candlestick

1851


The Collected Letters, Volume 26


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BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ; 1998; DOI: 10.1215/ed-26-biographical-notes; CL 26: firstpage-26-289-lastpage-26-304

BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES

Notes on the Carlyles' contemporaries who are referred to more than once or twice in the present volume are given below, with cross references to earlier information. Otherwise they are accounted for in headnotes and footnotes as they occur.

Adamson, Robert (d. 1861; see TC to JA, 14 Feb. 1838), manager of the British Linen Bank, Dumfries.

Adderley, Charles Bowyer (1814–1905), of Hams Hall, Warwickshire; Conservative M.P. for N Staffs., 1841–78; 1st Baron Norton, 1878; m., 1842, to Julia Anne Eliza, b. Leigh (d. 1887), Edward Twisleton's paternal cousin; later held various ministerial appts. and had various advanced views on colonial policy.

Aird, Thomas (1802–76; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 29 March 1833), poet, journalist, and misc. writer; ed. of the Edinburgh Weekly Journal, 1833, and of the Dumfries Herald, 1835–63; TC's longtime friend.

Airlie. David Graham Drummond (1826–81), 7th earl of Airlie; m., 23 Sept. 1851, Henrietta Blanche, b. Stanley (see also Stanley); representative peer of Scotland, 1850–81; Lord High Commissioner to the Church of Scotland; of Cortachy Castle, Forfarshire.

Aitken, Jean (“Craw”) Carlyle (1810–88), TC's sister; m., 1833, to James, housepainter, of Assembly St., Dumfries. James (1836–71), their son at school.

Allingham, William (1824–89; ODNB; see TC to WA, 4 Sept. 1850), poet; b. in Ireland; customs official in Ireland but often visited London, where introduced to TC by Leigh Hunt, 1850; pbd. Poems, 1850, and Day and Night Songs, 1854, with illus. by Pre-Raphaelities, his friends; transferred to customs house, Lymington, 1863; pbd. Laurence Bookfield in Ireland, 1864; retired from civil service and moved to London, 1870; sub-ed., Fraser's Magazine, 1870–74, and ed., 1874–79. His Diary (1906) is a valuable record of TC.

Anne, servant at Cheyne Row from June; became ill, early summer 1852.

Ashburton. Harriet Baring, b. Montagu (1805–57; ODNB; see TC to MAC, 8 March 1839, and later vols.), Baroness Ashburton; TC's admired friend, known to him since 1839; m., 1825, to Lord Ashburton.

Ashburton. William Bingham Baring (1799–1864; ODNB; see TC to MAC, 8 March 1839, and later vols.), 2d Baron Ashburton; partner in Baring Bros., bankers, and politician.

Austin, Margaret (1831–74), James and Mary Austin's eldest da. Her sisters were Grace (b. 1833) and Jessie (1834–76).

Austin, Mary Carlyle (1808–88), TC's sister; m. to James (d. 1878), farmer of the Gill, nr. Ecclefechan.

Bain, Alexander (1818–1903; ODNB; see JWC to TC, 11 Sept. 1844), psychologist, logician, and educationist.

Ballantyne, Thomas (1806–71; ODNB; see TC to TB, 23 Feb. 1839), author and journalist; formerly ed. of the Manchester Guardian.

Bamford, Samuel (1788–1872; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 24 Jan. 1843), radical, poet, and autobiographer; former weaver; correspondent for various London newspapers since 1826.

Baring, Louisa (d. 1888) and Lydia Emily (d. 1868), Lord Ashburton's unmarried younger sisters.

Beard, Richard (1801/2–85), portrait photographer; 34 Parliament St., 1842–56; 85 King William St., 1842–54; and 31 King William St., 1854–69; the first to adopt Talbottype.

Blackie, John Stuart (1809–95; ODNB; see TC to JSB, 28 April 1834, and TC to JSB, 16 April 1849); regius prof. of Latin, Marischal Coll., Aberdeen, 1839; prof. of Greek, Edinburgh, 1852; m., 1842, Eliza, b. Wylde.

Blanc, Jean Joseph Louis (1811–82; see TC to MAC, 22 March 1848, and TC to LA, 29 Jan. 1849), French socialist leader, liked by TC (see TC to JWC, 4 April 1849); exiled in London since Aug. 1848; arrested in Paris and soon returned to England.

Bölte, Amalie Charlotte Elise Mariana (1811–91; see 22:introduction, and JWC to HW, 15 July 1847), German writer and trans. living in England; close friend of the Carlyles and of her regular correspondent Varnhagen von Ense; had recently moved to Upper Cheyne Row.

Boyd, Robert (d. 1831), John Sterling's cousin; executed in Malaga, Dec. 1831, because of his part in the invasion of Spain by a small group of revolutionaries hoping to set up a constitutional monarchy. A number of undergraduates at Trinity Coll., Cambridge, took part in the affair earlier; see Life of Sterling, Works TC to JAC, 15 April 1839.

Braid, Betty, JWC's old nurse, now living in Edinburgh.

Brontë, Charlotte (1816–55; ODNB), novelist; her Jane Eyre (1847) and Shirley (1849), pbd. pseud.; began writing Villette (1853) in 1851.

Brookfield, William Henry (1809–74; ODNB; see JWC to WHB, 1 April 1846), clergyman and school inspector; m., 1841, to Jane Octavia, b. Elton (1821–96), socialite, admired by Thackeray; members of the Ashburton circle.

Brown, Samuel (1817–56; ODNB; see TC to JWC, 27 Aug. 1843), chemist, atomic theorist, lecturer, and writer, of Haddington; admired TC, who largely returned the good opinion; now seriously ill.

Browning, Elizabeth Barrett, b. Moulton Barrett (1806–61; ODNB), poet; admirer of TC; m., 1846, to Robert Browning; living on the Continent, since 1846. Robert Wiedeman Barrett (“Pen”) Browning (1849–1912), their only child.

Browning, Robert (1812–89; ODNB), poet; TC's friend since mid-1830s; their admiration for each other expressed in their letters.

Bruce, John (1802–69); ODNB; see TC to JAC, 23 Nov. 1845), lawyer, antiquary, and ed. of the Gentleman's Magazine.

Buller, Arthur William (1808–69; see TC to JCE, 12 Jan. 1822), judge in India; m., 1842, to Anne Henrietta Maria, b. Templer; with his brother, Charles, had been TC's pupils.

Buller, Charles (1806–48; see TC to JCE, 12 Jan. 1822), Liberal politician.

Buller, Isabella, b. Kirkpatrick (d. 1849); m. to Charles Buller (1774–1848); mother of Charles and Arthur; the Carlyles' friend since 1822.

Bunsen. Christian Karl Josias Bunsen (1791–1860; see TC to JCA, 13 Feb. 1839), Baron Bunsen, known in Britain as Chevalier Bunsen; Prussian ambassador to Britain, 1841–54; m., 1817, to Frances, b. Waddington (1791–1876; ODNB), extremely supportive of TC's career.

Burritt, Elihu (1810–79; see TC to RWE, 18 Dec. 1846), American scholar and linguist; lectured widely on temperance, antislavery, and peace; lived in England, 1846–49, where he started the League of Universal Brotherhood; with Henry Richard arranged the first peace conference, 1848, in Brussels and other conferences in Europe.

Byng, Gerald Frederick (“Poodle”) (1784–1871; see TC to JWC, 8 July 1844), socialite; member of the Ashburton circle.

Calvert, Robert, Isabella Carlyle's brother; traveled widely, particularly in S America; see TC to AC, 10 May 1838. Her brother John was a sheep farmer in Australia (see “New Carlyle Letters,” Carlyle Newsletter 8 [1987]:49).

Cameron, Charles Hay (1795–1880; ODNB), lawyer and colonial administrator in Ceylon and India, 1831–48; member of the Supreme Council of India, 1835; worked on codification of Indian penal laws; m., 1838, to Julia Margaret, b. Pattle (1815–79; ODNB), later famous as a photographer, esp. for portraits of TC and Tennyson, among others.

Carlyle, Alexander (Alick) (1799–1876), TC's brother; emigrated with his family to Canada, 1843, and settled at the Bield, nr. Brantford, Ontario; m., 1830, to Janet (Jenny), b. Clow (1808–91). Jane Welsh Carlyle (1831–84), their da. Thomas (1833–1921), their son. Their son Alexander (1843–1931; see TC to AC, 4 May 1843) m., 1879, Mary Aitken, lived with TC; ed. the Carlyles' letters and TC's other writings.

Carlyle, James (Jamie) (1807–90), TC's brother; farmer at Scotsbrig; m., 1834, to Isabella, b. Calvert (d. 1859), who suffered ill health. Their children were James (b. 1835), who left school, late 1851; John (b. 1836); and Jane (Jessie or Jennie) (1843–74).

Carlyle, John Aitken (Jack and “the Doctor”) (1801–79; ODNB), TC's brother; physician and trans. of Dante.

Carlyle, Margaret Aitken (1771–1853), TC's mother, living with James and Isabella Carlyle at Scotsbrig.

Cavaignac, Louis Eugène (1802–57; see TC to MAC, 25 Nov. 1836, and TC to MAC, 6 July 1848), French republican gen. and political leader; commander of troops in Paris strongly suppressing the June 1848 revolution; overwhelmingly defeated for pres. by Louis Napoleon; imprisoned but released to m., 24 Dec., Louisa Gabrielle, b. Odier; retired to country; brother of TC's friend Godefroy Cavaignac (1801–45; see JWC to JW, 20 March 1848).

Chalmers, Thomas (1780–1847; see JWC to TCH, 21 May 1827, and TC to MAC, 20 Jan. 1843), Scottish church leader and theologian; known to and admired by the Carlyles.

Chambers, Robert (1802–71; ODNB; see TC to JHLH, 18 April 1834), publisher, author, and ed. of Chambers's Edinburgh Journal.

Changarnier, Nicolas Anne Théodule (1793–1877), French soldier; former gov. of Algeria; commander of troops in Paris, 1848–51; banished, 1852, for opposing Louis Napoleon.

Chapman, Edward (1804–80), partner in Chapman & Hall, TC's publisher since 1843.

Chapman, John (1821–94; ODNB; see TC to JCH, 21 March 1844), publisher and author; agent for American publishing firms.

Childs, John (1784–1853; ODNB; see TC to JCHI, 24 Sept. 1841), printer of Bungay, Suffolk.

Chorley, Henry Fothergill (1808–72; ODNB; see TC to MAC, 9 Oct. 1837, and TC to UC, 11 Dec. 1834), music critic for the Athenaeum, 1833–66; author of unsuccessful novels and of plays and memoirs on music; younger brother of John Rutter and Phoebe.

Chorley, Jane, b. Wilkinson (d. 1851; see TC to JWC, 25 July 1834), mother of John, Henry, and Phoebe.

Chorley, John Rutter (1806–67; ODNB; see TC to JWC, 25 July 1843, and TC to JWC, 8 Aug. 1845), the Athenaeum's chief reviewer for works in German, Italian, and Spanish; highly regarded by TC; see Reminiscences (1997) 154.

Chorley, Mary Ann (“Phoebe”) (1801–63), Henry and John's sister.

Chrystal, Andrew (see JWC to JW, 5 Feb. 1846, JWC to JW, 23 June 1849, and TC to JWC, 7 Aug. 1849), Jeannie Welsh's future husband, 1853; lived in Glasgow; little is known of him.

Clark, E. P. (see TC to RWE, 17 Nov. 1843), Boston bank cashier; TC's agent in the U.S.

Clark, Sir James (1788–1870; ODNB; see JWC to TC, 30 Aug. 1838), eminent physician.

Clough, Arthur Hugh (1819–61; ODNB; see TC to AHC, 17 Dec. 1845, and TC to JWC, 3 April 1849), poet; TC's admirer with other young men at Oxford and known to him since 1848; principal of Univ. Hall, London, 1849–52; prof. of English lang. and lit., Univ. Coll., London, 1850–52.

Cochrane, John George (1781–1852; ODNB; see TC to WDC, 7 Dec. 1840), chief librarian of the London Library, 1841–52.

Cole, Henry (1808–82; ODNB; see TC to HGR, 11 Aug. 1835), senior asst. keeper in the Public Record Office, from which he was given leave, 1849, to be on the exec. committee of the Great Exhibition; known to the Carlyles since the 1830s.

Coningham, William (1815–84; see TC to MAC, 24 Oct. 1839), John Sterling's maternal cousin; pbd. Twelve Letters by John Sterling (1851); M.P. for Brighton, 1857–64.

Corrie, Alexander (“Sandy”) (see TC to WG, 24 Dec. 1834), and family of Newfield Farm, nr. Scotsbrig.

Craik, George Lillie (“Creek”) (1798–1866; ODNB; see JWC to SS, 20 Sept. 1835), author; prof. of English lit. and history, Queen's Coll., Belfast, since 1849; friend of the Carlyles since 1835; m., 1826, to Jeannette, b. Dempster (d. 1856; see JWC to TC, 30 Aug. 1838).

Crawfurd, John (1783–1868; ODNB), Orientalist; studied medicine, Edinburgh Univ.; successful diplomat in India and the East but unsuccessful radical candidate in several general elections in the 1830s; friend of John Sterling (see Life of Sterling, Works 11:168).

Croker, John Wilson (1780–1857; ODNB; see JWC to TC, 9 Oct. 1847), Tory politician, essayist, contrib. to and ed. of the Quarterly Review.

Darwin, Erasmus Alvey (1804–81; see TC to JAC, 15 June 1835, and TC to JAC, 17 Feb. 1837), the Carlyles' close friend since 1835; Charles Darwin's brother.

Dickens, Charles (1812–70;ODNB), novelist; friend of the Carlyles since early 1840s; m., 1836, to Catherine Thompson, b. Hogarth (d. 1879). Their da. Dora Annie (1850–51) d., 14 April.

Dilberoglue, Stavros (b. ca. 1821; see JWC to TC, 23 Aug. 1846), Corfu-born Manchester merchant, traditionally Greek; close friend of the Jewsburys, though Geraldine Jewsbury found him too Oriental and despotic; gave Nero to JWC, 1849; lived with his mother and beautiful younger sister, Calliope.

Dobbie, Edward (1773–1857; see TC to JWC, 9 March 1842), retired minister; Mary Russell's father.

Dobell, Sydney Thompson (1824–74; ODNB), poet and critic; a leading member of the “Spasmodic School”; author of The Roman (1850), Balder (1853); m., 1844, to Emily, b. Fordham, who was in ill health. TC had met them at Malvern.

Drummond, Henry (1786–1860; ODNB; see TC to JWC, 17 Aug. 1831), banker, politician, and joint founder of the Catholic Apostolic Church.

Duffy, Charles Gavan (1816–1903; ODNB; see TC to MAC, 28 April 1845), Irish nationalist and ed. of the Nation, whom TC visited in Ireland, 1846 and 1849; elected M.P. for New Ross, 1852.

Eddisbury. See Stanley, Edward John.

Ellice, Edward, the elder (“Bear”) (1783–1863; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 28 Jan. 1847), politician and deputy gov. of the Hudson Bay Co.; Lord Ashburton's close friend and colleague.

Emerson, Ralph Waldo (1803–82; see TC to JAC, 27 Aug. 1833), New England Transcendentalist philosopher, essayist, and poet; known to TC since 1833 and, despite differences, they felt close ties with each other.

Erskine, Thomas (1788–1870; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 1 Feb. 1838), theologian and former advocate, of Linlathen, Dundee.

Espinasse, Francis (1823–1912; see TC to FEHD, 1 Feb. 1841), journalist and writer; formerly with the Manchester Examiner and, since 1848, sec. of the National Public School Assoc.; TC's protégé; son of François, French language teacher, of 5 Hill St., Edinburgh.

Farie, Robert (1813–82; see TC to JAC, 20 Nov. 1846), nonpracticing barrister of independent means; trans. of German works, known to the Carlyles since 1846.

Farrer, Annie Louisa (b. ca. 1828; see TC to JAC, 11 Sept. 1848), member of the Ashburton circle; younger sister of Mary Farrer.

Fergus, John (d. 1865; see JWC to TC, 17 July 1837), Kirkcaldy friend of the Carlyles; M.P. for Fife; brother of Jessie Fergus and Elizabeth Pepoli.

FitzGerald, Edward (1809–83; ODNB; see TC to EF, 18 Sept. 1842), poet and trans.; TC's friend since 1842.

Fleming, Henry (“The Flea”) (d. 1876; see TC to JWC, 15 July 1844), socialite and intimate of the Ashburton circle; asst. sec. of the poor law board.

Ford, Richard (1796– 1858; ODNB), critic and author of books on Spain; m. 3dly, 12 June 1851, Mary (d. 1910), only da. of Sir Arscott Ourry Molesworth (1789–1823), bart., and sister of Sir William Molesworth (1810–55; ODNB), bart.

Forster, John (“Fuz”) (1812–76; ODNB; see TC to GE, 15 Feb. 1832, and TC to JF, 17 Jan. 1839), historian, journalist, biographer, and ed. of the Examiner since 1848; friend of the Carlyles since the late 1830s; literary adviser to TC.

Foucault, Jean Bernard Léon (1819–68), French physicist; by means of a pendulum showed the rotation of the earth.

Foxton, Frederic Joseph (1807?–70), lapsed Church of Wales clergyman; B.A., 1829, Pembroke Coll., Oxford; author of Popular Christianity (1849) and The Priesthood and the People. TC sometimes found him wearisome but a thorough gentleman.

Frewen, Thomas (1811–70; see TC to TF, 21 Feb. 1849), with whom TC had corresponded about Cromwell.

Fuller, Sarah Margaret. See Ossoli, Margaret.

Gambardella, Spiridione (see TC to RWE, 19 Nov. 1841, and JWC to JW, 16 Nov. 1842), Italian portrait painter and political exile; in U.S., 1835–40, before coming to Britain and being introduced to the Carlyles by a letter from Emerson.

Garthwaite, Tom, Ecclefechan tailor.

Gaskell, Elizabeth Cleghorn, b. Stevenson (1810–65; ODNB), writer; author of Mary Barton (1848) and Cranford, beginning to be serialized in Household Words, Dec.; Frances Wedgwood's second cousin; met the Carlyles on a visit to London, spring 1849, and maintained a slightly uneasy relationship; m., 1832, to William (1805–84; ODNB), Unitarian minister, Cross St. Chapel, Manchester, and prof. of English hist. and lit., Manchester New Coll., 1846–53. TC stayed with them, 19 Sept. JWC describes her as “kind” and “cheery” “in her own house” but morally dull, like “all Socinian women.”

Gavazzi, Alessandro (1809–89), former Roman Catholic priest; in Naples until removed to Rome, 1840, for his liberal views; left Italy, 1849, and in U.S. and England, 1849, campaigned through lectures and a periodical against priests and Jesuits.

Gilfillan, George (1813–78; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 29 Oct. 1840, and TC to JWC, 12 Aug. 1843), author and Presbyterian minister, Dundee; both admired and criticized TC.

Gordon, John (d. 1882; see TC to AC, 29 March 1827), school inspector; former gen. sec. of Edinburgh Univ.; TC's old friend.

Graham, William (1770– 1860; see TC to WG, 15 Sept. 1820, and later vols.), TC's old friend living on the slopes of Burnswark, where he formerly farmed, 3 mi. N of Ecclefechan. He had two or three brothers, all of whom had emigrated to N America.

Grey. Henry George Grey (1802–94; ODNB; see TC to JWC, 8 July 1844), 3d Earl Grey; sec. for the colonies, 1846–52; leader of Whigs in House of Lords; m., 1832, to Maria, b. Copley (1803–79); known to TC since 1844.

Grier, Mary (d. 1861; see TC to JCA, 26 Dec. 1843, and TC to JCA, 25 March 1847), possibly a relative of James Aitken.

Gully, James Manby (1808–83; ODNB), physician, famous for hydropathic therapy of disease at Malvern, 1842–71; lived with his two younger sisters—Ann and Helen—and his three children—Charles, 19, Susanna, 18, and William, 16; first wife d., 1838; m., 1841, Mrs. Kibble, a wealthy widow, seventeen years his senior, but they separated eighteen mos. later.

Hamilton, Alexander, brother and business partner of William Hamilton.

Hamilton, William (d. 1851; see TC to JAC, 11 Feb. 1840), Scottish-born merchant and TC's good friend; m. to Elizabeth, b. Martin (1799–1859), Edward Irving's sister-in-law.

Hanna, William (1808–82; ODNB; see TC to WH, 22 Nov. 1847), theological writer; son-in-law and biographer of Thomas Chalmers (see TC to TCH, 20 Feb. 1847).

Hanning, Janet Carlyle (1813–97), TC's sister; m. to Robert (d. 1878), who had emigrated to Canada; separated since 1841 but rejoined him in Canada, in Aug., with their two das., Margaret (b. 1838) and May (b. 1840).

Harland, John (1806–68; ODNB; see TC to JHA, 5 Jan. 1845), reporter for the Manchester Guardian and Lancashire local historian; originally wrote to TC about omissions from the first edn. of Cromwell; friend of Espinasse.

Helps, Arthur (1813–75; ODNB; see JWC to TC, 4 July 1843), writer and historian of private means; clerk to the privy council, 1860; friend of the Carlyles since early 1840s; m., 1836, to Elizabeth (Bessy), b. Fuller (see JWC to TC, 17 July 1843). His mother was Ann, b. Frisquet.

Herford, Edward (1814/15–96), Manchester solicitor, 1837–68; coroner at Manchester, 1849–96; prominent layman of the Church of England; cofounder of the English Church Union, 1861.

Hiddlestone, Margaret, former servant of JWC's mother.

Hill, Lord George A. (1801–79; see TC to JAC, 18 June 1849), Protestant, improving landlord of Donegal; visited by TC, 1849.

Hill, Rowland (1795–1879; ODNB), introducer of penny postage.

Hogg, James (1806–88; ODNB), ed. of Hogg's Weekly Instructor (changed to The Instructor, 1849), 1845–59; pbd. principal works of George Gilfillan and collected works of Thomas De Quincey.

Howe, Joseph (1804–73; ODNB), Nova Scotia politician, journalist, and orator; m., 1828, to Catherine Susan, b. McNab; owned and ed. The Nova Scotian, from 1828; M.P. for Halifax, 1836; member of the exec. council and speaker of the House of Assembly, 1840; delegate from Nova Scotia to England, Nov. 1850–April 1851; sec. of state for the lower provinces, 1870–73; gov. of Nova Scotia, 1873.

Hunt, James Henry Leigh (1784– 1859; ODNB), essayist, poet, and former neighbor of the Carlyles.

Inglis, Henry (1806–86; see TC to JAC, 29 Nov. 1827), Edinburgh lawyer, businessman, and versifier whom the Carlyles had known since the 1820s.

Ireland, Alexander (1810–94; ODNB; see TC to JCH, 28 Jan. 1847), journalist and man of letters; publisher and business manager of the Manchester Examiner, 1846–86.

Irving, Edward (1792–1834; see TC to RM, 12 Feb. 1817, later vols., and Reminiscences), preacher and religious leader; the Carlyles' great friend.

Jeffrey, Lord Francis (1773–1850; see TC to AC, 26 Jan. 1820, and later vols.), lawyer, judge, and lit. critic; early friend and benefactor of the Carlyles.

Jewsbury, Geraldine Endsor (1812–80; ODNB; see TC to GEJ, 12 April 1840), novelist, reviewer, and gen. writer; friend of the Carlyles since early 1840s and increasingly of JWC; lived with her brother Francis (Frank) Harding (1819–78) as his housekeeper. Her eldest brother, Thomas Smith (b. 1802), also lived in Manchester.

Johnston, George (see TC to JAC, 25 Nov. 1842, and TC to JAC, 20 May 1846), physician and farmer; M.D., 1822; practiced in Marsden, Cheshire, then in Liverpool, till some time after 1838; switched to farming in Gloucester; brother of TC's student friend James Johnston.

Ker, Alan (1819–85; see TC to JWC, 19 July 1844), barrister; apptd. attorney gen., Antigua, 1851, and sailed there, 1852; m., 4 July 1851, to Mary, b. Tennyson (1810–84), Alfred Tennyson's sister; Ann Scott's nephew.

Kingsley, Charles (1819–75; ODNB), author, Broad Churchman, and Christian Socialist; author of Alton Locke (1850) and Yeast (1851), both pbd. anon.; m., 1844, to Fanny, b. Grenfell (1814–91).

Kossuth, Lajos (1802–94), leader of the Hungarian insurrection against Austria, 1848–49; driven into exile to Turkey, where imprisoned, 1849–51; arrived in England, 21 Oct. 1851; then left for U.S.

Laborde. Marquis Léon Emmanuel Simon Joseph de Laborde (1807–69), politician and art historian; curator of the medieval and Renaissance collections, the Louvre, with special interest in printing techniques and engraving; reported on the practical arts at the Great Exhibition, 1851.

Lambton, Lady Alice Anne Caroline, youngest child of John George Lambton (1792–1840), 1st earl of Durham. Lord Grey was her maternal uncle.

Landseer, Sir Edwin Henry (1802–73; ODNB), admired animal painter; member of the Ashburton circle; painter of portraits of Lord and Lady Ashburton.

Lansdowne. Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice (1780–1863; ODNB; see TC to JF, 17 Jan. 1839), 3d marquess of Lansdowne; Whig politician; pres. of the council under Grey, Melbourne, and Russell; respected as patron of the arts and lit.; known to TC since they joined in founding the London Library.

Laurence, Samuel (1812–84; ODNBsee TC to JCA, 6 July 1838), portrait painter of many in TC's circle; friend of the Carlyles and close friend of James Spedding.

Layard, Austen Henry (1817–94; ODNB), archaeologist; excavator of the Assyrian city of Nineveh, 1849–51; attaché to the British embassy, Constantinople, 1849–51; returned to England, 1851, to devote himself to politics; brought back many sculptured figures and pbd. accounts of his discoveries.

Ledru-Rollin, Alexandre Auguste (1807–74; see TC to JWC, 10 April 1848), French lawyer and radical politician; minister for the interior in the provisional govt., 1848, and candidate for pres., 1848; unsuccessfully moved Louis Napoleon's impeachment and was deported, 1849, after leading a demonstration against the govt.; in England joined a revolutionary committee of Europe with Mazzini and Kossuth; returned to France, 1870, where he advocated universal suffrage and was a member of the legislature at the time of his death.

Lewald, Fanny (1811–89), German Sandian novelist and writer of travel books; Amalie Bölte's friend.

Lewes, George Henry (“Ape”) (1817–78; ODNB; see TC to UC, 16 Oct. 1839), author, journalist, and coed. with Thornton Hunt of the Leader; known to the Carlyles since 1835; m., 1841, to Agnes, b. Jervis (1822–1902; see TC to JAC, 26 Aug. 1848).

Lind, Johanna Maria (Jenny) (1820–87; ODNB), admired Swedish soprano.

Lucas, Frederick (1812–55; ODNB; see TC to JF, 16 May 1840), journalist and Irish nationalist; owner and ed. of the Tablet, from 1840; M.P. for Meath, 1852–55.

Lynn (Linton from 1858), Eliza (1822–98; ODNB), novelist and misc. writer; on staff of the Morning Chronicle.

Lytton, Sir Edward George Earle Lytton Bulwer (1803–73; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 11 March 1839, TC to JSM, 23 March 1839, TC to JAC, 15 April 1839), bart.; novelist, dramatist, and poet; formerly a Liberal M.P. but temporarily out of politics; m., 1827, to Rosina, b. Wheeler; not respected by TC. Lytton sent TC a formal, lithographed letter asking him to be a steward at Macready's farewell dinner, 1 March 1851, and TC sent it to Varnhagen, noting, “It is exact enough to Bulwer's hand. I did not go to the Macready dinner; having no enthusiasm at all in the Dinner direction” (MS: Jagiellonian Univ.).

Lytton, Rosina, b. Wheeler (1802–82; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 15 April 1839), Lady Bulwer Lytton; novelist; officially separated from Edward since 1836 and, feeling unjustly treated, attacked him through her fiction.

Macaulay, Thomas Babington (1800–1859; ODNB), lawyer, politician, orator, essayist, and historian.

Maccall, William (1812–88; ODNB; see TC to WM, 5 Aug. 1848), author and Unitarian preacher; friend of TC, who said he had taken up Unitarianism and was now “completely stranded” (Espinasse 199).

M'Diarmid, John (1790–1852; ODNB; see TC to RM, 12 Feb. 1817, and TC to AC, 10 Jan. 1821), ed. of the Dumfries Courier; m., 1819, Anne, b. McKnight (d. 1850; see TC to JWC, 27 Sept. 1838, and TC to JWC, 12 Aug. 1843).

M'Queen, Tom, tenant of Craigenputtoch.

Macready, William Charles (1793–1873; ODNB), actor-manager; retired, 26 Feb. 1851; m. to Catherine Frances, b. Atkins (1805–52); the Carlyles' friends since 1839; moved to Sherborne, Dorset, 1850.

Mahon. Philip Henry Stanhope (1805–75; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 11 March 1839, 25:biographical note), styled Viscount Mahon; historian and politician.

Marshall, James (see TC to JMA, 3 June 1847, and TC to MAC, 19 June 1847), Scottish-born asst. to the grand duke and duchess of Weimar.

Marshall, James Garth (1802–73; see TC to MAC, 12 June 1838, and TC to JGM, 13 Oct. 1846), Leeds flax manufacturer and M.P.; m., 1841, to Mary Alicia Perry, b. Spring Rice (1812–75), da. of Lord Monteagle.

Marshall, William James (1796–1872; see TC to MAC, 12 June 1838) of Patterdale Hall, Hallsteads, on Ullswater; James Garth's brother; m., 1828, to Georgiana Christiana, b. Hibbert.

Martineau, Harriet (1802–76; ODNB; see TC to LEM, 21 Feb. 1841), journalist and writer of all kinds, esp. on public affairs; once a Unitarian, now a freethinker; known to the Carlyles since 1836, she and TC held each other in mutual esteem, and occasionally she and JWC were in disagreement.

Masson, David (1822–1907; ODNB; see JWC to TC, 24 July 1843), journalist, biographer, and ed.; close friend of both Carlyles.

Maurice, Frederick Denison (1805–72; ODNB; see JWC to JCA, 13 Aug. 1835), Broad Church leader and Christian Socialist; prof. of English lit. and history, King's Coll., London, 1840–53; attacked by Croker in Quarterly Review, 1851, for heresy but subsequently acquitted by a committee of enquiry; m. 2dly, 1849, to Georgiana, b. Hare (d. 1896; see TC to JWC, 5 April 1849).

Mazzini, Giuseppe (1805–72; see TC to JSM, 6 Dec. 1839), Italian revolutionary and friend of the Carlyles, particularly JWC, since the late 1830s. Returned to London, he continued to keep alive active resistance to Austrian domination in Italy.

Menteath, Menteth. See Stuart-Menteth.

Mérimée, Prosper (1803–70), novelist, short-story writer, historian, and trans. from the Russian into French; friend of the Ashburtons; now a political figure under Louis Napoleon.

Mildmay, Henry Bingham (1828–1905; see JWC to TC, 1 July 1849), Lord Ashburton's nephew; Humphrey Francis's brother.

Mildmay, Humphrey Francis (1825–66; see TC to RWE, 17 April 1849), son of Humphrey St. John and Anne Eugenia; later M.P. for Herefordshire.

Mildmay, Humphrey St. John (1794–1853; see TC to RWE, 17 April 1849), M.P. for Southampton and director of the Bank of England; m., 1823, Anne Eugenia, b. Baring (d. 1839), Lord Ashburton's eldest sister; m. 2ndly, 1843, Marianne Frances, b. Harcourt Vernon (d. 1873).

Mill, Harriet, b. Hardy (1807–58); widow (m. 1826) of John Taylor (1796–1849); m., 21 April 1851, J. S. Mill, whom she had known since 1830 and on whose thinking she had a profound influence. The MS of the first vol. of TC's French Revolution was burnt while in her care.

Mill, John Stuart (1806–73; ODNB), philosophical writer, logician, and economist; administrator (examiner) at India House since 1823; earlier friendship with and admiration of TC in recent years attenuated because of differences in temperament and on social questions; believed that TC, like other friends, disapproved of his marriage to Harriet Taylor.

Mills, Mary (d. 1854), JWC's mother's servant.

Milnes, Richard Monckton (1809–85; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 14 July 1836), Conservative M.P., society figure, and author; m., 31 July 1851, Annabella Hungerford, b. Crewe (1814–74), da. of 2d Baron Crewe; lost practical interest in politics after 1851 and devoted himself largely to literature.

Mitchell, Helen (see JWC to MAC, 27 Oct. 1840, and JWC to JCA, 1 May 1849), the Carlyles’ maid, 1837–46; left to keep house for her brother; returned, 1848–49; dismissed for drunkenness.

Montégut, Jean Baptiste Joseph Émile (1825–95), French literary critic and trans.; joined staff of Revue des Deux Mondes, 1847, and wrote widely on England and American literature, including TC. For TC's influence on Montégut, see Burkhart Küster, Die Literatur des 19. Jahrhunderts im Urteil von Emile Montégut (Tübingen, 1982).

Moxon, Edward (bap. 1801, d. 1858; ODNB), publisher.

Murray, John (1808–92; ODNB), publisher of Albemarle St.

Napoleon. Louis Napoleon Bonaparte (1808–73), nephew of Napoleon I and pres. of France since Dec. 1848; known to TC when in exile in London, 1846–48 (see TC to MAC, 26 May 1849).

Neuberg, Joseph (1806–67; see TC to JN, 21 Dec. 1839, and 25:biographical note), German-born retired businessman in Nottingham; naturalized Briton, 1845; currently living with his sister, Rosette or Rosetta (d. 1898; see JWC to JN, 3 July 1849), in Bonn; met TC, 1848; trans. TC's work.

Newton, Robert Nodes (1813?–64; see TC to JAC, 4 Sept. 1847), textile manufacturer; m. to Sarah Ann (b. 1821?); father of three sons and three das.; living at Longcar Cottage, Barnsley, Yorks.

O'Connell, Daniel (1775–1847), Irish political leader called the “Liberator”; denounced by TC for fostering dissension and as the “father of lies” for promising repeal of the act of union while knowing it impossible.

Ossoli, Sarah Margaret, b. Fuller (1810–50; see TC to JAC, 8 Oct. 1846, and TC to RWE, 30 Nov. 1847), American writer, lecturer, and social reformer; visited the Carlyles, Oct. 1846; in Italy fell in love with the Marchese Giovanni Angelo Ossoli (1820–50); they and their son drowned in a shipwreck off Fire Island, N.Y., 19 July 1850.

Owen, Richard (1804–92; ODNB; see TC to JWC, 26 Aug. 1842), naturalist; first Hunterian prof. of comparative anatomy and physiology, Royal Coll. of Surgeons, 1836–56; m., 1835, to Caroline Amelia, b. Clift (d. 1873), da. of William Clift (see TC to JWC, 26 Aug. 1842), Owen's assoc. at the Royal Coll., who taught herself several languages and comparative anatomy.

Owens, John (1790–1846), Manchester merchant; founder of Owens Coll.

Palmerston. Henry John Temple (1784–1865; ODNB), 3d Viscount Palmerston; Whig foreign minister since 1846; believer in active diplomacy in support of liberalism and British interests overseas; in disfavor with Queen Victoria.

Panizzi, Anthony (1797–1879; ODNB), keeper of printed books at the British Museum, whose management of the catalogue and collection had long been disapproved by TC (see TC to LOA, 6 Feb. 1849).

Parker, John William (1792–1870; ODNB; see TC to ES, 14 May 1847), publisher and printer; pbd. Fraser's Magazine, 1847–63.

Paterson, David (Davie) (1791–1867; see TC to JWC, 12 Sept. 1843), Thomas Erskine's sister; m., 1821, to James Paterson (1795–1856); living at Linlathen.

Patmore, Coventry Kersey Dighton (1823–96; ODNB), poet; asst. in the book dept., British Museum Library, since 1846; close friend of Tennyson and Ruskin.

Patten, George (1801–65; ODNB), portrait and historical painter, of Greenheys, Manchester; with his wife known to the Carlyles through Geraldine Jewsbury and Elizabeth Paulet.

Paulet, Elizabeth (Betsey), b. Newton (1806–79; see TC to JWC, 19 July 1841), wealthy, high-spirited social and political liberal; strong feminist, of Seaforth Hall, nr. Liverpool; former friend of Geraldine Jewsbury and JWC but, after sharp disagreements, no longer seeing them; widow of Mark Étienne Paulet (d. 1850), apparently a Swiss businessman at Liverpool, where he was Swiss consul. Julia (b. ca. 1830), their da.

Pauli, Reinhold (1823–82), private sec. to Bunsen, 1849–52; future historian and author, esp. of books on English history.

Paxton, Joseph (1803–65; ODNB), gardener and architect; designer of the Crystal Palace and knighted at its opening; employee and friend of the duke of Devonshire, for whom he was administrator of Chatsworth.

Peel, Sir Robert (1788–1850), 2d bart.; former prime minister.

Perry, John George (1802–70), surgeon; qualified at St. Bartholomew's Hospital; hon. sec. of the Medical and Cirurgical Soc.; a medical inspector of prisons for the S and W districts, 1843–70; supporter of the “separate system” (in effect, solitary confinement), maintaining it had no ill-effect on health.

Piper, John (see JWC to TC, 11 Sept. 1847), the Carlyles' postman of 15 Radnor St., King's Rd., Chelsea. His wife was occasionally a servant at Cheyne Row.

Pius IX. Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti (1792–1878), pope, 1846–78; returned to Rome, April 1850, after being forced to flee and now relying on French support.

Plattnauer, Robert (see JWC to JW, 29 Aug. 1844), Prussian exile of liberal or even revolutionary persuasion; evidently of good family; brother of Hedwig von Reichenbach; apparently introduced to the Carlyles by Godefroy Cavaignac and befriended by them; subject to periods of insanity; formerly tutor to Lord George Hill's children in Ireland, where TC saw him in 1849, but he had since returned to England.

Prentice, Archibald (1792–1857; ODNB), Scottish-born radical ed. of the Manchester Times, 1828–47; a founder of the Anti-Corn Law League, 1838; author of A Tour of the United States (1848), Historical Sketches and Personal Recollections of Manchester (1851), A History of the Anti-Corn-Law League (1853), and other works.

Prescott, William Hickling (1796–1859; see TC to MAC, 11 June 1850, and 25:biographical note), American historian; author of History of the Conquest of Mexico, 3 vols. (Boston, 1843), and History of the Conquest of Peru (Boston, 1847); m., 1820, to Susan, b. Amory.

Procter, Bryan Waller (“Barry Cornwall”) (1787–1874; ODNB; see TC to JBW, 23 June 1824, and TC to JAC, 31 Aug. 1832), poet and barrister; m., 1824, to Anne Benson, b. Skepper (b. 1799; see JBW to TC, 14 Oct. 1823); both old friends of the Carlyles.

Quadrio, Maurizio (1800–1876), private sec. to the Roman Triumvirs; after the fall of the republic, July 1849, went into exile in Marseilles and then in Geneva and Lausanne; came to London, 1851.

Rawlinson, Henry Creswicke (1810–95; ODNB; see JWC to TC, 8 Oct. 1850), retired officer of the E India Co.; now consul in Baghdad and expert Assyriologist; recently deciphering the cuneiform inscription of Darius at Behistun, found the key to Assyrian and Babylonian records.

Redwood, Charles (1802–54; see TC to CR, 9 Jan. 1840), Welsh solicitor and TC's admirer.

Reichenbach, Count Oskar von (b. 1815; see JWC to JW, 9 Jan. 1844), Silesian landowner; liberal deputy to Frankfurt parliament, 1848–49; forced into exile and came to London with his family, 1850; m. to Hedwig, b. Plattnauer; living at Paulton's Sq., Chelsea.

Repp, Thorleifur Gudmundsson (1794–1857; see TC to NHJ, 15 April 1827, and TC to JWC, 17 Aug. 1831), librarian and linguist; known to TC and John Carlyle when an asst. in the Advocates' Library, 1825–34; author of the Danish dictionary used by TC, 1851.

Revis (or Revys), Theresa (“Tizzy”) (b. 1832; see TC to MAC, 24 Feb. 1840, and JWC to AB, 6 April 1840, JWC to AB, 10 April 1849), adopted da. of Isabella Buller; da. of Arthur Buller's former mistress, who also was named Theresa.

Richard, Henry (1812–88; ODNB), Welsh-born Congregational minister in Old Kent Rd., 1835–50; peace advocate, called the “Apostle of Peace”; became sec. of the Peace Society, 1848; shortly before the Frankfurt peace conference, 1850, resigned the ministry because of his work in the peace movement.

Robson, Charles, of Levey, Robson & Franklyn, printers, 23 New St., Fetter Lane; TC's printer since 1837.

Ruskin, John (1819–1900; ODNB), author, art critic, and social reformer; m., 1848, to Euphemia Chalmers, b. Gray (1827–97); spent winters, 1849 and 1850, in Venice; author of vols. 1 and 2 of Modern Painters (1843, 1846), The Seven Lamps of Architecture (1849), and vol. 1 of The Stones of Venice (1851).

Russell, Lord John (1792–1878; ODNB), prime minister, 1846–52.

Russell, Mary, b. Dobbie (d. 1875; see TC to AC, 7 April 1832), m. to Dr. James Russell, of Holmhill, Thornhill, Dumfries; friends of JWC and her mother.

Saffi, Count Aurelio (1819–90), Italian poet and politician; with Mazzini a triumvir of the short-lived Roman republic; in exile in Switzerland, 1850, he had recently come to London.

Salmon, Henry (b. ca. 1800), rector of Swarraton, Hants., nr. the Grange, 1831–74; m. with two das.

Sand, George, pseud. of Amandine Aurore Lucie Dudevant, b. Dupin (1803–76; see TC to MN, 21 June 1841, and TC to GEJ, 13 Dec. 1848), French novelist, with strong influence on JWC and many of her friends; after taking an active part in the 1848 revolution and provisional govt., retired to Nohant.

Sandwich. Mary Anne Julia Louisa Harriet Montagu, b. Lowry-Corry (1781–1862; see TC to MAC, 3 Sept. 1848), dowager countess of Sandwich; m., 1804, George John Montagu (1773–1818), 6th earl; Lady Ashburton's mother.

Scott, Alexander John (1805–66; ODNB; see TC to JWC, 22 Aug. 1831, and TC to AJS, 25 Jan. 1838), prof. of English lang. and lit., Univ. Coll., London, 1848–51; became the first principal of Owens Coll., Manchester, 1851; m., 1830, Anne, b. Ker (d. 1888; see TC to AKS, 16 Feb. 1838).

Senior, Nassau William (1790–1864; ODNB), political economist; known to the Carlyles since the mid-1830s; m. 1821, to Mary Charlotte, b. Mair.

Sketchley, Penelope (see JWC to JW, 21 Nov. 1842, and JWC to JW, 12 Nov. 1843), picture copier; formerly of Liverpool, now living in London; often accompanied by her mother, an aspiring novelist.

Smith, John Stores (1828–92/93; see TC to JSS, 14 Oct. 1848), Manchester businessman, writer, and social commentator; influenced by TC's views on society, as shown in his Social Aspects (1850), which praises TC's “wonderful mind.” See John Evans, Lancashire Authors and Orators (1850), for his work for the Lancaster Public School Assoc.

Spedding, James (1808–81; ODNB; see JWC to JCA, 13 Aug. 1835, and TC to TSS, 20 Sept. 1845), authority on Francis Bacon; former sec. in the colonial office, from which he retired, 1841.

Spedding, John (1770–1851), father of T. S. and James; m. to Sarah (d. 1842); lived at Mirehouse, Cumbria; at school with Wordsworth.

Spedding, Thomas Story (1800–1870; see TC to TSS, 17 Feb. 1838), Cumberland landowner of Greta Bank, nr. Keswick; James's brother; friend of TC since early 1840s; m. 2dly, 1839, to Frances Emily, b. Headlam (d. 1896).

Stanley of Bickerstaffe. Edward George Geoffrey Smith Stanley (1799–1869; ODNB), Baron Stanley of Bickerstaffe; Conservative opponent of free trade; colonial sec., 1833–34, 1841–46; resigned when Peel declared in favor of free trade (see TC to RMM, 4 Feb. 1846); brilliant spokesman on foreign affairs, 1848–51; attempted unsuccessfully to form a Conservative govt., 1851; succeeded as 14th earl of Derby, June 1851.

Stanley of Alderley. Edward John Stanley (1802–69; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 27 Feb. 1840), 2d Baron Stanley of Alderley; created Baron Eddisbury of Winnington, 1848; succeeded as 2d Baron, 1850; m. to Henrietta Maria, b. Dillon (1807–95; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 27 Feb. 1840); both old friends of Carlyles; parents of nine children.

Stanley, Henrietta Blanche (1829–1921), 2nd da. of Lord and Lady Stanley of Alderley; friend and confidante of JWC and admirer of TC; became Lady Airlie, Sept. See Airlie.

Stanley, Maria Josepha, b. Holroyd (1771–1863), dowager Baroness Stanley of Alderley, widow of John Thomas Stanley (1766–1850), 1st Baron and mother of the 2d.

Sterling, Anthony Coningham (1805–71; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 2 Dec. 1836, and later vols.), retired army capt. on half-pay; guardian of his brother John's children, except the elder son, Edward; friend of the Carlyles since 1837, although differences between him and his admired JWC had begun to show; m., 1829, to Charlotte, b. Baird (d. 1863; see JWC to HW, 9 Jan. 1845, and JWC to HW, 9 Jan. 1845), who suffered attacks of insanity and jealousy of JWC.

Sterling, Hester, b. Coningham (d. 1843), John and Anthony's mother; m. Edward Sterling (1773–1847).

Sterling, John (1806–44; see TC to JSM, 27 May 1835), TC's beloved friend. Edward Coningham (b. 1831; see JWC to HW, 9 Jan. 1845), his eldest child, had lived in Manchester with Francis William Newman, his “sole Guardian” according to his father's will. Julia Maria (1836–1910), Catherine Susan (Kate) (1834–60), and Anna Charlotte (Lotta) were his das.

Stirling, Susan, b. Hunter (1799–1877; see JWC to SS, 30 June 1835, and JWC to SS, 8 Jan. 1841), m. to James Stirling (d. 1876), engineer; living in Dundee.

Stirling, William (1818–78; ODNB; see TC to WS, 24 Feb. 1848), historical writer and art expert of Keir, Stirling.

Stodart, John Riddle (d. 1871; see JWC to TC, 5 Sept. 1849), JWC's old suitor; m., 1826, to Jemima Henrietta, b. Brown (1807–65).

Story, William Wetmore (1819–95; see TC to JHLH, 21 June 1850, and 25:biographical note), American sculptor; m., 1843, to Emelyn Eldredge (d. 1894); giving up practice of law in Boston, studied sculpture and painting in Italy, 1847–50; settled permanently in Rome, 1856; friends of the Brownings.

Taylor, Harriet. See Mill.

Taylor, Henry (1800–1886; ODNB; see TC to MAC, 10 Nov. 1831), author and civil servant; m. to Theodosia Alice, b. Spring Rice (1818–91; see JWC to TC, 9 Sept. 1839), Lord Monteagle's da.

Tennyson, Alfred (1809–92; ODNB), poet laureate since 1850; friend of the Carlyles since early 1840s; m., 1850, to Emily Sarah, b. Sellwood (1813–96).

Thackeray, William Makepeace (1811–63; ODNB; see JWC to TC, 3 Aug. 1837, TC to JAC, 3 Aug. 1837, and later vols.), novelist; friend of the Carlyles since 1830s; intimate member of the Ashburton circle; after Vanity Fair (1847–48) and Pendennis (1849–50) began lecturing on the “English Humourists,” 1851, and writing Henry Esmond (1852). Anne (Annie) Isabella (1837–1919; ODNB) and Harriet Marian (Minny) (1840–75; ODNB), his das.

Thiers, Louis Adolphe (1797–1877; see TC to LAAL, 20 Oct. 1845), French politician and historian; friend of the Ashburtons; m., 1833, to Elise, b. Dosne (ca. 1812–80); champion of order in the constituent and legislative assemblies in 1851, but arrested and exiled, 2 Dec.

Torrijos, José Maria (1798?–1831), leader of the abortive expedition to Spain in which John Sterling and his Cambridge companions were involved.

Trollope, Frances (1779–1863; ODNB), prolific novelist and writer of travel books in support of her family; mother of Anthony (1815–82; ODNB), novelist.

Tufnell, Edward Carleton (1806–86), asst. poor law commissioner, 1835–74.

Twisleton (often mispelled “Twistleton” by TC), Edward Turner Boyd (1809–74; ODNB), public servant; B.A., Oxford, 1829; fellow of Balliol Coll., 1830–38; barrister, 1835; asst. poor law commissioner, 1839; chief commissioner of the poor laws in Ireland, 1839–49; resigned in protest at govt. policy; investigated public schools in New England, 1850; m., 1852, Ellen Dwight (d. 1862), whom he met in Boston; close and respected friend of the Carlyles.

Varnhagen von Ense, Karl August (1785–1858; see TC to KAVE, 13 Dec. 1837), German soldier, diplomat, and biographer, with whom TC had corresponded since 1837 and whose “Memoirs” he reviewed, 1838 (Works 29:77–117); his curiosity about the Carlyles met through his correspondence with Amalie Bölte; received from TC autograph letters for his collection; m., 1814, Rahel Antonie Friederike, b. Levin (1771–1833; see TC to KAVE, 31 Dec. 1837).

Villiers, Charles Pelham (1802–98; ODNB), official of the court of chancery, 1833–52; M.P. for Wolverhampton, 1835–98.

Walewski, Count Alexandre Florian Joseph Colonna (1810–68), soldier and politician; natural son of Napoleon I and the Polish countess Marie Walewska; naturalized French, 1833, and officer in Algeria, till 1837; French ambassador to Florence, Naples, and Spain and then to Britain, 1851. His first wife (m. 1831) was Lady Catherine Caroline, b. Montagu (d. 1834), younger da. of Lady Sandwich; and his second (m. 1846) was Marianne, b. Ricci (b. 1823).

Warburton, Bartholomew Elliott George (known as Eliot) (1810–52; ODNB), misc. writer, qualified as a barrister; author of Memoirs of Prince Rupert and the Cavaliers, 3 vols. (1849), and The Crescent and the Cross, or, Romance and Realities of Eastern Travel, 2 vols. (1845); friend of Milnes; m., 1848, to Matilda Jane, b. Grove (1820–61).

Wedgwood, Frances (Fanny), b. Mackintosh (1800–1889; see TC to HWE, 11 Dec. 1836), friend of the Carlyles since 1836; m., 1832, to Hensleigh (1803–91; ODNB; see TC to HWE, 11 Dec. 1836), grandson of Josiah Wedgwood of Etruria (1730–95); mathematician and philologist.

Welsh, Alexander (Alick), oldest child of JWC's maternal uncle, John; m., 1848, to Sophy, b. Martin; living in Liverpool.

Welsh, Ann (d. 1877; see TC to JWC, 10 March 1842, and JWC to JW, 26 June 1843), JWC's paternal aunt, living in Edinburgh.

Welsh, Elizabeth (d. 1877; see TC to JWC, 10 March 1842, and JWC to JW, 26 June 1843), JWC's paternal aunt, living in Edinburgh.

Welsh, Grace (1782–1842), JWC's mother.

Welsh, Grace (d. 1867; see TC to JWC, 10 March 1842, and JWC to JW, 26 June 1843), JWC's paternal aunt, living in Edinburgh.

Welsh, Helen (ca. 1813–53), da. of JWC's maternal uncle, John Welsh.

Welsh, Jeannie (“Babbie”), da. of JWC's maternal uncle, John Welsh.

Welsh, John (d. 1853), JWC's maternal uncle; retired brass and copper founder; living at 20 Maryland St., Liverpool; m. to Mary (d. 1838; see TC to AC, 15 Oct. 1838 for her death).

Welsh, John (1824–59; ODNB; see JWC to MW, 20 Aug. 1842), meteorologist; son of JWC's paternal uncle, George (1793–1835), and of Margaret, b. Kissock (1803–88; see JWC to MW, 22 Feb. 1841, and JWC to MW, 28 Feb. 1846); apptd. asst. at Kew Observatory, 1850.

Welsh, John (d. 1860), the youngest child of JWC's maternal uncle, John Welsh.

Welsh, Mary (“Morning Star”), youngest da. of JWC's maternal uncle, John Welsh.

Welsh, Walter (1799–1879), son of JWC's maternal uncle, John Welsh; minister at Auchtertool, Fife, since 1842.

Whitworth, Joseph (1803–87; ODNB; see JWC to HW, 16 Aug. 1846, JWC to TC, 23 Aug. 1846, and TC to JWC, 9 Sept. 1847); mechanical engineer and inventor; m., 1825, Fanny, b. Ankers (d. 1870), youngest da. of a Cheshire farmer; lived at The Firs, Rusholme, Manchester.

Wilberforce, Samuel (“Soapy Sam”) (1805–73; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 26 Nov. 1845), bishop of Oxford since 1845; friend of the Ashburtons; rather disliked by TC.

Wilkinson, James John Garth (1812–99; ODNB; see TC to JJGW, 2 Aug. 1838, and TC to RWE, 2 Aug. 1838), physician and Swedenborgian; m., 1840, to Emma Anne, b. Marsh.

Wilson, John (1785–1854; ODNB; see TC to JOFE, 3 June 1820), poet and critic known as “Christopher North”; ed. and leading contributor to Blackwood's Magazine from 1817; creator of Noctes Ambrosianae; prof. of moral philosophy, Edinburgh Univ., 1820–51; known to TC since 1826.

Wilson, Thomas (b. 1811), B.A., Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, 1833; M.A., 1838; curate, St. Peter, Mancroft, Norwich, 1845–47; left Church of England because he could not subscribe to the Thirty-Nine Articles; author of Nozrani in Egypt and Syria (1846; 2d edn., 1848), Catholicity Spiritual and Intellectual (1850), Letter and Spirit of Scripture (1852), and other works; moved to Weimar, ca. 1854, and became tutor to young Englishmen, later (after marriage) a teacher in a women's coll. His Catholicity Spiritual is dedicated: “To THOMAS CARLYLE, an example of Transcendant Genius Hallowed by the Purest Life and the Worthiest Work, this volume is Reverentially and Affectionately inscribed.” See 22:introduction and M. Betham-Edwards, Reminiscences (1893) 326–38.

Wiseman, Nicholas Patrick Stephen (1802–65; ODNB), apptd. cardinal, 1850, and head of the new Roman Catholic hierarchy in England.

Woolner, Thomas (1825–92; ODNB), sculptor and poet; member of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood.

Wynn, Charlotte Williams (1807–69; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 17 July 1845), diarist; friend of Varnhagen von Ense.

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