The Collected Letters, Volume 28


BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ; 2000; DOI: 10.1215/ed-28-biographical-notes; CL 28: firstpage-28-373-lastpage-28-384


Notes on the Carlyles' contemporaries who are referred to more than once in the present volume are given below, cross-referenced to earlier information. Otherwise they are accounted for in headnotes and footnotes as they occur.

Abeken, Bernard Rudolf (1780–1866), Prussian literary scholar and foreign office official; see TC to JAC, 15 Oct. 1852.

Aberdeen, George Hamilton Gordon (1784–1860; ODNB), 4th earl, prime minister, Dec. 1852 to 30 Jan. 1855.

Adamson, Robert (d. 1861; see TC to JA, 14 Feb. 1838), manager of the British Linen Bank, Dumfries.

Aird, Thomas (1802–76; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 29 March 1833) poet, journalist, miscellaneous writer, and ed. of Dumfries Herald.

Airlie, Henrietta Blanche (1829–1921), 7th countess, b. Stanley; JWC's friend and confidante, m. 1851 to Lord Airlie, David Graham Drummond (1826–81), 7th earl. They lived at Cortachy Castle, Forfarshire.

Aitken, Jean (“Craw”) Carlyle (1810–88), TC's sister, m. to James, housepainter of Assembly St., Dumfries. Their sons were James (1836–71), who went to Glasgow to be a clerk in Nov., Thomas (1841–69), who was deaf, and John.

Albert (1819–61; ODNB), prince consort.

Allingham, William (1824–89; ODNB; see TC to WC, 4 Sept. 1850), poet; b. in Ireland where he worked in a bank; apptd. to customs office, ca. 1846; visited London annually from 1843; introduced to TC by Leigh Hunt; pbd. Poems (1850) and other works.

Anne, servant at Cheyne Row from June 1851 (TC to MAC, 11 June 1851) until early summer 1852 when she became ill. She had three das.

Argyll, George Douglas Campbell (1823–1900; ODNB), 8th duke, Whig politician; m. 1844, Lady Elizabeth Georgiana, b. Leveson-Gower, eldest da. of 2nd duke of Sutherland.

Ashburton, Harriet Baring, b. Montagu (1805–57; ODNB; see TC to MAC, 8 March 1839, later vols., 26:introduction, and 28:introduction); she was the center of a literary and political circle, was TC's warmly admired friend, and the cause of JWC's jealousy; she and TC first met, 1839; m. 1825, to William Bingham Baring (1799–1864; ODNB; see TC to MAC, 8 March 1839 and later vols.), 2nd baron Ashburton, partner in Baring Bros., bankers, and politician.

Austin, Mary Carlyle (1808–88), TC's sister, m. to James (d. 1878), farmer of the Gill, 6 mi. W of Ecclefechan. Their children included Margaret (1831–74) and Jessie (b. 1834).

Azeglio, Massimo Taparelli d' (1798–1866), b. Turin; author of historical novels and polemical writings; helped foment the revolution of 1848 and was wounded; premier of Sardinia, 1849–52; favored the house of Savoy as rulers of a united Italy and so an opponent of Mazzini.

Azeglio, Vittorio Emmanuele Taparelli d' (1816–90), Piedmontese envoy to England since 1850, who frequented the great aristocratic houses; Massimo d'Azeglio's nephew.

Bacon, Delia Salter (1811–59), American author working in England, 1853–57, to prove that a group led by Francis Bacon wrote Shakespeare's plays; pbd. Philosophy of the Plays of Shakespere Unfolded (1857); mentally ill, 1857–59.

Ballantyne, Thomas (1806–71; ODNB; see TC to TB, 23 Feb. 1839), author and journalist; formerly ed. of the Manchester Guardian.

Baring, Lydia Emily (d. 1868), and Louisa Baring (d. 1888), Lord Ashburton's unmarried sisters.

Bell, George, farmer of Minsca, nr. Lockerbie, whose eldest son, George, d. 9 Sept. 1851.

Bell, Thomas, tenant of Craigenputtoch from 1852, probably related to George of Minsca.

Blewitt, Octavian (1810–84; ODNB), sec. of Royal Literary Fund, 1839–83.

Bölte, Charlotte Elise Mariana (1811–91; see 22:introduction, and JWC to HW, 15 July 1847), German writer and trans., in England as a governess 1839–51; close friend of the Carlyles; regular correspondent of Varnhagen von Ense; she had returned to Dresden, summer 1851.

Bosworth, Thomas (1823/24?–99), publisher and bookseller, 215 Regent St.; from 1847 to 1884 he pbd. several books for the Catholic Apostolic Church. Later he pbd. The Clergyman's Directory and Parish Guide and was the duke of Northumberland's librarian. He was described in the Bookseller, Aug. 1899, as “the last of the scholarly booksellers.”

Braid, Betty, JWC's old servant now living in Edinburgh; m. to Alexander; they had one son, George (d. 1865), who suffered ill health.

Breadalbane, John Campbell (1796–1862; ODNB), 2nd marquis; lord chamberlain.

Brookfield, William Henry (1809–74; ODNB; see JWC to WHB, 1 April 1846), well-connected clergyman and school inspector; m. 1841, Jane Octavia, b. Elton (1821–96); their children were Magdalene (b. 1850) and Arthur (b. 1853). After her close friendship with Thackeray, differences arose between him and the Brookfields; all parties were befriended by the Ashburtons.

Brown, Samuel (1817–56; ODNB; see TC to JWC, 27 Aug. 1843), chemist, atomic theorist, lecturer, and writer, originally from Haddington; m. 1849, his cousin Helen, b. Littlejohn. He admired TC, who largely returned his opinion; now seriously ill (see TC to JAC, 24 Jan. 1851 and E. Arbuckle, “Dr Samuel Brown of Edinburgh,” Carlyle Annual 11 [Spring 1990]).

Bunsen, Christian Karl Josias (1791–1860; see TC to JCA, 13 Feb. 1839), Baron; known in Britain as Chevalier Bunsen; Prussian ambassador to Britain, 1841–54; m., 1817, to Frances, b. Waddington (d. 1876; ODNB), extremely supportive of her husband's career. Their son, George, lived in Aachen.

Byng, Hon. G. F. (Poodle) (1784–1871; see TC to JWC, 8 July 1844), socialite, formerly a clerk in the foreign office; member of the Ashburton circle.

Carlyle, Alexander (Alick) (1799–1876), TC's brother who emigrated with his family to Canada, 1843, settled at the Bield, 4½ mi. W of Brantford, Ontario; m. 1830 to Janet, b. Clow (1808–1891).

Carlyle, Alexander (1843–1931; see TC to AC, 4 May 1843), Alexander and Janet's son; m. Mary Carlyle Aitken, 1879, lived with TC and ed. the Carlyles' letters and TC's other writings.

Carlyle, James (Jamie) (1807–90), TC's brother, farmer at Scotsbrig; m. 1834 to Isabella, b. Calvert (d. 1859), who had long been unwell. Their children included James (1835–71), working in Glasgow as a clerk, John (b. 1836), Thomas (1838–41), and Janet (Jessie or Jenny) (1843–74).

Carlyle, Jane Welsh (1831–84), See Sims.

Carlyle, John (1792?–1872) TC's half-brother; emigrated to N America, 1837, eventually settling at Brantford, Ontario, m. to Margaret (“Peggy”). They had five children.

Carlyle, John Aitken (“Jack,” “The Doctor”) (1801–79; ODNB), TC's brother, physician and trans.; m. 2 Nov. 1852 to Phoebe Elizabeth Hough Watt, b. Fowler (d. 1854), a widow from nr. Moffat with four sons.

Carlyle, Margaret Aitken (1771–1853), TC's mother, living with James and Isabella Carlyle at Scotsbrig. She d. 25 Dec.

Carlyle, Thomas (1833–1921), Alexander and Janet's oldest son.

Chalmers, Francis (sometimes called Chalmer and Chambers) and family (see JWC to TC, 7 Sept. 1846, and JWC to TC, 16 Sept. 1847); wealthy neighbor with piano-playing das. at 4 CheyneRow.

Chalmers, Dr. Thomas (1780–1847; ODNB; see JWC to TCH, 21 May 1827, and TC to DTH, 20 Jan. 1843), Scottish church leader and theologian; known to and admired by the Carlyles.

Chambers, Robert (1802–71; ODNB), publisher, author, and ed. of Chambers's Edinburgh Journal.

Chapman, Edward (1804–80), partner in Chapman & Hall, TC's publisher since 1843.

Chapman, John (1821–94; ODNB; see TC to JCH, 21 March 1844), freethinking publisher and author, an agent for American firms; proprietor of the Westminster Review.

Childs, John (1784–1853; ODNB; see TC to JCHI, 24 Sept. 1841), founder of John Childs & Son, printers of Bungay, Suffolk; TC's friend since the early 1840s, d. 12 Aug. His son was Charles (1807–76; ODNB).

Chorley, John Rutter (1806–67; ODNB; see TC to JWC, 25 July 1843, and TC to JWC, 8 Aug. 1845), the Athenaeum's chief reviewer for works in German, Italian, and Spanish; highly regarded by TC, see Reminiscences 154; he helped in supervising the building of TC's soundproof room.

Chrystal, Jeannie, b. Welsh; m. 28 April, Andrew Chrystal from Glasgow (see TC to JWC, 10 Aug. 1849, and JWC to JW, 11 May 1851). Her regular correspondence with JWC had ceased.

Clough, Arthur Hugh (1819–61; ODNB; see TC to AHC, 17 Dec. 1845, and TC to JWC, 3 April 1849), poet; he had been an enthusiastic admirer of TC when at Oxford, and introduced himself; he resigned his fellowship, being unable to subscribe to the Thirty-Nine Articles; was appointed principal of Univ. Hall, London, 1849–51; prof. of English lang. and lit., Univ. Coll., London, 1850–51; resigned, 25 Dec. 1851. After failing to gain employment, he left for the U.S., 30 Oct. 1852. He returned to England in June to take up a post, secured for him by Lady Ashburton, TC and others, as Examiner in the Education Office. He had been more or less engaged to Blanche Smith from the end of 1851, and they were to marry, 13 June 1854.

Collier, John Payne (1789–1883; ODNB), distinguished ed. of Shakespeare and other writers of the same period. Not yet exposed for his literary forgeries.

Crowe, Catherine (1790?–1872; ODNB), novelist and writer on the supernatural; a friend of Dr. Samuel Brown.

Dalwig, Baron, Prussian cavalry officer, from Giessen, grandson of one of Frederick the Great's generals; visited London as a friend of the Reichenbachs; rejected admirer of Kate Sterling and disapproved of by her uncle; see JWC to TC, 27 July 1852.

Darwin, Erasmus Alvey (1804–81; see TC to JAC, 15 June 1835, and TC to JAC, 17 Feb. 1837), the Carlyles' close friend since 1835; Charles Darwin's brother. He had recently moved, apparently to 57 Queen Anne St., Cavendish Sq.

Davies, John Llewelyn (1826–1916; ODNB; see TC to JLD, 7 May 1850), Broad Church clergyman and Christian Socialist; B.A., Trinity Coll., Cambridge, 1848; fellow of Trinity, 1850; rector of Christ Church, Marylebone, 1856–89; vicar of Kirkby Lonsdale, Westmoreland, 1889–1908; follower of F. D. Maurice and promoter of trade unions and education for women and working men; author of many theological works.

Derby, Edward George Geoffrey Smith Stanley (1799–1869; ODNB), 14th earl, formerly Baron Stanley of Bickerstaffe; see 27:biographical note; prime minister, Feb. to Dec.

Dickens, Charles (1812–70; ODNB), novelist; friend of the Carlyles since the early 1840s; m., 1836, to Catherine Thomson, b. Hogarth (d. 1879).

Dilberoglue family; Stavros (b. ca. 1821; see JWC to TC, 23 Aug. 1846), Corfu-born Manchester merchant, a close friend of the Jewsburys; he lived with his mother and beautiful younger sister, Calliope.

Disraeli, Benjamin (1804–81; ODNB), Tory politician and novelist; chancellor of the exchequer in Derby's govt., Feb. to Dec. 1852, not personally known to TC.

Donaldson sisters of Haddington: Jean (1770–1860), JWC's godmother; Jess (1774–1860); and Catherine (Kate) (1779–1852); friends of JWC's mother; paternal aunts of John William.

Donaldson, John William (1811–61; ODNB; see TC to JWC, 31 Aug. 1842), philologist; headmaster of King Edward's School, Bury St. Edmunds.

Donne, William Bodham (1807–82), poet and trans., a friend of FitzGerald and James Spedding, former Cambridge “Apostle,” widowed and living with sons in Bury St. Edmunds; he wrote for various quarterlies, and had recently declined the editorship of the Edinburgh Review. Appointed chief librarian of the London Lib., 12 June 1852.

Doyle, Richard (1824–83; ODNB), artist, illustrator, and caricaturist.

Duffy, Charles Gavan (1816–1903; ODNB; see TC to MAC, 28 April 1845), Irish nationalist and ed. of the Nation, whom TC visited in Ireland in 1846 and 1849; independent M.P. for New Ross, 1852–55; m. Susan, b. Hughes (d. 1878), his 2nd wife, 1846.

Eckermann, Johann Peter (1792–1854; see TC to G, 25 Sept. 1828), Goethe's friend and literary asst. with whom TC had corresponded since 1828; see TC to JPE, 20 March 1830; now on hard times. His son was Karl (1834–91), painter and engraver.

Ede, Joseph, applied to be TC's assistant; living at Trinity Church Lane, Finchley. He wrote The Economy of Prayer, 1851.

Ellice, Edward, the elder (“Bear”) (1783–1863; ODNB), active politician and deputy gov. of the Hudson's Bay Co., close friend and colleague of Lord Ashburton.

Emerson, Ralph Waldo (1803–82; see TC to JAC, 27 Aug. 1833), New England Transcendentalist, philosopher, essayist, and poet. He first met TC, Aug. 1833; in spite of their differences, they had close ties. Delia Bacon was one of many Americans he introduced to TC.

Erskine, Thomas (1788–1870; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 1 Feb. 1838), of Linlathen, Dundee, theologian and long-retired advocate.

Everett, Edward (1794–1865; see TC to MAC, 13 May 1844), one-time Emersonian, Unitarian clergyman, orator, and politician, whom TC came to know when Everett was U.S. minister to Britain, 1841–45.

Fanny, or “Irish Fanny,” who came in Oct. 1850 for a few days then fell ill (see TC to LA, 2 Nov. 1850, and JWC to MR, 31 Dec. 1850); she had returned late Aug. 1852 (JWC to JAC, 27 July 1852, and JWC to TC, 27 Aug. 1852) then ran away with a workman Sept. 1853. Not the same Fanny (JWC to JW, 21 Jan. 1851) of Dec. 1850–March 1851, who had gone deaf.

Farie, Robert (1813–82; see TC to JAC, 20 Nov. 1846), nonpracticing barrister of independent means; trans. of German works; known to the Carlyles since 1846.

Farrer, Annie Louisa (b. ca. 1826; see TC to JAC, 11 Sept. 1848), member of the Ashburton circle, injured her Achilles tendon, late 1852.

Farrer, Mary, Annie's older sister. She had broken her nose in an accident in 1852 (see JWC to TC, 7 Sept. 1852).

Fergus, John (1797–1865; see JWC to TC, 17 July 1837), of Kirkcaldy; flax manufacturer; M.P. for Fife. He and his sisters, Elizabeth Pepoli, Jessie (Janet) Fergus (b. 1794), Charlotte Nixon (1795–1852), Jane (b. 1804; m. Robert W. Royd, 1841), were old friends of the Carlyles. A fifth sister, Isabella (b. 1798), m. Hugh Lumsden, 1824.

FitzGerald, Edward (1809–83; ODNB; see TC to EF, 18 Sept. 1842), poet and trans., TC's friend since 1842, who lived in Suffolk.

Forster, John (“Fuz”) (1812–76; ODNB; see TC to GE, 15 Feb. 1832, and TC to JF, 17 Jan. 1839), historian, journalist, biographer, and ed. of the Examiner since 1848; friend of the Carlyles since the late 1830s, and TC's literary adviser.

Froude, James Anthony (1818–94; ODNB; see TC to JWC, 3 April 1849), journalist and man of letters. He first met the Carlyles, June 1849; was living in Wales, then Devon, and visiting London, dealing with J. W. Parker of Fraser's, and turning from theology to Tudor history.

Garthwaite, Tom, Ecclefechan tailor.

Gladstone, William Ewart (1809–98; ODNB), politician; increasingly dominant as a political leader, responsible for the defeat of the Derby ministry, Dec. 1852. His actions and acceptance of the chancellorship of the exchequer in the coalition under Aberdeen were seen as a betrayal by some Tories and by the Puseyites with whom he had been closely associated. The wish to force Lacaita on the London Lib. in 1852 brought him into principled conflict with TC, who saw him as a “long-headed fellow” without “convictions.”

Glen, Archibald, brother of William of Carstammon, at 86 Millet St., Glasgow, in the textile business, and by 1852 a commission agent; see TC to AG, 7 June 1839.

Glen, Margaret, b. Scott (1789–1868), from Powfoot; m., 1810, the Rev. William Glen (1778–1849), Scottish missionary and translator; see TC to RM, 14 June 1815, TC to MAC, 19 April 1849, and Carlyle, Reminiscences 222–26. Their son John (b. 1817) obtained TC's help in getting her a civil list pension.

Gordon, John (d. 1882; see TC to AC, 29 March 1827), first gen. sec. of Edinburgh University; school inspector; old friend of TC.

Graham, William (1770–ca. 1857; see TC to WG, 15 Sept. 1820 and later vols.), TC's old friend, living on the slopes of Burnswark where he had formerly farmed, 3 mi. N of Ecclefechan. Elizabeth was his sister.

Granville, George Leveson-Gower (1815–91; ODNB), 2nd earl; president of the council, 1851–54; m. 1840 to Maria Louisa, the duke of Dalberg's da.

Greig, John (1779–1858; see TC to AC, 5 Feb. 1836), lawyer and banker, had emigrated to Canandaigua, 1797.

Grove, George (1820–1900; ODNB), known as a writer on music but had a varied career; see TC to GG, 7 May 1852.

Guizot, François Pierre Guillaume (1787–1874; see TC to MAC, 26 Feb. 1848), French historian and former politician; premier, 1840–48; forced into political retirement by the 1848 revolution, after which he wrote historical works. TC had met him in March 1840 (see TC to JAC, 17 March 1840).

Hallam, Henry (1777–1859; ODNB), historian; trustee of British Museum Lib.

Hanning, Janet (1813–97); TC's sister, m. Robert (d. 1878), who had emigrated to Canada, 1841; she rejoined him in Hamilton, Ontario, Aug. 1851, with their two das., Margaret (b. 1838) and Mary (b. 1840).

Helps, Arthur (1813–75; ODNB), writer and historian of private means; clerk to the privy council, 1860; friend of the Carlyles for the past decade; m. to Bessy, b. Fuller (see JWC to TC, 17 July 1843).

Hiddlestone, Margaret, JWC's mother's former servant.

Hope, David (d. 1857), merchant of 49 W Nile St. (to 1852), then 3 Victoria Pl., W Regent St., living at 5 Wellington Pl., Sauchiehall St., previously of Fleming & Hope, was a Glasgow district councillor, 1834–46.

Hudson, George (1800–1871; ODNB; see TC to JCA, 9 July 1847), M.P. for Sunderland, 1845–59, the “Railway King”; see “Hudson's Statue,” Latter-Day Pamphlets, Works 20:254–92, for TC on his dishonesty in promoting railway shares.

Hunter, Dr. Jacob (see TC to JAC, 19 Sept. 1848 and earlier refs.), physician of Moffat, and John Carlyle's friend.

Irving, Edward (1792–1834; ODNB; see TC to RM, 12 Feb. 1817, later vols., and Carlyle, Reminiscences), the Carlyles' great friend; religious leader and preacher.

Jeffrey, Francis, Lord (1773–1850; ODNB; see TC to AC, 26 Jan. 1820 and later vols.), Whig lawyer, judge, lord advocate, literary critic, and editor of the Edinburgh Review, 1803–29; the Carlyles' friend and benefactor from 1826.

Jewsbury, Francis Harding (Frank) (1819–78), Geraldine's brother with whom she lived till 1854; he m. Emily, b. Vandeburgh, 1853.

Jewsbury, Geraldine Endsor (1812–80; ODNB; see TC to GEJ, 12 April 1840), novelist, reviewer, and general writer; a friend of the Carlyles, and increasingly of JWC, since the early 1840s. Jewsbury's eldest brother, Thomas Smith (b. 1802), also lived in Manchester.

Kossuth, Lajos (1802–94) led the Hungarian insurrection, 1848–49, against Austria, but in Aug. 1849 was driven into exile in Turkey, where he was imprisoned, 1849–51. He reached France and came to England, 21 Oct. 1851, then left for the U.S.; returned to England, 1852.

Landor, Walter Savage (1775–1864; ODNB; see TC to RWE, 1 April 1840), poet and man of letters, whom TC had known since 1836; separated from his wife and living in Bath.

Laurence, Samuel (1812–84; ODNB; see TC to JCA, 6 July 1838), portraitist and friend of the Carlyles; he sketched or painted many of TC's circle; a close friend of James Spedding. He left for the U.S. in Dec., arriving Jan. 1854.

Lewes, George Henry (“Ape”) (1817–78; ODNB; see TC to UC, 16 Oct. 1839), author, journalist, and co-ed. with Thornton Hunt of the Leader; known to the Carlyles from 1835; m. 1841 to Agnes, b. Jervis (1822–1902; see TC to JAC, 26 Aug. 1848), with a family of three surviving children; Agnes had already turned to Thornton Hunt, by whom she was to have four children (see JWC to TC, 4 Aug. 1850, and 25:biographical note). In 1852 Lewes's friendship developed with Marian Evans (George Eliot).

Lowe, Robert (1811–92; ODNB), politician, leader writer for the Times, M.P. for Kidderminster, 1852–59; joint sec. of the board of control, 1852–55; m., 1836, to Georgiana, b. Orred (d. 1884).

Maccall, William (1812–88; ODNB; see TC to WM, 5 Aug. 1848), m., 1842, Alice, b. Haselden, of Bolton; Elizabeth was their da.; impoverished writer, Unitarian preacher, lecturer, friend and protégé of TC.

Mackenzie, James (1780–1870), Writer to the Signet; third son of Henry (1745–1831), who wrote the popular novel The Man of Feeling (1771).

Magnus, Edouard (1799–1872), German portrait painter; prof. in Berlin since 1844.

Mahon, Philip Henry Stanhope Lord, (1805–75; ODNB, see TC to JAC, 11 March 1839, and 25:biographical note), historian and politician.

Marshall, James (see TC to JMA, 3 June 1847, and TC to MAC, 19 June 1847), originally from Ayrshire; asst. to the grand duke and duchess of Weimar; married with children; see TC to MAC, 17 March.

Martineau, Harriet (1802–1876; ODNB; see TC to LEM, 21 Feb. 1841), journalist and writer, esp. on public affairs; once a Unitarian, now a freethinker; known to the Carlyles since 1836, she and TC held each other in mutual esteem; occasionally she and JWC were in disagreement. She lived at Ambleside.

Martineau, James (1805–1900; ODNB; see JWC to TC, 17 July 1843), m., 1828, Helen, b. Higginson (1804–77); Unitarian clergyman; Harriet's brother.

Maurice, John Frederick D. (1805–72; ODNB; see JWC to JCA, 13 Aug. 1835), Broad Church leader and Christian Socialist; prof. of English lit. and history, 1840, and prof. of theology, 1846, King's College, London; he was dismissed in October after his Theological Essays were pbd. to strong criticism from conservative churchmen. M. secondly, 1849, Georgiana, b. Hare (see TC to JWC, 5 April 1849).

Mazzini, Giuseppe (1805–72; see TC to JSM, 6 Dec. 1839 and 28:introduction), Italian revolutionary; friend of the Carlyles since the late 1830s. He was usually based in London, but continued to keep alive active resistance to Austrian domination.

Mill, John Stuart (1806–73; ODNB; see 27:biographical note), philosophical writer, logician, economist; administrator (examiner) at India House since 1823.

Mills, Mary (d. 1854), JWC's mother's former servant.

Milnes, Richard Monckton (1809–85; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 14 July 1836), Conservative M.P., society figure, author, the Carlyles' friend since the late 1830s; m., 1851, Annabel, b. Hungerford (Crewe); their da. Amicia was born 3 Aug. 1852. Disappointed expectations and disagreement made Milnes lose practical interest in politics after 1851. He refused the lordship of the Treasury under Palmerston, whom he now followed, and devoted himself to literature.

Mitchell, Helen (see JWC to MAC, 27 Oct. 1840, and JWC to JCA, 1 May 1849), the Carlyles' maid, 1837–46; left to keep house for her brother in Dublin; returned, 1848–49; dismissed for outrageous drunkenness; believed to have killed herself.

Montégut, Jean Baptiste Joseph Émile (1825–96), critic and translator; he had joined the staff of the Révue des Deux Mondes, 1847, and wrote widely on British and American literature, including TC.

Morgan, probably Joseph, carpenter and builder, 8 Cock Yard and 64 Davies St., Berkeley Sq. (recommended by A. Helps), who undertook 5 Cheyne Row's renovation, 1852. see JWC to MR, 13 July 1852. There also was a George Morgan, architect and surveyor, 22 Parliament St.

Neuberg, Joseph (1806–67; see TC to JN, 21 Dec. 1839, 25:biographical note), German-born retired Nottingham businessman; naturalized Briton, 1845. He met TC in 1848; he helped him as an unpaid sec., translated his work, and twice accompanied him on visits to Germany. In Germany for most of 1853, from Oct. he lived in Willesden. His sister was Rosette, or Rosetta (d. 1898; see JWC to JN, 3 July 1849); she m., probably 1853, a Mr. Frankau (d. 1856), and had two children. Mr. Frankau may be Adolph Frankau, importer of foreign fancy goods, meerschaum pipes, and general merchandise, 25 Clements Lane. In the 1856 P. O. Guide, his home was at 31 Adelaide Rd., and in 1857 at 12 Oakley Villas, but he was not listed in 1858, Mrs. Frankau being listed at 25 Oakley Villas, Adelaide Rd., which she shared with Neuberg.

Newton, Elizabeth, b. Nodes (1779–1865; see JWC to TC, 3 Aug. 1845), Elizabeth Paulet's mother, who lived in Manchester.

Newton, Robert Nodes (1813?–64; see TC to JAC, 4 Sept. 1847), textile manufacturer; m. to Sarah Ann Newton (b. 1821?), father of three sons and three das.; who lived at Longcar Cottage, Barnsley. He had been in bitter dispute with Frank Jewsbury.

Owen, Prof. Richard (1804–92; ODNB; see TC to JWC, 26 Aug. 1842), naturalist; first Hunterian prof. of comparative anatomy and physiology, Royal Coll. of Surgeons, 1836–56; m. 1835, to Caroline Amelia, b. Clift (d. 1873), da. of William Clift (see TC to JWC, 26 Aug. 1842), Owen's assoc. at the Royal Coll., who taught herself several languages and comparative anatomy.

Panizzi, Anthony (1797–1879; ODNB), Italian immigrant and naturalized Briton, distinguished keeper of printed books at the British Museum, of whose management of the catalogue and library TC had long disapproved; see TC to LOA, 6 Feb. 1849.

Parker, John William (1792–1870; ODNB; see TC to ES, 14 May 1847), publisher and printer, pbd. Fraser's Magazine 1847–63. His son was also John William Parker (1820–60), ed. of Fraser's since 1847.

Pepoli, Elizabeth, b. Fergus (1792–1867; see JWC to TC, 12 Oct. 1835, and JWC to TC, 9 April 1841), countess, old Kirkcaldy friend of the Carlyles; m., 1839, Count Carlo Pepoli (1796–1881; see JWC to JCA, 13 Aug. 1835), poet, prof. of philosophy, Bologna; a political exile after the revolution against papal govt., 1831; prof. of Italian, Univ. Coll., London, 1838–46. A deputy in the Roman republic, he returned to Bologna, 1859.

Piper, John (JWC to TC, 11 Sept. 1847), the Carlyles' postman of 15 Radnor St., King's Rd., Chelsea; his wife was occasionally a servant at Cheyne Row.

Plattnauer, Richard, a Prussian exile, brother of Hedwig von Reichenbach; apparently introduced to the Carlyles by Godefroy Cavaignac; liberal or revolutionary exile (see JWC to HW, 5 July 1847); he was subject to periods of insanity. The Carlyles befriended him (see JWC to JW, 29 Aug. 1844); he had been a private tutor. He lived on the Continent and in England, to which he had recently returned.

Preuss, Johann David Erdmann (1785–1868), teacher, historian, known for his works on Prussian history. His Friedrich der Grosse. Eine Lebensgeschichte, 4 vols. (Berlin, 1832–34), was followed by his edn. of Oeuvres de Frédéric le Grand, 31 vols. (Berlin, 1846–57); they were closely documented, giving detailed information for future historians, but TC was not alone in finding them excessive.

Radowitz, Joseph M. von (1797–1858), Prussian gen.; friend and adviser of Crown Prince Friedrich Wilhelm, director of military education, and early advocate of German union.

Rauch, Christian Daniel (1777–1857), founder of the Berlin school of sculpture. His monument to Frederick, opposite the royal palace on the Unter den Linden, was said to be the grandest in Europe.

Redwood, Charles (1802–54; see TC to CR, 9 Jan. 1840), solicitor of Bovington, S Wales, who deeply admired TC.

Reeve, Henry (1813–95; ODNB; see TC to JPE, 27 July 1832), who joined the staff of the Times in 1840 and guided its foreign policy. TC quarreled with him in 1849; see TC to LA, 18 Jan. 1850.

Reichenbach, Oskar von (b. 1815; see JWC to JW, 12 Sept. 1844), count, Silesian landowner, liberal deputy to Frankfurt parliament, 1848–49; forced into exile, he came to London with his family, 1850; m. to Hedwig, b. Plattnauer, a close friend of JWC; they lived at Paultons Sq., Chelsea. His son was named after him. They emigrated to the U.S., 20 April.

Ronca, Dominic, carpenter, 6 Cheyne Row, whose cocks disturbed TC.

Russell, Lord John (1792–1878; ODNB), prime minister, 1846–51; foreign sec. for a short period, 1852–53.

Russell, Mary, b. Dobbie (d. 1875; TC to AC, 7 April 1832), m. to Dr. James Russell, of Holmhill, Thornhill, close friends of JWC and her mother.

Saffi, Aurelio (1819–90), count, Italian poet and politician; had been a triumvir with Mazzini governing the short-lived Roman republic; in exile in Switzerland in 1850 and in London from 1851. He was with Mazzini in the Milan uprising in Feb.

Sand, George, pseud. of Amandine Aurore Lucie Dudevant, b. Dupin (1803–76; see 27:biographical note), French novelist.

Sandwich, Mary Anne Julia Louisa Harriet, b. Lowry-Corry (1781–1862; see TC to MAC, 3 Sept. 1848), dowager countess, m. 1804, George John Montagu (1773–1818), 6th earl of Sandwich; Lady Ashburton's mother.

Saxe-Weimar, Karl Alexander (1818–1901), grand duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach from 1853 (on the death of his father Karl Friedrich [1783–1853]) to 1901. He traveled extensively in his youth and was greatly influenced by Goethe's work; m., 1842, Sophie Luise (1824–97), daughter of William II of the Netherlands. He presided over the “silver age” of Weimar intellectual life; founded the Landesmuseum, 1863, and from 1860 was responsible for the foundation and development of the Cultural Academy.

Senior, Nassau William (1790–1864; ODNB), political economist whom the Carlyles had known since the mid-1830s; m., 1821, to Mary Charlotte, b. Mair; in the Ashburton circle. His son was Nassau John (1822–91).

Sims, Jane Welsh, b. Carlyle (1831–84), Alexander and Janet's da.; m. Robert Sims early 1852.

Sketchley, Penelope (see JWC to JW, 21 Nov. 1842, and JWC to JW, 12 Nov. 1843), picture copier, formerly of Liverpool; and her mother who was trying to find a publisher for her religious novel.

Spedding, James (1808–81; ODNB; see JWC to JCA, 13 Aug. 1835, and TC to TSS, 20 Sept. 1845), authority on Francis Bacon; former sec. in the colonial office, from which he had retired, 1841.

Spedding, Thomas Story (1800–1870; see TC to TSS, 17 Feb. 1838), Cumberland landowner of Greta Bank, nr. Keswick; James's brother; friend of TC since the early 1840s; m. secondly, 1839, to Frances Emily, b. Headlam (d. 1896).

Stanley, Edward John (1802–69; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 27 Feb. 1840), Whig politician, created baron Eddisbury of Winnington, 1848; succeeded as 2nd baron Stanley of Alderley, 1850; m. to Henrietta Maria, b. Dillon (1807–95; ODNB); both friends of the Carlyles, but she closer than her husband.

Stephen, Sir James (1789–1859; ODNB; see JWC to JCA, 13 Aug. 1835), under sec. for colonies, 1836–47; prof. of modern history, Cambridge Univ., 1849–59. James Fitzjames (1829–94; ODNB) was his son, currently studying law.

Sterling, Anthony Coningham (1805–71; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 2 Dec. 1836 and later), capt. in 73rd Foot on half-pay; friend of the Carlyles since 1837, and guardian of his brother John's das., though not the oldest child, Edward. He had been a devoted admirer of JWC, but differences between them had arisen; m., 1829, to Charlotte, b. Baird (d. 1863; see JWC to HW, 12 Nov. 1844, and JWC to HW, 9 Jan. 1845), who suffered attacks of insanity and jealousy of JWC.

Sterling, John (1806–44; see TC to JSM, 27 May 1835). His son, Edward Coningham (b. 1831; see JWC to HW, 9 Jan. 1845), had lived in Manchester with prof. F. W. Newman, his “sole Guardian,” by his father's will. His das. were Julia Maria (1836–1910), Catherine Susan (Kate) (1834–69) and Anna Charlotte (Lotta) (1833–67). TC had pbd. his life, 1851.

Stowe, Harriet Beecher (1811–96), American abolitionist and writer; the author of Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852).

Sutherland, Harriet Elizabeth Georgiana Leveson-Gower, b. Howard (1806–68; ODNB), duchess; m., 1823, George Granville Leveson-Gower (1786–1861; ODNB), 2nd duke; a great friend of Queen Victoria. She made Stafford House a center for various philanthropic movements.

Taylor, Henry (1800–1886; ODNB, see TC to MAC, 10 Nov. 1831), author and civil servant; m. Theodosia Alice, b. Spring Rice (1818–91; see JWC to TC, 9 Sept. 1838), Lord Monteagle's da.; they had a son, Aubrey (1845–70), and two das., Eleanor and Ida.

Tennyson, Alfred (1809–92; ODNB), poet; friend of the Carlyles since early 1840s; they had a strong mutual regard; poet laureate, 1850. He m., 1850, Emily Sarah, b. Sellwood (1813–96).

Thackeray, William Makepeace (1811–63; ODNB; see JWC to TC, 3 Aug. 1837, TC to JAC, 12 Aug. 1837, and later vols.), novelist; friend of the Carlyles since the 1830s, and intimate of the Ashburton circle; m., 1836, Isabella G. C., b. Shawe (d. 1894), mentally ill from 1840. After Vanity Fair (1847–48) and Pendennis (1849–50), he wrote Henry Esmond, pbd. Oct. 1852, and lectured in the U.S. His two das. were Anne Isabella (1837–1919) and Harriet Marian (1840–75).

Thiers, Louis Adolphe (1797–1877; see TC to LAAL, 20 Oct. 1845), French politician and historian; m., 1833, Elise, b. Dosne (ca. 1812–80). In 1851 he was a champion of order in the constituent and legislative assemblies, but he was arrested and exiled on 2 Dec. 1851. He returned to France, 1852, and worked on his Histoire du Consulat et de l'Empire. Member of the Ashburton circle.

Tieck, Ludwig (1773–1853; see JWC to JW, 27 May 1843, TC to JWC, 11 July 1843, and TC to JWC, 8 Oct. 1852), German writer.

Trench, Prof. Richard Chevenix (1807–86; ODNB; see JWC to TC, 2 Oct. 1847), poet and clergyman; prof. of divinity, King's Coll., Cambridge.

Twisleton, Hon. Edward Turner Boyd (1809–74; ODNB), public servant; B.A., Oxford, 1829; fellow of Balliol Coll., 1830–38; barrister, 1835; assistant poor law commissioner, 1839. He was chief commissioner of the poor laws in Ireland, 1839–49, when he resigned in protest at govt. policy. In 1850 he visited the U.S., to investigate public schools in New England; he met Ellen Dwight (d. 1862) of Boston whom he m. 19 May 1852. He was a close and respected friend of the Carlyles.

Varnhagen von Ense, Karl August (1785–1858; see TC to KAVE, 31 Dec. 1837), Prussian soldier, diplomat, and biographer with whom TC had corresponded since 1837; TC wrote “Varnhagen von Ense's Memoirs,” 1838, Works 29:88–117. His persistent curiosity about the Carlyles was met by his letters from Amalie Bölte. He was a keen collector of autograph manuscripts to which TC helped to contribute; m., 1814, Rahel Antonie Friederike Levin (1771–1833; see TC to KAVE, 31 Dec. 1837). He and TC met in Berlin, 1 Oct. 1852.

Vehse, Karl Eduard (1802–70; see TC to JWC, 25 Sept. 1852), historian.

Venables, George (1810–88; ODNB), lawyer and journalist; fellow and tutor of Jesus College, Cambridge, and M.A., 1835; barrister, Inner Temple, 1836; contributor to the Saturday Review from its founding, 1855, and the Times, 1857–88; Tennyson's and Thackeray's friend. He had been at Charterhouse School with Thackeray.

Wake, Henry T. (1830–1914), Quaker who later became an antiquarian bookseller in Fritchley in Derbyshire.

Warburton, Bartholomew Elliott George (known as Eliot) (1810–52; ODNB; see 27:biographical note), miscellaneous writer.

Watts, Thomas (1811–69; ODNB; see TC to TW, 15 Feb. 1848), on the staff of British Museum Lib.; he was to be superintendent of the Reading Room, 1857–66; keeper of Printed Books, 1866–69.

Wedgwood, Frances (“Fanny”), b. Mackintosh (1800–1889; see TC to HWE, 11 Dec. 1836), the Carlyles' friend, though beginning to be less close, m. to Hensleigh Wedgwood (1803–91; ODNB; see TC to HWE, 11 Dec. 1836), mathematician and philologist, Erasmus A. Darwin's cousin.

Welsh, Alexander (Alick), oldest child of JWC's maternal uncle John, m. Sophy, b. Martin. Their son (b. 1853?) was John.

Welsh, Ann (d. 1877), sister of Elizabeth Welsh (d. 1877) and Grace Welsh (d. 1867), JWC's paternal aunts in Edinburgh (see TC to JWC, 10 March 1842, and JWC to JW, 26 June 1843).

Welsh, Grace (1782–1842; see TC to AC, 7 April 1832), JWC's mother.

Welsh, Helen (ca. 1813–53), da. of JWC's maternal uncle, John Welsh; d. Dec.

Welsh, Jeannie (1798?–1828), JWC's maternal aunt; for her death, see TC to JAC, 16 April 1828 and Carlyle, Reminiscences 127–29.

Welsh, Jeannie (“Babbie”), Helen's sister; see Chrystal.

Welsh, Dr. John (1776–1819), JWC's father.

Welsh, John (d. 1853), JWC's maternal uncle, retired brass and copper founder, who lived at 20 Maryland St.; d. Oct.; m. to Mary (d. 1838); for her death, see TC to AC, 15 Oct. 1838.

Welsh, John (1824–59; ODNB; see JWC to MW, 20 Aug. 1842), meteorologist; son of JWC's paternal uncle George (1793–1835) and Margaret; apptd. asst. at Kew Observatory, 1850; known for balloon ascents, 1852.

Welsh, John (d. 1860), youngest of the Liverpool Welshes.

Welsh, John May (1824–56; see TC to JBO, 7 June 1845), lawyer, eldest son of JWC's paternal uncle Robert (1786–1841).

Welsh, Margaret (“Maggie”) (b. 1821), da. of uncle John of Liverpool.

Welsh, Margaret, b. Kissock (1803–88; see JWC to MW, 22 Feb. 1841 and JWC to MW, 28 Feb. 1846), widow of JWC's paternal uncle George.

Welsh, Robert (1784?–1841; see TC to JWC, 29 April 1841, and JWC to MW, 8 July 1842), JWC's paternal uncle, an Edinburgh solicitor, the fourth Welsh brother.

Welsh, Rev. Walter (ca. 1799–1879; see JWC to JW, 8 Jan. 1843), unmarried son of JWC's uncle John Welsh; since 1842 minister at Auchtertool, Fife.

Wilberforce, Samuel (1805–73; ODNB; see 25:biographical note), bishop of Oxford.

Wilson, Jane (1790–1890), friend of the Carlyles since 1835, who lived with her brother, Thomas (d. 1872), at 2 Upper Eccleston St., Belgrave Sq.

Wilson, John (1785–1854; ODNB; see 27:biographical note), prof. of moral philosophy, Edinburgh, 1820–51.

Wilson, Thomas (b. 1811; see 22:biographical note, and 26:bioraphical note), formerly curate at St. Peter, Mancroft, Norwich, 1845–47; he left the Church of England because he rejected the Thirty-Nine Articles; he turned to TC for help and was found a teaching appointment in Weimar, Dec. 1853.

Wynn, Charlotte Williams (1807–69; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 17 July 1845), friend of Varnhagen von Ense.