January-September 1856

The Collected Letters, Volume 31


BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ; 2003; DOI: 10.1215/ed-31-biographical-notes; CL 31: firstpage-31-247-lastpage-31-261


Notes on the Carlyles' contemporaries referred to more than once in the present volume are given below, cross-referenced to earlier information. Otherwise they are accounted for in headnotes and footnotes as they occur.

Adamson, Robert (d. 1861; see TC to JA, 14 Feb. 1838), manager of the British Linen Bank, Dumfries.

Aird, Thomas (1802–76; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 29 March 1833), poet, journalist, miscellaneous writer, and ed. of Dumfries Herald.

Aitken, Jean (“Craw”) Carlyle (1810–88), TC's sister, m., 1833, to James (b. 1809?), b. in Troqueer, housepainter of English St., Dumfries; they lived in Assembly St., Dumfries. Their sons were James or Jamie (1836–71), who had gone to Glasgow to be a clerk in Nov. 1853; Thomas (1841–69), who was at an institute for the deaf in Glasgow (see TC to JAC, 4 Nov. 1854); John (b. 1843); and a son whose name is not known (1855–56; wrongly named John in vol. 30). Their das. were Anne (ca.1839–88); Margaret (b. 1845); and Mary (d. 1895), who was to marry her cousin, Alexander, 1879.

Albert (1819–61; ODNB), prince consort.

Allingham, William (1824–89; ODNB; see TC to WA, 4 Sept. 1850), poet; b. in Ireland where he worked in a bank; visited London annually from 1843; apptd. to customs office, ca. 1846; introduced to TC by Leigh Hunt; pbd. Poems (1850) and other works.

Anne, servant at Cheyne Row from Nov. 1853 to March 1858; see A. Carlyle NLM 2:176–77. She replaced Fanny. There was another Anne, older, who had three das., with the Carlyles from June 1851 (see TC to MAC, 11 June 1851, and JWC to MR, 6 Jan. 1852); she became ill, March 1852, returned to the Carlyles in April, but left 20 July 1852; see JWC to FJ, 15 July 1852.

Ashburton, Harriet Baring, b. Montagu (1805–57; ODNB; see TC to MAC, 8 March 1839, later vols., and 26:ix–xv). She was the center of a literary and political circle, TC's warmly admired friend, and a cause of jealousy for JWC; the Carlyles and the (then) Barings first met, 1839; m., 1825, to William Bingham Baring (1799–1864; ODNB; see TC to MAC, 8 March 1839, and later vols.), 2d baron Ashburton, partner in Baring Bros., bankers, and politician.

Austin, Mary Carlyle (1808–88), TC's sister, m. to James (d. 1878), farmer of Gill, 6 mi. W of Ecclefechan. Their seven das. included Margaret (1831–74) and Jessie (b. 1834); they had one son, James (b. 1848).

Bacon, Delia Salter (1811–59), American author, introduced to TC by Emerson, working in England, 1853–57, to prove that a group led by Francis Bacon wrote Shakespeare's plays; pbd. Philosophy of the Plays of Shakespere Unfolded (1857); mentally ill, 1857–59. TC had offered help and advice that she did not take. See 28:introduction.

Bölte, Amalie Charlotte Elise Mariana (1811–91; see 22:introduction, and JWC to HW, 15 July 1847), German writer and trans., in England as a governess, 1839–51; close friend of the Carlyles; regular correspondent of Varnhagen von Ense; she had returned to Dresden, summer 1851, where she met TC briefly in 1852 (see TC to JWC, 25 Sept. 1852).

Braid, Betty, JWC's old servant now living in Edinburgh: m. to Alexander. They had one son, George (d. 1865), who suffered ill health.

Bridges, William, sec. to the Mitre General Life Assurance Assoc., 23 Pall Mall.

Brookfield, William Henry (1809–74; ODNB; see JWC to WHB, 1 April 1846), well-connected clergyman and school inspector; m., 1841, Jane Octavia, b. Elton (1821–96). Their children were Magdalene (b. 1850) and Arthur (b. 1853). After Jane Brookfield's close friendship with Thackeray, differences arose between him and the Brookfields; all parties were friends of the Ashburtons.

Brown, Dr. Samuel (1817–56; ODNB; see TC to JWC, 27 Aug. 1843), chemist, atomic theorist, lecturer, and writer; originally from Haddington; m., 1849, his cousin Helen, b. Littlejohn. He admired TC, who largely returned his liking. He had been in failing health for some time (see TC to JAC, 24 Jan. 1851 and E. Arbuckle, “Dr. Samuel Brown of Edinburgh” Carlyle Annual 11 [spring 1990]). He d. in Edinburgh, 20 Sept.

Browning, Elizabeth Barrett, b. Moulton Barrett (1806–61; ODNB), poet, admirer of TC; m., 1846, Robert Browning, living mainly in Florence since 1847. Robert Wiedeman Barrett (“Pen”) (1849–1912) was their only child.

Browning, Robert (1812–89; ODNB), poet; TC's friend since the mid-1830s. He and TC liked and admired each other, see TC to JAC, 26 Sept. 1855, and TC to RB, 4 Dec. 1855; JWC liked Browning less, see JWC to TC, 2 Sept. 1852, JWC's Journal, 4 July 1856.

Bruce, Henry Austin (1815–95; ODNB), lawyer, liberal M.P. for Merthyr Tydfil, Glamorganshire, 1852–68; created 1st Baron Aberdare, 1873; m., 1854, Norah, da. of Sir William Francis Patrick Napier (1785–1860; ODNB).

Butler, Charles (1802–97; see TC to JCA, 18 Nov. 1853), m., 1824, Eliza A., b. Ogden; U.S. lawyer, financier, land speculator, entrepreneur, and philanthropist; welcome in Britain for his part in handling the threat by some states in the U.S., in the 1840s, to repudiate their bonds; met TC, Nov. 1853, and looked after his Illinois bonds. He had three sons, two of whom died in infancy, the 3rd, Abraham Ogden Butler (b. 1833?), graduate of New York Univ., 1853, d. 6 June, and two das., Emily Ogden and Anna. He was Delia Bacon's benefactor, and had enabled her to come to England to carry out her studies of the authorship of Shakespeare's plays.

Byng, Hon. Frederick Gerald (“Poodle”) (1784–1871; see TC to JWC, 8 July 1844), 5th son of John Byng (b. 1742?), 5th Viscount Torrington; socialite, formerly a clerk in the Foreign Office; member of the Ashburton circle.

Campbell, Sir Colin (1792–1863; ODNB), maj. gen., 1854; lieut. gen., 1856; later 1st Baron Clyde. His name was originally MacIver, but he took Campbell after his mother, Agnes Campbell of Islay. TC says he is Anthony Sterling's cousin (see TC to JAC, 6 March 1854), but the relationship is unconfirmed; if there was one, it was presumably through Sterling's maternal grandmother, Elizabeth Coningham, b. Campbell (see TC to MAC, 27 July 1836). He had commanded the Highland Brigade at the battle of Alma in the Crimea, 1854.

Carlyle, Alexander (Alick) (1797–1876), TC's brother, who emigrated with his family to Canada, 1843; settled at the Bield, 4½ mi. W of Brantford, Ontario; m., 1830, Janet, b. Clow (1808–91). They had six sons, Robert (1851–1932) the youngest, and five das.; the oldest da. was Jane Welsh (1831–84), m. Robert Sims, 1852. Their 5th da., Euphemia, b. 27 Dec. 1853, d. 21 March 1854.

Carlyle, Alexander (1843–1931; see TC to AC, 4 May 1843), Alexander and Janet's son; m. his cousin Mary Aitken, 1879; lived with TC and ed. the Carlyles' letters and TC's other writings.

Carlyle, James (Jamie) (1807–90), TC's brother, farmer at Scotsbrig; m., 1834, Isabella, b. Calvert (d. 1859), who had long been unwell. Their children included James (1835–71), working in Glasgow as a clerk; John (b. 1836); Thomas (1838–41); and Janet (Jessie or Jenny) (1843–74).

Carlyle, John (1792?-1872), TC's half-brother; emigrated to U.S., 1837, then moved to Canada (see TC to AC, 15 Aug. 1840); he had let his previous farm as it was “new, consequently hard to till,” and bought a small farm at Mount Pleasant, near Brantford, Ontario, by May 1855; m. Margaret (Peggy), b. Benn (1798–1867). They had five children: Janet (1818–89), Mary (1821–50), John (1825–97), James (1830–1900), and William (1833–1911). The two youngest were schoolteachers; William was expected to teach in Brantford High School, autumn 1855.

Carlyle, John Aitken (Jack, “The Doctor”) (1801–79; ODNB), TC's brother, physician and trans.; m., 2 Nov. 1852, Phoebe Elizabeth Hough Watt, b. Fowler, a widow from nr. Moffat with four sons (see Watt). She d. in childbirth, 19 Aug. 1854.

Carlyle, Margaret Aitken (1771–1853), TC's mother; had been living with James and Isabella Carlyle at Scotsbrig. She d. 25 Dec. 1853.

Carlyle, Thomas (1833–1921), Alexander and Janet's oldest son; moved to Hamilton, Ontario, April 1855, and returned to the Bield, Aug. 1855.

Chapman, Edward (1804–80), senior partner in Chapman & Hall, TC's publisher since 1843; m. Mary, b. Whiting.

Chapman, John (1821–94; ODNB; see TC to JCH, 21 March 1844), freethinking publisher and author, an agent for American firms; proprietor of the Westminster Review.

Chorley, John Rutter (1806–67; ODNB; see TC to JWC, 25 July 1843, and TC to JWC, 8 Aug. 1845), reviewer for the Athenaeum; highly regarded by TC (see Carlyle, Reminiscences 154). He helped in supervising the building of the soundproof room, 1853.

Chrystal, Jeannie, b. Welsh; m., 28 April 1853, Andrew Chrystal of Glasgow (see TC to JWC, 10 Aug. 1849, and JWC to JW, 11 May 1851). Her regular correspondence with JWC ended after her marriage.

Clough, Arthur Hugh (1819–61; ODNB; see TC to AHC, 17 Dec. 1845, and TC to JWC, 3 April 1849), poet; m., 13 June 1854, Blanche, b. Smith (1829–1900), Florence Nightingale's cousin; principal of Univ. Hall, London, 1849–51; prof. of English lang. and lit., Univ. Coll., London, 1850–51; resigned. He left for the U.S., 30 Oct. 1852, and returned, June 1853, to take up a post secured for him by Lady Ashburton, TC, and others, as examiner in the Education Office.

Craik, George Lillie (1798–1866; ODNB; see 26:biographical note), author, prof. of English lit. and history, Queen's Coll., Belfast, since 1849; friend of the Carlyles since 1835; m., 1826, to Janet, b. Dempster (see JWC to TC, 30 Aug. 1838); she died mid-1856. ODNB says they had one son and three das.; JWC mentions only two das., Georgina and Mary.

Darwin, Erasmus Alvey (1804–81; see TC to JAC, 15 June 1835, and TC to JAC, 17 Feb. 1837), the Carlyles' close friend since 1835; Charles Darwin's brother. He had moved to 57 Queen Anne St., Cavendish Sq., 1853.

Davidson, David (1811–1900), capt., army engineer and inventor, b. Haddington, where he was a childhood friend of JWC; later maj., then lt. col.; knighted 1894. He invented telescopic sights for rifles, shown at the Great Exhibition, 1851, and the collimating telescope, 1855. M., 1849, Margaret, b. Buchanan (1822?–99). They had two sons: Henry Chisholm (b. 1851), David Albert (b. 1853); and three das.: Jane (b. 1852), May (b. 1855), and an unnamed da. (b. 8 Aug. 1856).

Delane, John Thadeus (1817–79; ODNB), ed. of the Times, 1841–77; attacked the govt. for the conduct of the Crimean War.

Dickens, Charles (1812–70; ODNB), novelist; friend of the Carlyles since the early 1840s; m., 1836, Catherine Thomson, b. Hogarth (d. 1879). Petitioned with TC and Forster for a pension for the Lowe sisters, 1855–56.

Dobbie, Rev. Edward (1773–1857; see TC to JWC, 9 March 1842), retired minister; Mary Russell's father.

Donaldson sisters of Sunny Bank, Haddington: Jean (1770–1860), JWC's godmother; Jess (1774–1860); and Catherine (Kate) (1779–1852); friends of JWC's mother; paternal aunts of John William.

Donaldson, Betty, b. Cundale, widow of Stuart Donaldson (1776–1849); J. W. Donaldson's mother. Eliza was her da., apparently living in London.

Donaldson, John William (1811–61; ODNB; see TC to JWC, 31 Aug. 1842), philologist; headmaster of King Edward's School, Bury St. Edmunds, 1841–55. The school declined under Donaldson, and he resigned; he went to live in Cambridge, where he became a tutor.

Dwight, Elisabeth (1830–1901), later Cabot, Ellen Twisleton's sister. She had returned with Ellen from Boston in Oct. 1855.

Eliot, George (pseud.) (1819–80; ODNB), b. Mary Ann (later Marian) Evans; began her friendship with G. H. Lewes, 1852, which developed into the relationship that lasted until his death. Pbd. influential “Carlyle's Life of Sterling,” Westminster Review 57 (1852): 247–51.

Ellice, Edward (“Bear”) (1783–1863; ODNB); deputy gov. of the Hudson's Bay Co., see TC to JAC, 28 Jan. 1847. He m., 1809, Lady Hannah Althea (d. 1832), widow of Capt. Bettesworth and sister of Charles Grey, 2d earl (1764–1845; ODNB) by whom he had one son, also Edward (1810–80; ODNB). In 1843 he m. Anne Amelia (1803–1844), Lady Leicester, widow of Thomas William Coke (1754–1842), 1st Earl of Leicester. As M.P. for Coventry, he had supported the 1832 Reform Act but opposed further reforms. From 1834, he acted as confidential adviser to liberal govts. He refused a peerage. He owned estates in Scotland, Canada, and the U.S. Described by his close friend and colleague, Lord Ashburton: “He is a boy still, & will remain a boy to his end” (n.d.; MS: NLS Acc. 11388).

Emerson, Ralph Waldo (1803–82; see TC to JAC, 27 Aug. 1833), philosopher, essayist, poet, and transcendentalist. He first met TC, Aug. 1833; in spite of their differences, they had close ties; he introduced many Americans to TC.

Erskine, Thomas (1788–1870; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 1 Feb. 1838), of Linlathen, Dundee; theologian and long retired advocate. TC first became involved in the appeal for the Lowe sisters through him.

Farie, Robert (1813–82; see TC to JAC, 20 Nov. 1846), nonpracticing barrister of independent means; trans. of German works; known to the Carlyles since 1846.

Farrer, Annie Louisa (b. ca. 1826; see TC to JAC, 11 Sept. 1848), lively member of the Ashburton circle; for Mary, her older sister, see Tierney. Their mother was Mary, b. Anstruther (d. 1860; see 27:biographical note). There were five brothers; see JWC to TC, 23 Sept. 1850.

Fergus, John (1797–1865; see JWC to TC, 17 July 1837, and TC to JF, 7 Nov. 1845), of Kirkcaldy; flax manufacturer on a large scale; M.P. for Fife, 1847–59. He and his sisters, Elizabeth Pepoli, Jessie (Janet) Fergus (b. 1794), Charlotte Nixon (1795–1852), and Jane (b. 1804, m. Robert W. Royd [or Royds], 1841), were all old friends of the Carlyles. There was a fifth sister, Isabella (b. 1798), m. Hugh Lumsden, 1824.

Ferme, Helena Shortes, b. Howden (1810–91), Dr. Thomas Howden's da.; m., 1845, John Ferme (b. 1797?). Their children were Helena MacNaughton (b. 1846?), William Thomas (b. 1847?), Walter Howden (b. 1849), Jane Frances (b. 1850?) and Georgina (b. 1851?). There were two older children, presumably from John Ferme's previous marriage, listed in the 1851 census when the family was living at 2 High St., Haddington, James (b. 1834?) and Sarah (b. 1836?).

FitzGerald, Edward (1809–83; ODNB; see TC to EF, 18 Sept. 1842), poet and trans.; TC's friend since 1842. He left Boulge Cottage, Woodbridge, Suffolk, in 1852 because of his father's bankruptcy, living mainly at Farlingay Hall, Woodbridge, Suffolk, the home of Job Smith and his wife. John (1803–79), his older brother, lived at Boulge Hall, which he inherited when his mother, Mary Frances, b. FitzGerald, d. Jan. 1855. Their father was John Purcell (1775–1852), who took his wife's family name after her father's death.

Forster, John (“Fuz”) (1812–76; ODNB; see TC to GE, 15 Feb. 1832, and TC to JF, 17 Jan. 1839), historian, journalist, biographer, and ed. of the Examiner, 1848–55; sec. to the Lunacy Commission, 1855–61; friend of the Carlyles since the late 1830s, and TC's literary adviser. He m., 24 Sept., Eliza Ann, b. Crosbie (1819?–94), widow of the publisher Henry Colburn (d. 1855; ODNB). After a two-month holiday in the Lake District, Forster gave up his home in Lincoln's Inn Fields, and they went to live at 46 Montagu Sq.

Foxton, Frederick Joseph (1807?–70; see TC to JCH, 6 June 1853), lapsed Church of Wales clergyman; B.A., 1829, Pembroke Coll., Oxford; author of Popular Christianity (1849) and The Priesthood and the People; (1862). TC sometimes found him tedious but a thorough gentleman.

Fraser, Alexander Campbell (1819–1914; ODNB), m., 1850, Jemima Gordon, b. Dyce; prof. of logic and metaphysics in the Theological Coll. of the Free Church in Edinburgh, 1846–56, and of Edinburgh Univ., 1856–91; ed. North British Review, 1850–57.

Friedrich Wilhelm IV (1795–1861), king of Prussia, 1840–61.

Garthwaite, Tom, Ecclefechan tailor.

Gilchrist, Alexander (1828–61; ODNB), biographer, m., 1851, Anne, b. Burrows (1828–82). They moved to 6 Cheyne Row in the autumn.

Goderich, George Frederick Samuel Robinson (1827–1909; ODNB; see TC to CK, 21 March 1851), viscount; Christian socialist, Liberal M.P. for Huddersfield, 1853–57; m., 1851, Henrietta Anne Theodosia (1833–1907), b. Vyner. His father was Frederick John Robinson (1782–1859; ODNB), 1st earl of Ripon, prime minister, 1827–28.

Graham, William (1770–ca. 1857; see TC to WG, 15 Sept. 1820, TC to JAC, 20 Nov. 1846, and other vols.), TC's old friend, living retired and in poor health on the slopes of Burnswark, where he had formerly farmed, 3 mi. N of Ecclefechan. Elizabeth, his sister, was also failing (see TC to JWC, 28 Dec. 1853, and TC to AC, 8 April 1854).

Grey, Henry George (1802–94; ODNB; see TC to JWC, 8 July 1844), 3d earl Grey; sec. for the colonies, 1846–52; leader of Whigs in House of Lords from 1842. M., 1832, Maria, b. Copley (1803–79). Known to TC since 1844. Grey had opposed Palmerston and the Crimean War, and praised Russian peace efforts in 1855; he was never offered another cabinet position after being replaced in the Colonial Office in 1852.

Grove, William Robert (1811–96; ODNB), barrister, queen's counsel, 1853; he defended the poisoner, William Palmer, May 1856. He was a prominent scientist and vice pres. of the Royal Inst.

Guthrie, Dr. Thomas (1803–73; ODNB), preacher and philanthropist; founder of ragged schools; minister of Free St. John's, Edinburgh; moderator of the Free Church of Scotland, 1862.

Hanning, Janet (1813–97), TC's sister; m., 1836, Robert (d. 1878), who had emigrated to Canada in mysterious disgrace, 1841; she rejoined him in Hamilton, Ontario, Aug. 1851, with their two das., Margaret (b. 1838) and Mary (b. 1840). They had two other das., Catherine (b. 1852 or 1853) and Jane, both b. in Canada.

Hawkes, Emilie (d. 1893), da. of William Henry Ashurst (bap. 1791?, d. 1855; ODNB); portrait painter, see JWC's Journal, 13 Nov. 1855; a strong supporter of Mazzini (see TC to JARO, 23 March 1844); m. Sidney Hawkes, whom she later divorced; m., 1860, Carlo Venturi (d. 1866); author of Joseph Mazzini: A Memoir (1875).

Howden, Dr. Thomas (1787–1868), JWC's father's partner, see TC to ADV, 29 Sept. 1849. Living at Maitlandfield, Haddington.

Irving, Edward (1792–1834; ODNB; see TC to RM, 12 Feb. 1817, later vols., and Carlyle, Reminiscences), the Carlyles' great friend; religious leader and preacher.

Jewsbury, Geraldine Endsor (1812–80; ODNB; see TC to GEJ, 12 April 1840), novelist, reviewer, and misc. writer; a friend of the Carlyles, particularly of JWC, since the early 1840s. She had four brothers: Thomas Smith (b. 1802), Henry Richard Smith (1803–73), Arthur (b. 1815), and Francis (Frank) Harding (1819–78), m., 1853 Emily, b. Vanburgh. Jewsbury lived with Frank in Manchester till 1854. She moved to 3 Oakley St., near Cheyne Row, Chelsea, summer 1854.

Ker, Alan (1819–85), eldest son of Robert of Greenock; in the judicial service of the W. Indies; attorney gen. of Antigua, 1851–54; chief justice of Nevis, 1854–56, and Dominica, 1856–61; m., 1851, Mary, b. Tennyson (1810–84), Alfred's sister.

Landor, Walter Savage (1775–1864; ODNB), poet and man of letters, whom TC had known since 1836; separated from his wife and living in Bath, where Dickens and Forster regularly visited him. His “Imaginary Conversations” was pbd., Fraser's Magazine 53:443–60, in April.

Lansdowne, Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice (1780–1863; ODNB; see TC to JF, 17 Jan. 1839), 3d marquess; Whig politician; pres. of the Privy Council under Grey, Melbourne, and Russell; respected as patron of the arts and lit.; known to TC since they joined in founding the London Lib, 1840–41.

Laurence, Samuel (1812–84; ODNB; see TC to JCA, 6 July 1838), portrait painter and friend of the Carlyles; he sketched or painted many of TC's circle; a close friend of James Spedding. He left for the U.S. in Dec. 1853, arriving Jan. 1854. During his stay, he lived with Charles Butler and his family in New York.

Leighton, Robert (1822–88), of Leighton, Son & Hodge, bookbinders, 13 Shoe Lane and 2, 3, 25 & 26, Harp Alley. Inventor of cloth binding, 1822.

Lewes, George Henry (“Ape”) (1817–78; ODNB; see TC to UC, 16 Oct. 1839), author, journalist, and co-ed., with Thornton Hunt, of the Leader; known to the Carlyles from 1835; m., 1841, Agnes, b. Jervis (1822–1902; see TC to JAC, 26 Aug. 1848), with a family of three surviving children. Agnes's first of four children with Thornton Hunt was b. 1850, when the Leweses were living in Hunt's house (see JWC to TC, 4 Aug. 1850). In 1852, Lewes's friendship developed with Marian Evans (George Eliot). They left for Germany together, July 1854; the Carlyles remained on friendly terms with Lewes.

Louis Napoleon, see Napoleon III.

Lowe, Ann Elizabeth (1777?–1860), and Frances Meliora Lucia (ca. 1783–1866), das. of Mauritius Lowe (1746–93), painter and friend of Samuel Johnson. Ann was Johnson's goddaughter and a beneficiary of his will. They were living in poverty at 5 Minerva Pl., Old Kent Rd., Deptford. TC and others petitioned unsuccessfully for a govt. pension for them, followed by a public subscription, May 1855 to April 1856.

Lowe, Robert (1811–92; ODNB), politician; leader writer for the Times; M.P. for Kidderminster, 1852–59; joint sec. of the board of control, 1852–55, and paymaster gen., 1855–58; m., 1836, to Georgiana, b. Orred (d. 1884).

Lushington, Vernon (1832–1912); writer and barrister. He met TC in Dec., having written a series of articles on him for the Oxford and Cambridge Magazine. He helped TC with his Collected Works, 16 vols. (1857–58).

Macaulay, Thomas Babington (1800–59; ODNB), historian and Whig M.P. for Edinburgh, 1839–47. After his defeat in the general election of 1847, he turned to literature and pbd. 2 vols. of his History of England (1848). In the general election, 1852, he triumphed again at Edinburgh, but suffered a decline in health; he continued to write.

Mackenzie, Colin (1806–81; ODNB), brig. gen. (later lt. gen.) in the Indian Army, see JWC to JW, 13 April 1844. He m., 1843, Helen, b. Douglas, his 2d wife. They first met the Carlyles in 1844, see JWC to JW, 13 April 1844, and JWC to LA, 12 June 1848. They were members of the Free Church of Scotland.

Martineau, Harriet (1802–76; ODNB; see TC to LEM, 21 Feb. 1841), journalist and writer, esp. on public affairs; once a Unitarian, now a freethinker; known to the Carlyles since 1836, she and TC usually held each other in mutual esteem; occasionally, she and JWC were in disagreement. She lived at Ambleside.

Maurice, J. Frederick D. (1805–72; ODNB; see JWC to JCA, 13 Aug. 1835), Broad Church leader and Christian Socialist; prof. of English lit. and history, 1840, and prof. of theology, 1846, King's Coll., London; he was dismissed, Oct. 1853, after his Theological Essays were pbd. to strong criticism from conservative churchmen (see TC to LA, 3 Nov. 1853). His 2d wife, m. 1849, was Georgiana, b. Hare (see TC to JWC, 5 April 1849).

Mazzini, Giuseppe (1805–72; see TC to JSM, 6 Dec. 1839 and 28:introduction), Italian revolutionary; friend of the Carlyles since the late 1830s. He was usually based in London, but continued to keep alive active resistance to Austrian domination.

Milnes, Richard Monckton (1809–85; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 14 July 1836), Conservative M.P., society figure, author; the Carlyles' friend since the late 1830s; m., 1851, Annabel, b. Hungerford (Crewe); their das. were Amicia, b. 1852, and Florence, b. 1855. Disappointed expectations and disagreements made Milnes lose practical interest in politics after 1851 and devote himself to literature.

Montagu, Anna Dorothea, b. Benson (1773?–1856), 3d wife of Basil Montagu (1770–1851; ODNB); see JBW to TC, 14 Oct. 1823 and later vols., and Carlyle, Reminiscences 83, 285–90; JWC had met her again in 1854; see 2JWC to JAC, 9 May 1854.

Napoleon III (Louis Napoleon) (1808–73), pres. of France, 1849 to Dec. 1851, when he seized power; declared emperor and assumed the title Napoleon III, 1852. M., 1853, Eugénie, b. de Montijo (1826–1920). Their son, Napoleon Eugène Louis Jean Joseph, prince imperial, was b. 16 March.

Neuberg, Joseph (1806–67; see TC to JN, 21 Dec. 1839, and 25:biographical note), German-born retired Nottingham businessman; naturalized Briton, 1845. He met TC in 1848; helped him as an unpaid sec., translated his work, and twice accompanied him on visits to Germany. In Germany for most of 1853; from Oct. 1853, he lived in Willesden. He helped TC with work on Frederick. He visited Germany, early Sept. 1854, but was back and in poor health by mid-Oct. 1854. His sister was Rosette or Rosetta (d. 1898; see JWC to JN, 3 July 1849); she m., probably 1853, Adolph Frankau (1820–56), and had two children. From Oct. 1856, Neuberg lived with Mrs. Frankau at 25 Oakley Villas, Adelaide Rd.

Palmerston, Henry John Temple (1784–1865; ODNB), 3d Viscount Palmerston; m., 1839, Emily, b. Lamb, formerly Lady Cowper (b. 1787). Whig foreign minister, 1846–52, then home sec. until he became prime minister, Feb. 1855. His strong militaristic stand against Russia had popular and press approval, but he was wildly over-optimistic about the progress of the war and was unhappy about the peace negotiations; a populist, but strongly opposed to the widening of the vote.

Parker, John William (1792–1870; ODNB; see TC to ES, 14 May 1847), publisher and printer; pbd. Fraser's Magazine, 1847–63. His son, also John William Parker (1820–60), was ed. of Fraser's from 1847.

Patmore, Coventry Kersey Dighton (1823–96; ODNB), poet; asst. in British Museum Lib., 1846; friend of Tennyson and Ruskin; he had sent TC some of his essays, 1850 (see TC to CP, 22 July 1850).

Pepoli, Elizabeth, b. Fergus (1792–1867; see JWC to TC, 12 Oct. 1835, and JWC to TC, 9 April 1841), countess, old Kirkcaldy friend of the Carlyles; m., 1839, Count Carlo Pepoli (1796–1881; see JWC to JCA, 13 Aug. 1835), poet, prof. of philosophy, Bologna; a political exile after the revolution against papal govt., 1831; prof. of Italian, Univ. Coll., London, 1838–46. He was a deputy in the Roman republic; he returned to Bologna, 1859.

Piper, John (see JWC to TC, 11 Sept. 1847), the Carlyles' postman, of 15 Radnor St., King's Rd., Chelsea; his wife had occasionally helped at Cheyne Row; she d. Dec. 1855, see TC to JAC, 15 Dec. 1855.

Plattnauer, Richard, brother of Hedwig von Reichenbach; apparently introduced to the Carlyles, who befriended him (see JWC to JW, 29 Aug. 1844), by Godefroy Cavaignac; political refugee from Prussia (see JWC to HW, 5 July 1847). He was subject to periods of insanity; had been a private tutor; lived on the Continent and in England.

Pringle, Janet, b. Hunter, m. to Dr. Pringle of Lann Hall, nr. Thornhill; JWC's cousin (see JWC to MR, 30 Dec. 1853). They had three sons.

Reichenbach, Oskar von (b. 1815; see JWC to JW, 12 Sept. 1844), count, Silesian landowner, liberal deputy to Frankfurt parliament, 1848–49; m. to Hedwig, b. Plattnauer, a close friend of JWC; their son was also Oskar. Forced into exile, he came to London with his family, 1850; they lived at Paulton's Sq., Chelsea, until they emigrated to the U.S., 20 April 1853. They were living in Norristown, Pennsylvania.

Rennie, George (1802–60; ODNB), sculptor and politician, gov. of the Falkland Islands, 1847–55; JWC's old Haddington admirer, see JBW to EA, 15 Jan. 1822, and Carlyle, Reminiscences 67; Mrs. Rennie, his wife, b. Cockerell (see JWC to EA, 1 Aug. 1834).

Ross, Alexander J. (1819–87), liberal theologian and writer; educ. Edinburgh Univ.; minister, Free Church of Scotland, Langholm, Dumfriesshire, 1844–47; moved to Brighton, 1848, to become minister of Hanover Church; left the Free Church, 1852; became an unattached minister, the Pavilion Chapel, Brighton; lectured frequently at Brighton Mechanic's Inst.; ordained into the Church of England, 1865. He met Kate Sterling at F. D. Maurice's house, 5 Russell Sq., London. The Carlyles shared the Sterling family's dislike of Ross. He admired TC: “the works of Carlyle perhaps exerted a stronger influence over him than any other [at univ.]. … Carlyle first opened out before his wondering eyes new regions not bounded by the Westminster Confessions” (Adelaide Ross, Memoir of Alexander J. Ross [1888] 7). On TC's death, Ross wrote: “his profoundly religious utterances have struck deeply into the hearts of his contemporaries, and I cannot but think that the modern larger light and liberty to Scotland are mainly owing to him” (Ross 251).

Ross, Catherine Susan (Kate); see Sterling.

Rouse, James (1827?–95), the Ashburtons' doctor; later of 2 Wilton St., Grosvenor Pl.; FRCS, 1863. Among his posts: surg. and lect. on surgery, St. George's Hospital (senior surgeon at time of his death); consultant surg., St. Elizabeth and St. John's Hospital and St. Anne's Royal Asylum; assistant to School for Indigent Blind. Medical writer, incl. “On Strumus Disease of the Rectum” and “Ulceration of the Lower Extremity of Rectum,” both in the British Medical Journal (1859, 1860). Lord Ashburton described him to Lady Ashburton: “R improves as we go on. He is very young but for the little of the world that he has seen, he knows much about individuals one cares to hear about. He is high Church but moderate, more fond of pictures than of science, of Tennyson and Byron than Hoffman & Playfair. … He seems to have followed up practically every branch of Medical Science; for besides the hospital of St. Georges & the surgical ward to which he was more particularly attached, he has worked in the lying in department & followed the courses of medicine as if he had been destined to that branch alone[.] His devoting himself to the fistula hospital, a practice wh some of the faculty eshew as low practice, shews that he was determined to master his profession” (n.d., NLS Acc. 11388).

Ruskin, John (1819–1900; ODNB), author, artist, and social reformer; m., April 1848, Euphemia Chalmers, b. Gray (1827–97), marriage annulled, 1855. He pbd. 2 vols. of Modern Painters (1843, 1846), The Seven Lamps of Architecture (1849), and The Stones of Venice (1851–53). He was J. M. W. Turner's foremost admirer and his executor. A friend of TC, he was strongly influenced by him.

Russell, Mary, b. Dobbie (d. 1875; see TC to AC, 7 April 1832), m. to Dr. James Russell, of Holmhill, Thornhill; close friends of JWC and her mother.

Saffi, Aurelio (1819–90), count, poet, and politician; had been one of the triumvirate with Mazzini governing the short-lived Roman republic; in exile in Switzerland, 1850, and London, from 1851. He was with Mazzini in the Milan uprising of Feb. 1853. From Nov. 1853, he lived in Oxford, where he lectured in Italian language and literature at the Taylor Inst.

Sand, George, pseud. of Amandine Aurore Lucie Dudevant, b. Dupin (1803–76; see 27:biographical note), French novelist.

Sandwich, Mary Anne Julia Louisa Harriet, b. Lowry-Corry (1781–1862; see TC to MAC, 3 Sept. 1848), dowager countess, m., 1804, George John Montagu (1773–1818), 6th Earl of Sandwich; Lady Ashburton's mother.

Scott, Alexander John (1805–66; ODNB); known to TC through Edward Irving since 1831, see TC to JWC, 22 Aug. 1831. Principal of Owens Coll., Manchester, 1851–57; helped to found the Manchester Working Men's Coll.

Soyer, Alexis Benoît (1810–58; ODNB); French cook at the Reform Club, 1837; he advised on food for the British army and for the hospitals in the Crimea. See also TC to JCHI, 5 July 1851.

Spedding, James (1808–81; ODNB; see JWC to JCA, 13 Aug. 1835, and TC to TSS, 20 Sept. 1845), authority on Francis Bacon; former sec. in the Colonial Office, from which he had retired, 1841.

Stanhope, Philip Henry (1805–75; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 11 March 1839), 5th earl; styled Viscount Mahon, 1816–55; historian and politician; pres. Society of Arts, 1846–75. See also 25:biographical note.

Stanley, Edward John (1802–69; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 27 Feb. 1840), Whig politician, created Baron Eddisbury of Winnington, 1848; succeeded as 2d Baron Stanley of Alderley, 1850; m. to Henrietta Maria, b. Dillon (1807–95; ODNB); both friends of the Carlyles, but she closer than her husband.

Sterling, Anthony Coningham (1805–71; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 2 Dec. 1836, and later vols.), capt. in 73rd Foot on half-pay until 1854; friend of the Carlyles since 1837, and guardian until Oct. 1853 of his brother John's das. (see JWC to KS, 19 Nov. 1853), though not the oldest child, Edward. He had been a devoted admirer of JWC, but differences between them had arisen; m., 1829, Charlotte, b. Baird (d. 1863; see JWC to HW, 12 Nov. 1844, and JWC to HW, 9 Jan. 1845), who suffered attacks of insanity and was jealous of JWC. Brigade maj. and asst. adjutant gen., the Highland Division in the Crimea, 1854–55. He was critical of the command in the Crimea, but disapproved of open criticism in the press and of Roebuck's committee. His Letters from the Army in the Crimea; Written during the Years 1854,1855 & 1856 by a Staff Officer who was there was pbd. for private circulation (1857); pbd. publicly as The Highland Brigade in the Crimea (1895).

Sterling, Catherine Susan (Kate) (1834–60), da. of John Sterling (1806–44; see TC to JSM, 27 May 1835), poet, journalist, and the Carlyles' close friend, whose life TC had pbd., 1851. She had been JWC's protégée. She married Alexander J. Ross, May 1856. JWC and TC strongly disapproved of the match; see JWC to TC, 27 July 1852, and JWC's Journal, 25 March 1856. JWC was also close to her sisters, Julia Maria (1836–1910) and Anna Charlotte (Lotta) (1833–67). Their brother was Edward Coningham Sterling (b. 1831; see JWC to HW, 9 Jan. 1845), apparently living in London (see JWC to KS, 12 March 1854 and his calls on JWC, noted in her Journal, JWC's Journal, 5 Dec. 1855, 17 May, and 22 June 1856).

Stirling, Christian (1789–1866; see TC to JAC, 12 Oct. 1844), Thomas Erskine's sister, widowed 1830, she had lived with him since 1847; photographed by Tait, May 1855, when she and Erskine stayed several months in London (see TC to JWC, 21 Aug. 1856).

Tait, Robert Scott (1816–97), portrait painter (exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1848–75) and pioneer photographer; a friend of the Carlyles since 1853. His first portrait of TC (now at Carlyle's House) was painted 1854–55, shown at the R.A., 1856; see 84. He took photographs of the Carlyles, of their house, and for TC's use in Frederick. His well-known A Chelsea Interior (also at Carlyle's House), painted 1857–58, exhibited at the R.A., 1858, made use of photographs.

Taylor, Henry (1800–1886; ODNB; see TC to MAC, 10 Nov. 1831), author and civil servant; m., 1839, Theodosia Alice, b. Spring Rice (1818–91; see JWC to TC, 9 Sept. 1838), Lord Monteagle's da.; they had a son, Aubrey (1845–70), and two das., Eleanor and Ida.

Tennyson, Alfred (1809–92; ODNB), poet; friend of the Carlyles since early 1840s; TC and Tennyson had a strong mutual regard; poet laureate, 1850. He m., 1850, Emily Sarah, b. Sellwood (1813–96).

Terrot, Charles Hughes (1790–1872; ODNB; see JWC to JW, 15 June 1843), bishop of Edinburgh, 1841–72, and JWC's old, unwanted admirer; see also JWC's Journal, 21 June.

Thackeray, William Makepeace (1811–63; ODNB; see JWC to TC, 3 Aug. 1837, TC to JAC, 12 Aug. 1837, and later vols.), novelist; friend of the Carlyles since the 1830s and intimate of the Ashburton circle. M., 1836, Isabella, b. Shawe (d. 1894), who was mentally ill from 1840. He had been deeply devoted to Jane Brookfield, but broke from her in 1852. After Vanity Fair (1847–48) and Pendennis (1849–50), he wrote Henry Esmond, pbd. Oct. 1852, which was dedicated to Lord Ashburton, who, with his wife, had acted as an intermediary with the Brookfields. He lectured in the U.S., 1852; suffered ill health the latter part of 1854, when he also traveled in Italy and Europe. His two das. were Anne Isabella (1837–1919), and Harriet Marian (1840–75). He reluctantly returned to the U.S. for a 2d lecture tour in Oct. 1855. Since returning to London in May, he had been unwell and, in Aug., he left for a tour of Europe.

Tierney, Mary, b. Farrer, m. Jan. 1855, Matthew Edward Tierney (1816–60), lt. col., Coldstream Guards; 3d bart. from May 1856.

Todhunter family, neighbors of Neuberg in Willesden.

Twisleton, Ellen, b. Dwight (1828–62), of Boston, Mass.; JWC's close friend and confidante, with whom JWC colluded in writing an account of her early life at Craigenputtoch (see GEJ to JAF, 22 Nov. 1876). M., 1852, Hon. Edward Turner Boyd Twisleton (1809–74; ODNB), who was a close and respected friend of the Carlyles (see 26:50 -->TC to CGD, 29 March 1851).

Tyndall, John (1820–93; ODNB), prof. of natural philosophy at the Royal Inst. from 1853; TC's admirer who later became a close friend.

Varnhagen von Ense, Karl August (1785–1858; see TC to KAVE, 31 Dec. 1837), Prussian soldier, diplomat, and biographer with whom TC had corresponded since1837; TC wrote “Varnhagen von Ense's Memoirs,” 1838, Works 29:88–117. His letters from Amalie Bölte met his persistent curiosity about the Carlyles. He was a keen collector of autograph manuscripts, to which TC helped to contribute. M., 1814, Rahel Antonie Friederike Levin (1771–1833, see TC to KAVE, 31 Dec. 1837). He and TC met in Berlin, 1 Oct. 1852 (see 27:319 -->TC to JAC, 3 Oct. 1852).

Venables, George (1810–88; ODNB), lawyer and journalist; fellow and tutor of Jesus Coll. Cambridge, and M.A., 1835; barrister, Inner Temple, 1836; contributor to the Saturday Review from its founding, 1855, and the Times, 1857–88; Tennyson's and Thackeray's friend.

Victoria (1819–1901; ODNB), queen since 1837; m. Albert, 1840.

Villiers, Charles Pelham (1802–98; ODNB), official of the Court of Chancery, 1833–52; M.P. for Wolverhampton, 1835–98.

Watt brothers: Arthur (b. 1844?), from 1 July at school in Ayr; William (b. 1843?), from 1 Aug. at school in Vevey, Switzerland; Henry (b. 1839?), at sea; and Tom (b. 1838?), at school in Germany: John A. Carlyle's stepsons.

Wedgwood, Frances (Fanny), b. Mackintosh (1800–1889; see TC to HWE, 11 Dec. 1836), the Carlyles' friend, though now less close; m. to Hensleigh Wedgwood (1803–91; ODNB; see TC to HWE, 11 Dec. 1836), mathematician and philologist, Erasmus A. Darwin's cousin.

Welsh, Alexander (Alick), oldest child of JWC's maternal uncle John, m. Sophy, b. Martin. They had a son John (Jackie) (b. 1853?) and a new baby; see JWC to TC, 29 Aug.

Welsh, Ann (d. 1877), Elizabeth Welsh (d. 1877), and Grace Welsh (d. 1867): all JWC's paternal aunts in Edinburgh (see TC to JWC, 10 March 1842 and JWC to JW, 26 June 1843). They had recently moved to Craigen Villa, Morningside, Edinburgh (see JWC to TC, [7 Aug.]).

Welsh, Grace, b. Welsh (1782–1842), JWC's mother, m. 1800.

Welsh, Helen (ca. 1813–53), da. of JWC's maternal uncle John Welsh; d. Dec. 1853.

Welsh, Jeannie (1798?–1828), JWC's maternal aunt; for her death, see TC to JAC, 16 April 1828 and Carlyle, Reminiscences 127–29.

Welsh, Jeannie (Babbie), Helen's sister; see Chrystal.

Welsh, Dr. John (1776–1819; see JBW to EWE, 5 Oct. 1819), JWC's father, doctor in Haddington, m. 1800.

Welsh, John (d. 1853; see TC to JCA, 12 Oct. 1853), JWC's maternal uncle, retired brass and copper founder, who had lived at 20 Maryland St., Liverpool; m. to Mary (d. 1838); for her death, see TC to AC, 15 Oct. 1838; parents of Helen, Jeannie Chrystal, Margaret (b. 1821), Alexander, Walter, Mary, and John (d. 1860).

Welsh, John (1824–59; v see JWC to MW, 20 Aug. 1842), meteorologist; son of JWC's paternal uncle George and Margaret, b. Kissock; apptd. asst. at Kew Observatory, 1850; known for balloon ascents, 1852 (see JWC to MW, 17 Aug. 1852).

Welsh, John (d. 1860), youngest son of JWC's maternal uncle John Welsh.

Welsh, Margaret, b. Kissock (1803–88; see JWC to MW, 22 Feb. 1841, and JWC to MW, 28 Feb. 1846), widow of JWC's paternal uncle George (1793–1835), now living in London.

Welsh, Margaret (Maggie) (b. 1821), da. of JWC's maternal uncle John Welsh.

Welsh, Mary, youngest da. of uncle John of Liverpool.

Welsh, Robert (1784?–1841; see TC to JWC, 29 April 1841, and JWC to MW, 8 July 1842), JWC's paternal uncle, an Edinburgh solicitor, youngest of four brothers.

Welsh, Rev. Walter (ca. 1799–1879; see JWC to JW, 8 Jan. 1843), unmarried son of JWC's maternal uncle John Welsh; minister at Auchtertool, Fife, since 1842. His two sisters, Margaret and Mary, were living with him.

White, Walter (1811–93; ODNB), asst. sec. and lib. of the Royal Society; travel writer.

Wynn, Charlotte Williams (1807–69;ODNB; see TC to JAC, 17 July 1845), friend of Varnhagen von Ense.

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