 1836), the Carlyles' friend, though now less close; married to Hensleigh Wedgwood (1803–91; ODNB; see TC to JHLH, 10 Dec. 1836), mathematician and philologist, Erasmus A. Darwin's cousin.

Welsh, Alexander (Alick), oldest child of JWC's maternal uncle John, m. Sophy, b. Martin. Their son (b. 1853?) was John.

Welsh, Ann (d. 1877), sister of Elizabeth Welsh (d. 1877) and Grace Welsh (d. 1867), JWC's paternal aunts in Edinburgh (see TC to JWC, 10 March 1842, and JWC to JW, 26 June 1843).

Welsh, Grace, b. Welsh (1782–1842TC to AC, 7 April 1832-->), JWC's mother.

Welsh, Helen (ca.1813–53), da. of JWC's maternal uncle, John Welsh; d. Dec. 1853.

Welsh, Jeannie (1798?–1828), JWC's maternal aunt; for her death, see TC to JAC, 16 April 1828 and Carlyle, Reminiscences 127–29.

Welsh, Jeannie (“Babbie”), Helen's sister; see Chrystal.

Welsh, Dr. John (1776–1819), JWC's father.

Welsh, John (d. 1853; see JWC to HW, 12 Oct. 1853), JWC's maternal uncle, retired brass and copper founder, who had lived at 20 Maryland St., Liverpool; m. to Mary (d. 1838); for her death, see TC to AC, 15 Oct. 1838.

Welsh, John (1824–59; ODNB; see JWC to MW, 20 Aug. 1842), meteorologist; son of JWC's paternal uncle George and Margaret; apptd asst. at Kew Observatory, 1850; known for balloon ascents, 1852 (see TC to JWC, 17 Aug. 1852).

Welsh, John (d. 1860), youngest of the Liverpool Welshes.

Welsh, Margaret (Maggie) (b. 1821), da. of uncle John of Liverpool.

Welsh, Margaret, b. Kissock (1803–88; see JWC to MW, 22 Feb. 1841, and JWC to MW, 28 Feb. 1846), widow of JWC's paternal uncle George (1793–1835).

Welsh, Robert (1784?–1841; see TC to JWC, 29 April 1841, and JWC to MW, 8 July 1842), JWC's paternal uncle, an Edinburgh solicitor, the fourth Welsh brother.

Welsh, Rev. Walter (ca.1799–1879; see JWC to JW, 8 Jan. 1843), unmarried son of JWC's uncle John Welsh; since 1842 minister at Auchtertool, Fife.

Wilberforce, Samuel (1805–73; ODNB; see 27:biographical note), bishop of Oxford.

Wilson, John (1785–1854; ODNB; see TC to JOFE, 3 June 1820 and Carlyle, Reminiscences 410–26), author and critic, known as “Christopher North”; prof. of moral philosophy, Edinburgh, 1820–51; known to TC since 1826; d. 3 April 1854.

Wilson, Thomas (b. 1811; see 22:introduction, and 26:biographical note), formerly curate at St. Peter, Mancroft, Norwich, 1845–47; he left the Church of England because he rejected the Thirty-Nine Articles; he turned to TC for help and was found a teaching appointment in Weimar, Dec. 1853.

Woolner, Thomas (1825–1892; ODNB), sculptor and poet, member of the Pre-Raphaelite brotherhood.

Wynn, Charlotte Williams (1807–69; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 17 July 1845), friend of Varnhagen von Ense.

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