candlestick

August 1857-June 1858


The Collected Letters, Volume 33


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BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES; 2005; DOI: 10.1215/ed-33-biographical-notes; CL 33: 267

BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES

Notes on the Carlyles' contemporaries referred to more than once in the present volume are given below, cross-referenced to earlier information. Otherwise they are accounted for in headnotes and footnotes as they occur.

Aird, Thomas (1802–76; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 29 March 1833), poet, journalist, miscellaneous writer, and ed. of Dumfries Herald.

Airlie, Henrietta Blanche, b. Stanley (1829–1921), 7th countess; m., 1851, Lord Airlie, David Graham Drummond (1826–81), 7th earl (see 26:biographical note). They lived at Cortachy Castle, Forfarshire (now Angus).

Aitken, Jean (“Craw”) Carlyle (1810–88), TC's sister; m., 1833, James (ca. 1809-87), b. in Troqueer, housepainter of English St., Dumfries; they lived in Assembly St., Dumfries. Their sons were James or Jamie (1836–71), who had been working in Glasgow as a clerk since Nov. 1853, but was currently unemployed; Thomas (1841–69), who was at an inst. for the deaf in Glasgow (see TC to JAC, 4 Nov. 1854); John (b. 1843); and a son whose name is not known (1855–56). Their das. were Anne (ca. 1839–88); Margaret (b. 1845); and Mary (1848–1895), who m. her cousin, Alexander Carlyle, 1879.

Albert (1819–61; ODNB), prince consort.

Anderson, Frederick, wood engraver of 44 Charrington St., Oakley Sq., who produced maps for Frederick.

Anne (or Ann), servant at Cheyne Row from Nov. 1853 to March 1858; see A. Carlyle, NLM 2:176–77. She replaced Fanny. There was another Anne (older, with three das.), who worked for the Carlyles from June 1851 until July 1852; see TC to MAC, 11 June 1851, JWC to MR, 6 Jan. 1852, and JWC to FJ, 15 July 1852.

Ashburton, William Bingham Baring (1799–1864; ODNB; see TC to MAC, 8 March 1839, and later vols.), 2d baron from 1848; politician and partner in Baring Bros., bankers; m., 1823, Harriet, b. Montagu (1805–57; ODNB; see TC to MAC, 8 March 1839, and 26:introduction). The Carlyles and Ashburtons (then Baring) first met 1839. TC admired them both, particularly Lady Ashburton who was the center of a literary and political circle. Her close friendship with TC had been a cause of jealousy for JWC.

Assing, Ludmilla (1821–80), political writer who supported the 1848 revolutions in Europe. Da. of David Assur Assing (1787–1842), physician and poet, and Rosa Maria, b. Varnhagen von Ense (1781–1840). After her parents' death she lived with her uncle K. A. Varnhagen von Ense.

Austin, Mary Carlyle (1808–88), TC's sister, m., 1831, James (1805–78), farmer of Gill, 6 mi. SW of Ecclefechan. Their eight das. included Margaret (1831–74) and Jessie (b. 1834); they had one surviving son, James (b. 1848).

Ballantyne, Thomas (1806–71; ODNB; see TC to TB, 23 Feb. 1839, and 30:introduction), author and journalist; associated with several publications including the Manchester Guardian, the Leader, the Illustrated London News, and his weekly newspaper, the Statesman (Oct. 1857 to April 1859); he anthologized TC and other writers.

Baring, Louisa (d. 1888), the older of Lord Ashburton's unmarried sisters.

Braid, Betty, b. Pringle (1795–1875), in Prestonkirk, E. Lothian; Grace Welsh's Haddington servant, close to JWC (see JWC to SS, 29 Oct. 1846, and JWC to TC, 5 Sept. 1849); m. to Alexander (1792–1874), b. Haddington, stonemason and shopkeeper. They had one son, George Pringle (1829–65), who suffered ill health. Their “rough little provision-shop” was at 15 Adam St. (see TC to JWC, 12 Sept. 1843); they moved in May 1858 to Upper Stenhouse, Liberton, S Edinburgh.

Brookfield, William Henry (1809–74; ODNB; see JWC to [WHB?], [1 April 1846?]), well-connected clergyman and school inspector; m., 1841, Jane Octavia, b. Elton (1821–96). Their children were Magdalene (b. 1850), Arthur (b. 1853), and Charles Hallam Elton (1857–1913). After Jane Brookfield's close friendship with Thackeray, differences arose between him and the Brookfields; all three were friends of the Ashburtons.

Brown, Dr. Samuel (1817–56; ODNB; see TC to JWC, 27 Aug. 1843), chemist, atomic theorist, lecturer, and writer; originally from Haddington; m., 1849, his cousin Helen, b. Littlejohn. He admired TC, who largely returned his liking. See also TC to JAC, 24 Jan. 1851, and E. Arbuckle, “Dr. Samuel Brown of Edinburgh” Carlyle Annual 11 [spring 1990]) 77–86.

Browning, Elizabeth Barrett, b. Moulton Barrett (1806–61; ODNB), poet, admirer of TC; m., 1846, Robert Browning. Her poem Aurora Leigh was pbd. Nov. 1856. Robert Wiedeman Barrett (“Pen”) (1849–1912) was their only child. They had been living in Florence since 1847.

Browning, Robert (1812–89; ODNB), poet; TC's friend since the mid-1830s. He and TC liked and admired each other; see TC to JAC, 26 Sept. 1855, and TC to RB, 4 Dec. 1855; JWC liked Browning less; see JWC to TC, 2 Sept. 1852, JWC's Journal, 4 July 1856.

Butler, Charles (1802–97; see TC to JCA, 18 Nov. 1853), m., 1825, Eliza A., b. Ogden (d. 1878); U.S. lawyer, financier, land speculator, entrepreneur, and philanthropist; welcome in Britain for his part in handling the threat by some states in the United States, in the 1840s, to repudiate their bonds; met TC, Nov. 1853, and looked after his Illinois bonds. He had two das., Emily and Anna (d. 1877), and three sons, two of whom died in infancy; the eldest son, Abraham Ogden Butler (ca. 1833–56), graduated from New York Univ., 1853.

Byng, Hon. Frederick Gerald (“Poodle”) (1784–1871; see TC to JWC, 7 [8] July 1844), 5th son of John Byng (b. ca. 1742), 5th Viscount Torrington; socialite, formerly a clerk in the Foreign Office; member of the Ashburton circle.

Cameron, Eliza (b. ca. 1827), the Carlyles' servant from 29 March to 15 April 1858. Supposedly from Inverness, da. of a half-pay lieut.; apparently known to JWC's cousin Jackie Welsh of Haddington (see JWC to MR, 29 March 1858). JWC approved of her at first in spite of her inexperience but later found her to be a liar and a thief; Eliza left abruptly in the middle of the night, 14 April 1858.

Campbell, Sir Colin (1792–1863; ODNB), maj. gen., 1854; lt. gen., 1856; 1st Baron Clyde, 1858. His name was originally MacIver, but he took Campbell after his mother, Agnes Campbell of Islay. TC says he was Anthony Sterling's cousin (see TC to JAC, 6 March 1854), but the relationship is unconfirmed; if there was one, it was presumably through Sterling's maternal grandmother, Elizabeth Coningham, b. Campbell (see TC to MAC, 27 July 1836). He commanded the Highland Brigade at the battle of Alma in the Crimea, 1854; inspector-gen. of the Infantry, 1856; commander of forces in India, from July 1857.

Canning, Charles John (1812–62; ODNB), viscount; gov. gen. of India since Feb. 1856; m., 1835, Charlotte, b. Stuart (d. 1861) (see TC to JWC, 2 Sept. 1849), da. of Lord Stuart of Rothesay.

Carlyle, Alexander (Alick) (1797–1876), TC's brother, who emigrated with his family to Canada, 1843; settled at Bield, 4 ½ mi. W of Brantford, Ontario; m., 1830, Janet, b. Clow (1808–91). They had six sons, Robert (1851–1932) the youngest, and five das.; the eldest da. was Jane Welsh (1831–84), m. Robert Sims, 1852. Four of their children died in infancy: an unnamed son (1832–33), Margaret (1835–36), James (b. 1840) (all buried in Ecclefechan; see TC to AC, 3 Oct. 1856), and Euphemia (1853–54).

Carlyle, Alexander (1843–1931; see TC to AC, 4 May 1843), Alexander and Janet's son; m. his cousin Mary Aitken, 1879; lived with TC and ed. the Carlyles' letters and TC's other writings.

Carlyle, James (Jamie) (1805–90), TC's brother, farmer at Scotsbrig; m., 1834, Isabella, b. Calvert (ca. 1813–59), who had long been unwell. Their children were James (b. 1835), working in Glasgow as a clerk, John (b. 1836), Thomas (1839–41), and Janet (Jessie or Jenny) (1843–74).

Carlyle, John (ca. 1792–1872), TC's half-brother; emigrated to United States, 1837, then moved to Canada (see TC to AC, 15 Aug. 1840); he had let his previous farm as it was “new, consequently hard to till” (John Carlyle to TC, 3 May 1855) and bought a small farm at Mount Pleasant, nr. Brantford, Ontario by May 1855; m., 1817, Margaret (Peggy), b. Benn (1798–1867). They had five children: Janet (1818–89), Mary (1821–50), John (1825–97), James (1830–1900), and William (1833–1911). The two youngest were schoolteachers.

Carlyle, John Aitken (Jack, “The Doctor”) (1801–79; ODNB), TC's brother, physician and translator; m., 2 Nov. 1852, Phoebe Elizabeth Hough Watt, b. Fowler, a widow from nr. Moffat with four sons (see Watt). She d. in childbirth, 1854; the child was stillborn.

Carlyle, Margaret Aitken (1771–1853), TC's mother; had been living with James and Isabella Carlyle at Scotsbrig until her death, 25 Dec. 1853. TC's father was James Carlyle (1758–1832); they m. 1795.

Carlyle, Thomas (1833–1921), Alexander and Janet's eldest son; moved to Hamilton, Ontario, April 1855, and returned to Bield, Aug. 1855.

Chancellor, George, owned a livery stables at 1 Cheyne Row (see TC to JAC, 5 [4] Feb. 1839) until 1853; his dunghill was blamed for the rank atmosphere (see JWC to TC, 3 July 1849, and JWC to TC, 30 Aug. 1857). From 1854 to 1856, he was listed as coach proprietor in the cottage, Cheyne Row (no street number); after that he was not listed in the London Post Office Directory.

Chapman, Edward (1804–80), senior partner in Chapman & Hall, TC's publisher since 1842 (see TC to JF, [5 Feb. 1842]); m. Mary, b. Whiting.

Chapman, Frederic (1823–95; ODNB), m. Clara, b. Woodin (d. 1866); junior partner in Chapman & Hall and Edward Chapman's cousin.

Chapman, John (1821–94; ODNB; see TC to JCH, 21 March 1844), freethinking publisher and author, an agent for American firms; proprietor of the Westminster Review from 1851; M.D., St. Andrews Univ., 6 May 1857; Licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians, London, 1857.

Chorley, John Rutter (1806–67; ODNB; see TC to JWC, 24 [25] July 1843, and TC to JWC, [early Aug. 1845]), reviewer for the Athenaeum; highly regarded by TC (see Carlyle, Reminiscences 154). He helped in supervising the building of the soundproof room, 1853.

Chrystal, Jeannie (b. 1818), b. Welsh; m., 1853, Andrew Chrystal of Glasgow (see TC to JWC, 10 Aug. 1849, JWC to JW, 11 May 1851). Her regular correspondence with JWC ended after her marriage. Her da. Mary was born March 1857.

Cooke, John George; he met JWC 1856 (see JWC's Journal, 18 May 1856) and was to become a close friend. She described him later as “a man betwixt thirty and forty,—tall, strong, silent, sincere,—has been a sailor, a soldier, a New Zealand settler, ‘a Man about Town,’ and a Stock Broker!!!” (JWC to MR, 10 Oct. 1864; MS: NLS 608.387; pbd: Bliss, JWC 319). Friend of Walter Mantell.

Craik, George Lillie (1798–1866; ODNB; see JWC to SS, [20 Sept. 1835]), author, prof. of English lit. and history, Queen's Coll., Belfast since 1849; friend of the Carlyles since 1835; m., 1826, Jeannette, b. Dempster (see JWC to TC, [30 Aug. 1838]); she died mid-1856. They had one son and three das.; JWC mentions two das., Georgiana and Mary; the third, Isabella, d. 1842 (see JWC to JW, [8 Dec. 1842]).

Cunningham, Peter (1816–69; ODNB; see TC to TSS, 21 Aug. 1843), author and critic; son of TC's close friend Allan Cunningham (1784–1842), writer, and his wife Jean, b. Walker (1791–1864; see JWC to JWCU, [3 July 1838]); known to TC since boyhood. Mary Cunningham (ca. 1822–67) was his sister.

Darwin, Erasmus Alvey (1804–81; see TC to JAC, 15 June 1835, and TC to JAC, 17 Feb. 1837), the Carlyles' close friend since 1835; living at 57 Queen Anne St., Cavendish Sq., since 1853; Charles Darwin's brother.

Davidson, David (1811–1900; see 29:biographical note), capt., army engineer, and inventor; b. Haddington, where he was a childhood friend of JWC; later maj., then lt. col.; knighted 1894. He m., 1849, Margaret, b. Buchanan (ca. 1822–99). They had two sons, Henry Chisholm (b. 1851) and David Albert (b. 1853), and four das.: Jane (b. 1852), Mary (b. 1855), Alice (b. 1856), and Margaret (b. 16 Nov. 1857). By 1864 they had five sons and five das.

Davidson, Janet (b.1782), David Davidson's aunt who lived at Craighope House, Court St., Haddington (see JWC to TC, 23 July 1857).

Dewar, Dr. James (1821?—78), M.D., Edinburgh, 1841; practicing in Kirkcaldy from 1856; previously practiced in parishes of Torryburn, Culross, and Carnock, all in Fife.

Dickens, Charles (1812–70; ODNB), novelist; friend of the Carlyles since the early 1840s; m., 1836, Catherine Thomson, b. Hogarth (d. 1879); separated from her, June 1858.

Disraeli, Benjamin (1804–81; ODNB), Tory politician and novelist; M.P. for Buckinghamshire, 1847; chancellor of the exchequer in Derby's govt., Feb. to Dec. 1852, and again in 1858–59; later prime minister; m., 1839, Mary Anne Lewis, b. Evans (1792–1872); not personally known to TC.

Dobbie, Rev. Edward (1773–1857; see TC to JWC, 9 March 1842), retired minister, d. 22 Feb. 1857; Mary Russell's father.

Dods, William (1795–1873), Haddington bank agent; childhood admirer of JWC; his 1st wife was Harriet, b. Shirreff (b. ca. 1804); his 2d wife, m. 1854, was Jane, b. Wilkie (ca. 1809–85). His eldest son was Peter Dods (1828–1905), lt., Bombay Regiment; m., 1856, Elizabeth Gordon Lorimer (b. 1839). Thomas Dods (1800–1878) was possibly his brother (see JWC to WDO [19? Sept. 1857]).

Donaldson sisters of Sunny Bank (Tenterfield), Haddington: Jean (1770–1860), JWC's godmother, Jess (1774–1860), and Catherine (Kate) (1779–1852); friends of JWC's mother; paternal aunts of Eliza and John William.

Donaldson, Betty, b. Cundale (1776–1849), widow of Stuart Donaldson, mother of Eliza and John William.

Donaldson, Elizabeth (Eliza), apparently living in London (see JWC to EDO, 20 Aug. 1856).

Donaldson, John William (1811–61; ODNB; see TC to JWC, 31 Aug. 1842), philologist; headmaster of King Edward's School, Bury St. Edmunds, 1841–55. The school declined under Donaldson, and he resigned; he went to live in Cambridge, where he became a tutor.

Downshire, Lady Caroline Frances, b. Stapleton-Cotton (1815–93), m., 1837, Arthur Wills Blundell Sandys Trumbull Windsor Hill (1812–68), 4th marquess of Downshire. They had three children: Alice Maria Hill (1842–1928), Arthur Wills Blundell Trumbull Sandys Roden Hill (1844–74), and Arthur William Hill (1846–1931).

Eliot, George (pseud.) (1819–80; ODNB), b. Mary Ann (later Marian) Evans; novelist; began her friendship with G. H. Lewes, 1851, which developed into the relationship that lasted until his death. She admired TC and wrote reviews praising his work, most notably “Carlyle's Life of Sterling,” Westminster Review 57 (1852) 247–51.

Ellice, Edward (“Bear”) (1783–1863; ODNB; see 31:biographical note), deputy gov. of the Hudson's Bay Co., see TC to JAC, 28 Jan. 1847; M.P. He m., 1809, Lady Hannah Althea (d. 1832), widow of Capt. Bettesworth and sister of Charles Grey, 2d earl (1764–1845; ODNB). They had one son, also Edward (1810–80; ODNB). He m., 1843, Anne Amelia, b. Keppel (1803–44), Lady Leicester, widow of Thomas William Coke (1752–1842), 1st Earl of Leicester.

Emerson, Ralph Waldo (1803–82; see TC to JAC, 27 Aug. 1833), philosopher, essayist, poet, and transcendentalist. He first met TC, Aug. 1833; in spite of their differences, they had close ties; he introduced many Americans to TC.

Erskine, Thomas (1788–1870; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 1 Feb. 1838), of Linlathen, Dundee; theologian and retired advocate.

Farie, John (1810–92), Liverpool merchant; one of Robert Farie's six surviving brothers (see TC to JAC, 20 Nov. 1846).

Farie, Robert (1813–82; see TC to JAC, 20 Nov. 1846), nonpracticing barrister of independent means; translator of German works; known to the Carlyles since 1846.

Fergus, John (1797–1865; see JWC to TC, [17 July 1837], and TC to DN, 8 Nov. 1845), of Kirkcaldy; owner of John Fergus & Co, flax spinners and bleachers; M.P. for Fife, 1847–59. He and his sisters, Elizabeth Pepoli, Jessie (Janet) (b. 1794), Charlotte (1795–1853, m., 1824, Horatio Stopford Nixon), and Jane (b. 1804; m., 1841, Robert W. Royd [or Royds], see TC to JWC, 9 Aug. 1852), were all old friends of the Carlyles. There was a 5th sister, Isabella (b. 1798), m., 1824, Hugh Lumsden.

FitzGerald, Edward (1809–83; ODNB; see TC to EF, 18 Sept. 1842, and 32:biographical note), poet and translator; TC's friend since 1842. He had been living mainly at Farlingay Hall, Woodbridge, Suffolk (see TC to EF, 7 Aug. 1855) but was now living mostly in London. His mother, Mary Frances, b. FitzGerald, d. Jan. 1855, left FitzGerald a share of her estate, making him considerably better off. He m., reluctantly, 1856, Lucy, b. Barton (1808–98), writer mainly on religion, da. of his friend Bernard Barton (1784–1849; ODNB). After spending much of their time apart, the FitzGeralds separated, Aug. 1857. He settled an income of approximately £300 a year on her.

Fleming, Henry (nicknamed “the Flea”) (d. 1876; see TC to JWC, 15 July 1844), asst. sec. of the Poor Law Board, 1848–59; socialite, and member of the Ashburton circle.

Forster, John (“Fuz”) (1812–76; ODNB; see TC to GE, 15 Feb. 1832, TC to JF, [25? Jan. 1839]), historian, journalist, biographer, and ed. of the Examiner, 1847–55; sec. to the Lunacy Commission, 1855–61; friend of the Carlyles since the late 1830s, and TC's literary adviser. He m., 1856, Eliza Ann, b. Crosbie (ca. 1819–94), widow of the publisher Henry Colburn (d. 1855; ODNB). They lived at 46 Montagu Sq.

Frankau, Rosetta or Rosette (d. 1898; see JWC to JN, 3 July 1849), Neuberg's sister; m., probably 1853, Adolph Frankau (1820–56; see TC to JN, 29 Oct. 1856, and TC to JN, 1 Nov. 1856), and had two children. From Oct. 1856, Neuberg lived with her at 25 Oakley Villas, Adelaide Rd.

Froude, James Anthony (1818–94; ODNB; see TC to JWC, 3 April 1849), journalist, historian; m., 1849, Charlotte Maria, b. Grenfell (d. 1860) of Taplow Court, sister-in-law of Charles Kingsley, Froude's close friend. He first met the Carlyles, June 1849, and came to know them better after moving to London, 1860.

Garthwaite, Tom (ca. 1810–94), Ecclefechan tailor.

Gilchrist, Alexander (1828–61; ODNB), biographer; m., 1851, Anne, b. Burrows (1828–82). They moved to 6 Cheyne Row, autumn 1856.

Goderich, George Frederick Samuel Robinson (1827–1909; ODNB; see TC to CK, 21 March 1851), viscount; Christian socialist, Liberal M.P. for Huddersfield, 1853–57, and West Riding, 1857–59; his father was Frederick John Robinson (1782–1859; ODNB), 1st earl of Ripon, prime minister, 1827–28. He m., 1851, Henrietta Anne Theodosia (1833–1907), b. Vyner. Their son was Frederick Oliver Robinson (1852–1923). Their da., Mary Sarah, b. 14 July 1857, d. 3 July 1858.

Graham, William (ca. 1774–1860; see TC to WG, 15 Sept. 1820, TC to JAC, 20 Nov. 1846, and other vols.); TC's old friend, living retired and in poor health on the slopes of Burnswark, 3 mi. N of Ecclefechan, where he had formerly farmed. His sister, Elizabeth (ca. 1784–1861) was also in poor health (see TC to JWC, 28 Dec. 1853, TC to AC, 8 April 1854).

Grey, Henry George (1802–94; ODNB; see TC to JWC, 7 [8] July 1844), 3d Earl Grey; sec. for the colonies, 1846–52; leader of Whigs in House of Lords from 1845. He m., 1832, Maria, b. Copley (1803–79). Known to TC since 1844. Grey had opposed Palmerston and the Crimean War, and praised Russian peace efforts in 1855; he was never offered another cabinet position after being replaced in the Colonial Office in 1852.

Hanning, Janet (1813–97), TC's sister; m., 1836, Robert (1796–1878), who had emigrated to Canada in mysterious disgrace, 1841; she joined him in Hamilton, Ontario, Aug. 1851, with their two das., Margaret (b. 1838) and Mary (b. 1840). They had two other das., Catherine (b. 1852 or 1853) and Jane, both b. in Canada.

Harrison, Robert (1820–97), librarian of Leeds Lib. Assoc., 1855–57, and the London Lib., 1857–93. He had taught in St. Petersburg and was later one of the founders of the Lib. Assoc. of the United Kingdom, 1877. Both Carlyles were to be on friendly terms with him.

Hawkes, Emilie (d. 1893), da. of William Henry Ashurst (1792–1855; ODNB), 1877 portrait painter; unhappily married to Sydney Hawkes, whom she divorced; see JWC's Journal, 13 Nov. 1855, and JWC's Journal, 27 March 1856; a strong supporter of Mazzini and Young Italy movement; m., 1860, Carlo Venturi (d. 1866); author of Joseph Mazzini: A Memoir (1875).

Helps, Arthur (1813–75; ODNB), writer and historian of private means; clerk to the privy council, 1860; friend of the Carlyles since the early 1840s; m. Bessy, b. Fuller (see JWC to TC, [17 July 1843]).

Hill, Rowland (1795–1879; ODNB), responsible for introducing the penny post, 1840, sec. to the Post Office from 1854.

Howden, Dr. Thomas (1787–1868; see JWC to JAC, 28 July 1849), partner of JWC's father; m. Helena Shortess, b. MacNaughton (1785–1858) and living at Maitlandfield, Haddington; Helena d. 29 March. They had thirteen children, including Helena Shortess (1810–91), who m., 1845, John Ferme (b. ca. 1797); Jane (1820–93); and Agnes Catherine (1829–1906), who lived with them. One of their sons, also Thomas (1812–1900), medical practitioner, lived in JWC's old house in Lodge St., Haddington, with his 2d wife, Jessie Cunningham, b. Mylne (1833–90). His 1st wife was his cousin, Agnes, b. Howden (d. 1844).

Irving, Edward (1792–1834; ODNB; see TC to RM, 12 Feb. 1817,, later vols., and Carlyle, Reminiscences), the Carlyles' great friend; religious leader and preacher.

Jeffreys, Mary (ca. 1790–1857), Janet Davidson's servant, who lived with her at Craighope House, Court St., Haddington.

Jewsbury, Geraldine Endsor (1812–80; ODNB; see TC to GEJ, 12 April 1840), novelist, reviewer, and misc. writer; a friend of the Carlyles, particularly of JWC, since 1841. For her sister Maria Jane (1800–1833), see JWC's Journal, 16 May 1856. Her brothers were Thomas Smith (b. 1802), Henry Richard Smith (1803–73), Arthur (b. 1815), and Francis (Frank) Harding (1819–78), who m., 1853, Emily, b. Vandeburgh. Jewsbury lived with Frank in Manchester until 1854. She moved to 3 Oakley St., near Cheyne Row, summer 1854. She met Walter Mantell, late 1856, and apparently fell in love with him; he did not reciprocate, but they remained close and exchanged over 500 letters in the course of the friendship.

Jones, John Edward (b. 1824), sublibrarian, London Lib. He was appointed as asst., July 1844, at a salary of 10s. a week; by Nov. 1846, when he was senior assistant, his salary was 30s. a week. He applied for the post of librarian on Cochrane's death in 1852, and again on Donne's retirement in 1857, but was unsuccessful; see TC to JAC, 5 May 1852, TC to JAC, 10 May 1852, and TC to JAC, 26 May 1852, and TC to JAC, 2 July 1857. He remained with London Lib. until his resignation, June 1893.

Ker, Alan (1820–85), eldest son of Robert Ker of Greenock; in the judicial service of the W. Indies; attorney gen. of Antigua, 1851–54; chief justice of Nevis, 1854–56, and Dominica, 1856–61; m., 1851, Mary, b. Tennyson (1810–84), Alfred's sister.

Kingsley, Charles (1819–75; ODNB), author; briefly associated with the Christian Socialist movement; m., 1844, Fanny, b. Grenfell (ca. 1814–91; ODNB); he wrote several novels critical of the social order including Alton Locke (1850) and Yeast (1851).

Larkin, Henry (1820–99), collector or cashier for the Chelsea Steamer Co.; partner in an engineering business; author of Extra Physics and the Mystery of Creation (1878), which included an appendix (written in 1858) giving an analysis of Sartor Resartus, and of Carlyle and the Open Secret of His Life (1886). For TC's early contacts with him, see TC to HL, 29 Dec. 1850, and TC to HL, 29 March 1852; he worked on TC's indexes from 1856: “He did for me all manner of maps, indexes, summaries, copyings, sortings, miscellanea of every kind” (for the complete note on Larkin by TC, in JWC to TC, 19 July 1858, see Froude, LM TC to JBW, 25 May 1823). His brother John Richard Larkin (1818–76) also helped TC with the maps for Frederick.

Lewes, George Henry (“Ape”) (1817–78; ODNB; see TC to UC, 16 Oct. 1839), author, journalist, and co-ed., with Thornton Hunt, of the Leader; known to the Carlyles from 1835; m., 1841, Agnes, b. Jervis (1822–1902; see TC to JAC, 26 Aug. 1848); they had three surviving children. She was to have four children with Thornton Hunt, the first of whom was b. 1850, when the Leweses were living in Hunt's house (see JWC to TC, 4 Aug. 1850). In 1851, Lewes's friendship developed with Marian Evans (George Eliot). They set up house together in 1855; the Carlyles remained on friendly terms with Lewes.

Louis Napoleon: see Napoleon III.

Lowe, Robert (1811–92; ODNB), politician; leader writer for the Times from 1851; M.P. for Kidderminster, 1852–59; joint sec. of the Board of Control, 1852–55, and vice pres. of the Board of Trade and paymaster-gen., 1855–58; m., 1836, Georgiana, b. Orred (d. 1884); member of the Ashburton circle. JWC described them in her journal, 8 Nov. 1855: “The Lowes are ‘hand-made,’ both; which so few people about me are; and so I like them tho' the man ‘has no tenderness,’ (Lady A says) and the woman less than none!— Lady Duncannon says Mr Lowe ’always reminds her of the negative of a photograph’” (see JWC's Journal, 8 Nov. 1855). Lowe was an albino (see D. W. Sylvester, Robert Lowe and Education [Cambridge, 1974] 3).

Lushington, Vernon (1832–1912), writer and barrister. He met TC in Dec. 1856, having written a series of articles on him for the Oxford and Cambridge Magazine. He helped TC with his Collected Works, 16 vols. (1857–58).

Macaulay, Thomas Babington (1800–1859; ODNB), historian, and Whig M.P. for Edinburgh, 1839–47. After his defeat in the general election of 1847, he turned to literature and pbd. the first two vols. of The History of England (1849). In the general election, 1852, he triumphed again at Edinburgh. He resigned his seat, Jan. 1856, because of ill health, but continued to write. Vol. 5 of The History of England was pbd. posthumously (1861).

Mackenzie, Colin (1806–81; ODNB), brig. gen. (later lt. gen.) in the Indian Army, see JWC to JW, [13 April 1844]; m., 1843, his 2d wife, Helen. He suffered severe injuries at Bolarum, 1855; see TC to JWP, 15 July 1856.

Mackenzie, Helen, b. Douglas, writer on India and religious matters; author of Storms and Sunshine of a Soldier's Life (Edinburgh, 1884) and Six Years in India (1857); m., 1843, Colin Mackenzie. They first met the Carlyles, 1844, see JWC to JW, [13 April 1844], and JWC to LA, 12 June 1848. They were members of the Free Church of Scotland. She was deaf.

Macready, William Charles (1793–1873; ODNB), actor-manager; retired, 26 Feb. 1851; m., 1824, Catherine Frances, b. Atkins (1805–52); the Carlyles' friend since 1839; moved to Sherborne, Dorset, 1850. Their da. Lydia Jane (ca.1842–58) was JWC's godchild; she died of scarlet fever, 20 June 1858.

Mantell, Walter Baldock Durant (1820–95), b. Lewes, E Sussex; began training as a doctor but gave up his studies 1839, and settled in New Zealand, 1840. He held several official posts between 1842 and 1855 including commissioner for Crown lands for the Southern District of the Province of New Munster, South Island, 1851. His appointment was unpopular with Scottish settlers and, in particular, the Scottish Free Church with whom he was soon in conflict. Although initially willing to serve the interests of the govt. in the purchase of Maori lands, Mantell began to argue for proper compensation and the fulfilment of promises he and others had made to the Maoris. On leave of absence in London from 1855, he began his long, ultimately fruitless, correspondence with the Colonial Office on the subject. He resigned his commission in protest, 1857 (see Southern People, Jane Thomson, ed., [Dunedin, 1998] 327). He met Jewsbury, late 1856, and corresponded extensively with her on his return to New Zealand, 1859. Mantell had “abilities of the highest order,” and few equals in his knowledge of Maori “language, customs and character”; however, “[h]e was the Diogenes of Parliament, always alone in a cave, agreeing with no one, scarcely with himself. … He was caustic, cynical, and unequalled in epigrammatic wit” (William Gisborne, New Zealand Rulers and Statesmen 1840–1897 [1897] 152–53).

Martin, Frederick (1830–83; ODNB; see TC to FEMA, 15 Oct. 1856, and 32:biographical note), misc. writer; b. Geneva, educated at Heidelberg; TC's amanuensis, Oct. 1856–March 1857 (see TC to FEMA, 15 Oct. 1856, and TC to [TW], 8 April 1857); now a subeditor of the Statesman (see Espinasse 242). He pbd. an unauthorized biography of TC in the first issue of his Biographical Magazine [1877], about which TC complained; no other issue of the magazine was pbd. (Espinasse 260–63). It was discovered later that Martin had stolen and then sold manuscripts, papers, and letters from TC (see Slater, CEC 65–66, and Wilson, Carlyle 5:249–51).

Martineau, Harriet (1802–1876; ODNB; see TC to LEM, 21 Feb. 1841), journalist and writer, esp. on public affairs; living at Ambleside; once a Unitarian, now a freethinker; known to the Carlyles since 1836, she and TC usually held each other in mutual esteem. Throughout the 1840s Martineau and JWC had an intensely affectionate relationship, from which TC was largely excluded; this ended in 1850 although they continued to meet from time to time (see JWC to HW, 4 July 1851, and K. J. Fielding and Ian Campbell, “New Letters of Harriet Martineau to Jane Carlyle, 1842–44” Women's Writing 9 (no. 3) [2002]: 379–93).

Maurice, J. Frederick D. (1805–72; ODNB; see JWC to JCA, [mid Aug. 1835]), Broad Church leader and Christian Socialist; prof. of English lit. and history, 1840, and prof. of theology, 1846, King's Coll., London; he was dismissed, Oct. 1853, after his Theological Essays were pbd. to strong criticism from conservative churchmen (see TC to LA, 3 Nov. 1853). He m., 1849, his 2d wife Georgiana, b. Hare (see TC to JWC, 5 April 1849).

Mazzini, Giuseppe (1805–72; see TC to JSM, 6 Dec. 1839, and 28:introduction), Italian revolutionary; friend of the Carlyles since the late 1830s. He was usually based in London, but continued to keep alive active resistance to Austrian domination.

Mill, John Stuart (1806–73; ODNB), utilitarian philosopher and economist, administrator at India House since 1823; m., 1851, to Harriet Taylor (1807–58), widow of John Taylor (1796–1849), who strongly influenced his thinking. He met TC, Sept. 1831 (see TC to JWC, 4 Sept. 1831). They remained on friendly terms even after the MS of vol. 1 of The French Revolution was burned while in Mill's keeping (see TC to OB, 6 March 1853). They had become estranged because of many differences in temperament and attitudes to social questions; he believed that TC and other friends disapproved of his marriage.

Milnes, Richard Monckton (1809–85; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 14 July 1836), Conservative M.P. for Pontefract, 1837–62, society figure, author; Baron Houghton, 1862; the Carlyles' friend since the late 1830s; m., 1851, Annabel, b. Hungerford (Crewe) (d. 1874); their das. were Amicia (b. 1852), and Florence (b. 1855).

Montagu, Anna Dorothea, b. Benson (ca. 1773–1856), 3d wife of Basil Montagu (1770–1851; ODNB); see JBW to TC, 14 Oct. 1823, and later vols., and Carlyle, Reminiscences 83, 285–90. JWC had met her in 1824 and again in 1854, see JWC to JAC, 9 May 1854.

Morse, Prof. Arthur Hamilton, teacher of music, who lived at 8 Cheyne Row.

Napoleon III (Louis Napoleon) (1808–73), pres. of France, 1849 to Dec. 1851, when he seized power; declared himself emperor and assumed the title Napoleon III, 1852. He m., 1853, Eugénie, b. de Montijo (1826–1920). Their son was Napoleon Eugène Louis Jean Joseph, prince imperial (1856–79).

Neuberg, Joseph (1806–67; see TC to JN, 21 Dec. 1839, 25:biographical note), German-born, retired Nottingham businessman; naturalized Briton, 1845. He met TC, whom he had long admired, in 1848; helped him as an unpaid sec., translated his work, and twice accompanied him on visits to Germany. He helped TC with work on Frederick. From Oct. 1856, Neuberg lived with his sister, Rosetta (or Rosette) Frankau at 25 Oakley Villas, Adelaide Rd.

Newnham, Mrs., cook who sometimes helped out at Cheyne Row.

Orlich, Leopold von (1804–60), Prussian military historian.

Owen, Richard (1804–92; ODNB; see TC to JWC, [26 Aug. 1842] ), naturalist; first Hunterian prof. of comparative anatomy and physiology, Royal Coll. of Surgeons, 1836–56; supt. of the Natural History Dept., British Museum, 1856–83; m., 1835, Caroline Amelia (d. 1873), da. of William Clift (see TC to JWC, [26 Aug. 1842]), Owen's associate at the Royal Coll.; she taught herself several languages and comparative anatomy.

Palmerston, Henry John Temple (1784–1865; ODNB), 3d Viscount Palmerston; m., 1839, Emily, b. Lamb, formerly Lady Cowper (1787–1869). Whig foreign minister, 1830–41 and 1846–51; home sec., 1852–55, prime minister, 1855–58 and 1859–65.

Parker, John William (1792–1870; ODNB; see TC to ES, 14 May 1847), publisher and printer; pbd. Fraser's Magazine, 1847–63. His son, also John William Parker (1820–60), was ed. of Fraser's Magazine from 1847.

Patmore, Coventry Kersey Dighton (1823–96; ODNB), poet; asst. in British Museum Lib., 1846; friend of Tennyson and Ruskin; he had sent TC some of his essays, 1850 (see TC to CP, 22 July 1850).

Pepoli, Elizabeth, b. Fergus (1792–1862; see JWC to TC, [12 Oct. 1835], and JWC to TC, [9 April 1841]), countess, old Kirkcaldy friend of the Carlyles; m., 1839, Count Carlo Pepoli (1796–1881; see JWC to JCA, [mid Aug. 1835]), poet, prof. of philosophy, Bologna; a political exile after the revolution against papal govt., 1831; prof. of Italian, Univ. Coll., London, 1838–46. He was a deputy in the Roman republic; he returned to Bologna, 1859.

Piper, John (see JWC to TC, 11 Sept. 1847), the Carlyles' postman, of 15 Radnor St., King's Rd., Chelsea; his wife had occasionally helped at Cheyne Row; she d. Dec. 1855; see TC to JAC, 15 Dec. 1855.

Plattnauer, Richard, brother of Hedwig von Reichenbach; apparently introduced to the Carlyles, who befriended him (see JWC to JW, [ca. 29 Aug. 1844]), by Godefroy Cavaignac; see TC to JWC, 1 Sept. 1841; political refugee from Prussia (see JWC to HW, 5 July 1847). He was subject to periods of insanity; lived on the Continent and in England; he had worked as a private tutor to the Downshire children, but had left by Oct. 1857.

Pringle, Janet, b. Hunter (b. 1827), m., 1847, Dr. Andrew Pringle (1820–58) who d. 17 Jan. 1858, of Lann Hall, nr. Thornhill; JWC's cousin (see JWC to MR, 30 Dec. 1853, and JWC to MR, 3 March 1854). They had three sons: Andrew (b. 1850), Robert Hunter (b. 1852), and John James (b. 1855); see JWC to MR, 30 Dec. 1854.

Procter, Bryan Waller (“Barry Cornwall”) (1787–1874; ODNB; see TC to JBW, 23 June 1824, and JCW to JW, [ca. 26 June 1843], poet and barrister; m., 1824, Anne Benson, b. Skepper (b. 1799, see JBW to TC, 14 Oct. 1823), da. of Anna Dorothea Montagu; old friends of the Carlyles; see also Carlyle, Reminiscences 286–87, 290.

Rennie, George (1802–60; ODNB), sculptor and politician; gov. of the Falkland Islands, 1847–55; JWC's old Haddington admirer; see JBW to EA, Jan. 1822, and Carlyle, Reminiscences 67; for Mrs. Rennie, his wife, b. Cockerell, see JWC to JW, [27 Jan. 1844].

Robson, Charles of Robson, Levey, & Franklyn, printers, 23 Gt. New St., Fetter Lane. Robson had been TC's printer since 1837.

Ross, Catherine Susan (Kate) (1834–60), da. of John Sterling (1806–44; see TC to JSM [1 June 1835]). She had been JWC's protégée. She m., 1856, Alexander J. Ross (1819–87). JWC and TC strongly disapproved of the match; see JWC to TC, 27 July 1852, and JWC's Journal, 25 March 1856.

Rouse, James (ca. 1827–95; see 31:biographical note), the Ashburtons' doctor; later of 2 Wilton Street, Grosvenor Place; FRCS, 1863. TC liked him; see TC to JWC, 16 Sept. 1856.

Ruskin, John (1819–1900; ODNB), author, artist, and social reformer; m., 1848, Euphemia Chalmers, b. Gray (1828–97), marriage annulled, 1855. He pbd. 2 vols. of Modern Painters (1843, 1846), The Seven Lamps of Architecture (1849), The Stones of Venice (1851–53), and two more vols. of Modern Painters (1856). He was J. M. W. Turner's foremost admirer. A friend of both Carlyles; he was strongly influenced by TC.

Russell, Elizabeth Ann, b. Rawdon (ca. 1794–1874), m., 1817, Lord George William Russell (1790–1846), maj. gen., 2d son of 6th duke of Bedford and Lord John's brother; always known as Lady William Russell; one of JWC's “select quality friends … who loved her like a daughter, and was charmed with her talents and graces; often astonishing certain quality snobs by the way she treated her, the untitled queen. ‘Mr. Carlyle is a great man, yes; but Mrs. Carlyle, let me inform you, is no less great as a woman.’” (Carlyle, Reminiscences 187).

Russell, Mary, b. Dobbie (1802-75), m., 1829, Dr. James Russell (b. ca. 1798), of Holmhill, Thornhill; close friends of JWC.

Saffi, Aurelio (1819–90), count, poet, and politician; had been one of the triumvirate with Mazzini governing the short-lived Roman republic; see 30:biographical note. He lived in Oxford, where he lectured in Italian language and lit. at the Taylor Inst. He m., 30 June 1857, Georgiana Janet Crauford (d. 1911), 2d da. of John Crauford of Auchenames, W Kilbride.

Sandwich, John William Montagu (1811–84), 7th earl of Sandwich; Lady Harriet Ashburton's brother; m., 1838, Mary, b. Paget (1812–59). Their sons were Edward George Henry (1839–1916), Victor Alexander (1841–1915), Sydney (1842–60), and Oliver George Paulet (1844–93).

Sandwich, Mary Anne Julia Louisa Harriet, b. Lowry-Corry (1781–1862; see TC to MAC, 3 Sept. 1848), dowager countess; m., 1804, George John Montagu (1773–1818), 6th earl of Sandwich; Lady Ashburton's mother.

Scott, Alexander John (1805–66; ODNB), known to TC through Edward Irving since 1831; see TC to JWC, 22 Aug. 1831. Principal of Owens Coll., Manchester, 1851–57, and co-founder of the Manchester Working Men's Coll. He continued to act as prof. at Owens College until his death. He m., 1830, Ann, b. Ker (d. 1888), whom TC at first found interesting “in face and in character she reminded me of one [his sister Margaret (1803–30)] who now lies beneath the ground” (see TC to JWC, 11 Sept. 1831) but later called a “foolish hoohing woman” (see TC to JAC, 5 Aug. 1851).

Smail, Betty (ca. 1778–1868), dependant at Scotsbrig, mother of Betty Smail, servant at Craigenputtoch; see JWC to JCA, [? Aug. 1828]. She was listed in the 1851 census under “Scotsbridge” as Elizabeth Smellie, unmarried, pauper (former agricultural laborer), b. Hoddam.

Southam, Charlotte (1842–1905), b. Watson; orphaned in childhood, she had been adopted by her uncle, Thomas Southam (d. 1864), and aunt, whose surname she took. She became the Carlyles' maid, April 1858, and stayed with them until June 1861; she continued to visit and correspond with them both. She m., 1866, Adolphus J. Mills, a carpenter; they lived in Lawrence St., at the W end of Cheyne Row.

Spedding, James (1808–81; ODNB; see JWC to JCA, [mid Aug. 1835], and JWC to TC, [20 Sept. 1845]), authority on Francis Bacon; former sec. in the Colonial Office, from which he had retired, 1841.

Stanhope, Philip Henry (1805–75; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 11 March 1839), 5th earl; styled Viscount Mahon, 1816–55; historian and politician; pres. Society of Arts, 1846–75. See also 25:biographical note.

Stanley, Edward John (1802–69; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 27 Feb. 1840), Whig politician, created Baron Eddisbury of Winnington, 1848; succeeded as 2d Baron Stanley of Alderley, 1850; m. 1826, Henrietta Maria, b. Dillon (1807–95; ODNB); both friends of the Carlyles, but she closer than her husband. Their da. Henrietta Blanche was Lady Airlie.

Sterling, Anthony Coningham (1805–71; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 2 Dec. 1836, and later vols.); friend of the Carlyles since 1837; guardian from 1844 to Oct. 1853 of his brother John's das. (see JWC to KS, 19 Nov. 1853), though not of the oldest child, Edward. He had been a devoted admirer of JWC, but differences between them had arisen; m., 1829, Charlotte, b. Baird (d. 1863; see JWC to HW, [12 Nov. 1844], and JWC to HW, [9 Jan. 1845]), who suffered attacks of insanity and was jealous of JWC. Brigade maj. and asst. adjutant gen. of Highland Division in the Crimea, 1854–55. His Letters from the Army in the Crimea; Written during the Years 1854, 1855 & 1856 by a Staff Officer who was there was pbd. for private circulation (1857); pbd. publicly as The Highland Brigade in the Crimea (1895).

Sterling, Catherine Susan (Kate): see Ross.

Sterling, Julia Maria (1836–1910), and Anna Charlotte (Lotta) (1833–67), Kate Ross's sisters, also close to JWC. Their brother was Edward Coningham Sterling (b. 1831; see JWC to HW, [9 Jan. 1845], and JWC to KS, March 1854).

Stodart, John Riddle (1793–1871; see JWC to TC, 5 Sept. 1849), Writer to the Signet and notary public; JWC's old suitor; m., 1826, Jemima Henrietta, b. Brown (1807–65).

Tait, Robert Scott (1816–97), portrait painter (exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1848–75) and pioneer photographer; a friend of the Carlyles since 1853. His first portrait of TC (now at Carlyle's House) was painted 1854–55, shown at the Royal Academy 1856; see TC to AGI, 6 May 1856. He took photographs of the Carlyles, of their house, and for TC's use in Frederick. His A Chelsea Interior (also at Carlyle's House), painted 1857–58, exhibited at the Royal Academy 1858, made use of photographs.

Tauchnitz, Christian Bernhard (1816–95), Leipzig printer and publisher, who began the Library of American Authors series, 1841; pbd. French Revolution (Leipzig, 1851), 3 vols., and Neuberg's Thomas Carlyle's Ausgewählte Schriften, 6 vols (Leipzig, 1855–56); see TC to JN, 25 July 1851.

Taylor, Henry (1800–1886; ODNB; see TC to MAC, 10 Nov. 1831), author and civil servant; m., 1839, Theodosia Alice, b. Spring Rice (1818–91; see JWC to TC, [9 Sept. 1838]), Lord Monteagle's da.; they had a son, Aubrey (1845–76), and two das., Eleanor and Ida.

Tennyson, Alfred (1809–92; ODNB), poet; friend of the Carlyles since the early 1840s; TC and Tennyson had a strong mutual regard; poet laureate, from 1850. He m., 1850, Emily Sarah, b. Sellwood (1813–96).

Thackeray, William Makepeace (1811–63; ODNB; see JWC to TC, [3 Aug. 1837], TC to JAC, 12 Aug. 1837, and later vols.), novelist; friend of the Carlyles since the 1830s and intimate of the Ashburton circle. He m., 1836, Isabella, b. Shawe (d. 1894), who was mentally ill from 1840. He had been deeply devoted to Jane Brookfield, but broke from her in 1851. After Vanity Fair (1847–48) and Pendennis (1848–50), he wrote Henry Esmond, pbd. Oct. 1852, which was dedicated to Lord Ashburton, who, with his wife, had acted as an intermediary with the Brookfields. He lectured in the United States, 1852 and 1855. His das. were Anne Isabella (1837–1919) and Harriet Marian (1840–75).

Trotter, Alexander (ca. 1807–69), farmer at Ormiston, 5 mi. SW of Haddington.

Twisleton, Ellen, b. Dwight (1828–62), of Boston, Mass.; JWC's close friend and confidante, with whom JWC colluded in writing an account of her early life at Craigenputtoch (see GEJ to JAF, 22 Nov. 1876). She m., 1852, Hon. Edward Turner Boyd Twisleton (1809–74; ODNB), a close and respected friend of the Carlyles (see TC to JWC, 5 July 1853).

Tyndall, John (1820–93; ODNB), prof. of natural philosophy at the Royal Inst. from 1853; TC's admirer, who later became a close friend.

Varnhagen von Ense, Karl August (1785–1858; see TC to KAVE, 31 Dec. 1837), Prussian soldier, diplomat, and biographer with whom TC had corresponded since 1837; TC wrote “Varnhagen von Ense's Memoirs,” 1838 (Works 29:88–117). He was a keen collector of autograph manuscripts, some contributed by TC. He m., 1814, Rahel Antonie Friederike Levin (1771–1833, see TC to KAVE, 31 Dec.). He and TC met in Berlin, 1 Oct. 1852 (see TC to JWC, 1 Oct. 1852, TC to JAC, 3 Oct. 1852).

Venables, George Stovin (1810–88; ODNB), lawyer and journalist; fellow and tutor of Jesus Coll., Cambridge, and M.A., 1835; barrister, Inner Temple, 1836; contributor to the Saturday Review from its founding, 1855, and the Times, 1857–88; friend of Tennyson and Thackeray, who claimed he was the model for Warrington in Pendennis (1848–50).

Vernon, William John Borlase-Warren Venables (1834–1919), 2d son of George John Warren Venables-Vernon (1803–66), 5th Lord Vernon, Baron of Kinderton; he was educ. in Italy and at Eton; student of Dante and Italian art and culture; m., 1855, Agnes Lucy, b. Boileau (1832–81); he held various high offices within the Freemasons; see Recollections of Seventy-Two Years (1917) 10, 322, and 377.

Victoria (1819–1901; ODNB), queen since 1837; m. Albert, 1840.

Victoria Adelaide Mary Louise (1840–1901), Princess Royal, the Queen's eldest da.; m., 25 Jan. 1858, Crown Prince Friedrich Wilhelm of Prussia (1831–88).

Watt brothers, John A. Carlyle's stepsons: Tom (b. ca. 1838), at sea from Oct. 1856; Henry (b. ca. 1839), at sea from July 1856 (see TC to IC, 21 July 1856); William (b. ca 1843), at school in Vevey, Switzerland, from Aug. 1856; Arthur (b. ca. 1844), at school in Edinburgh from Oct. 1856.

Wedgwood, Frances (Fanny), b. Mackintosh (1800–1889; see TC to HWE, 11 Dec. 1836), the Carlyles' friend, though now less close; m., 1832, Hensleigh Wedgwood (1803–91; ODNB; see JWC to TC, [23 July 1845]), mathematician and philologist, Erasmus A. Darwin's cousin. Their children were Frances Julia (“Snow”) (1833–1913), James Mackintosh (“Bro”) (1834–64), Ernest Hensleigh (1838–98), Katherine Euphemia (“Effie”) (1839–1934), Alfred Allen (1842–92), and Hope (1844–1935).

Welsh, Alexander (Alick) (b. 1816), eldest child of JWC's maternal uncle John; m., ca. 1849, Sophy, b. Martin (b. ca. 1827). They had a son John (Jackie) (b. ca. 1853) and a baby (b. 1856); see JWC to TC, 29 Aug. 1856.

Welsh, Ann (d. 1877), Elizabeth Welsh (d. 1877), and Grace Welsh (d. 1867): JWC's paternal aunts (see TC to JWC, 11 March 1842, and JCW to JW, [ca. 26 June 1843]), living at Craigen Villa, Morningside, Edinburgh.

Welsh, Grace, b. Welsh (1782–1842), JWC's mother. JWC's father, Dr. John Welsh (1776–1819; see JBW to EWE, 5 Oct. 1819), had been a doctor in Haddington. They had m. 1800.

Welsh, Helen (ca. 1813–53), da. of JWC's maternal uncle John.

Welsh, Jeannie (ca. 1798–1828), JWC's maternal aunt; for her death, see TC to JAC, 16 April 1828, and Carlyle, Reminiscences 127–29.

Welsh, Jeannie (Babbie), da. of JWC's maternal uncle John; see Chrystal.

Welsh, John (d. 1853; see TC to JCA, 12 Oct. 1853), JWC's maternal uncle, retired brass and copper founder, who had lived at 20 Maryland St., Liverpool; m. Mary (d. 1838); for her death, see TC to AC, 15 Oct. 1838.

Welsh, John (1824–59; ODNB; see JWC to MW, 20 Aug. 1842]), meteorologist; son of JWC's paternal uncle George and Margaret, b. Kissock; apptd. asst. at Kew Observatory, 1850; known for balloon ascents, 1852 (see JWC to MW, 17 Aug. 1852).

Welsh, John (d. 1860), youngest son of JWC's maternal uncle John.

Welsh, Margaret, b. Kissock (ca. 1805–88; see JWC to MW, [late Feb. 1841], and TC to LHB, [28 Feb. 1846]), widow of JWC's paternal uncle George (1793–1835), living in Richmond, nr. London.

Welsh, Margaret (Maggie) (b. 1821), da. of JWC's maternal uncle John.

Welsh, Mary, youngest da. of JWC's maternal uncle John.

Welsh, Robert (ca. 1786–1841; see TC to JWC, 29 April 1841, and JWC to MW, [8 July? 1842]), JWC's paternal uncle, an Edinburgh solicitor.

Welsh, Rev. Walter (ca. 1815–1879; see JWC to JW, [8 Jan. 1843]), unmarried son of JWC's maternal uncle John; minister at Auchtertool, Fife, since 1842. Two of his sisters, Margaret and Mary, were living with him.

Wilson, Thomas (b. 1811; see 22:introduction, and 26:biographical note), formerly curate at St. Peter Mancroft, Norwich, 1845–47; left the Church of England and now teaching in Weimar; see TC to JMA, 11 Dec. 1853. He made regular visits to London.

Woolner, Thomas (1825–1892; ODNB; see 21 Feb. 1851, and TC to LA, 20 Oct. 1854), sculptor and poet, member of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood.

Wynn, Charlotte Williams (1807–69; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 17 July 1845), friend of Varnhagen von Ense.