July-December 1855

The Collected Letters, Volume 30


BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ; 2002; DOI: 10.1215/ed-30-biographical-notes; CL 30: firstpage-30-275-lastpage-30-287


Notes on the Carlyles' contemporaries referred to more than once in the present volume are given below, cross-referenced to earlier information. Otherwise they are accounted for in headnotes and footnotes as they occur.

Abeken, Bernard Rudolf (1780–1866; see TC to JAC, 15 Oct. 1852), Prussian literary scholar and Foreign Office official.

Adamson, Robert (d. 1861; see TC to JA, 14 Feb. 1838), manager of the British Linen Bank, Dumfries.

Aird, Thomas (1802–76; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 29 March 1833), poet, journalist, miscellaneous writer, and ed. of Dumfries Herald.

Aitken, Jean (“Craw”) Carlyle (1810–88), TC's sister, m. to James, housepainter, of Assembly St., Dumfries. Their sons were James or Jamie (1836–71), who had gone to Glasgow to be a clerk in Nov. 1853 and was now working for Roxburgh, Richardson & Co.; Thomas (1841–69), who was at an institute for the deaf in Glasgow (see TC to JAC, 4 Nov. 1854); and John (1855–56). Their das. were Margaret (b. 1845), Mary, and Anne (1838 / 9–88).

Albert (1819–61; ODNB), prince consort.

Allingham, William (1824–89; ODNB; see TC to WA, 4 Sept. 1850), poet; b. in Ireland, where he worked in a bank; visited London annually from 1843; apptd. to Customs Office, ca. 1846; introduced to TC by Leigh Hunt; pbd. Poems (1850) and other works.

Anderton, Sarah, actress; see JWC to KS, 28 Jan. 1853. She had evidently been in Boston in the U.S. in 1852, where she played Juliet to Charlotte Cushman's Romeo.

Anne, servant at Cheyne Row from Nov. 1853 to March 1858; see A. Carlyle, NLM 2:176–77. She replaced Fanny. There was another Anne, older, who had three das., with the Carlyles from June 1851 (see TC to MAC, 11 June 1851, and JWC to MR, 6 Jan. 1852); she became ill, March 1852, returned to the Carlyles in April but left 20 July 1852; see JWC to FJ, 15 July 1852.

Ashburton, Harriet Baring, b. Montagu (1805–57; ODNB; see TC to MAC, 8 March 1839, later vols., and 26:introduction). She was the center of a literary and political circle, was TC's warmly admired friend and a cause of jealousy for JWC; the Carlyles and the (then) Barings first met, 1839; m., 1825, to William Bingham Baring (1799–1864; ODNB; see TC to MAC, 8 March 1839, and later vols.), 2d baron Ashburton, partner in Baring Bros., bankers, and politician.

Austin, Mary Carlyle (1808–88), TC's sister, m. to James (d. 1878), farmer of the Gill, 6 mi. W of Ecclefechan. Their children included Margaret (1831–74) and Jessie (b. 1834).

Austin, Sarah, b. Taylor (1793–1867; ODNB; see TC to JWC, 29 Aug. 1831, and TC to JWC, 31 Aug. 1831), trans.; m. to John: friends of the Carlyles since the mid-1830s. They settled in Paris, 1844–48, but were driven out by the 1848 revolution; now living in Weybridge, Surrey.

Baillie, James, JWC's maternal cousin; spendthrift and dandy. He spent the fortunes left him by his parents and that of his sister on clothes and luxurious living. He was to end his life in poverty, dependent on TC's charity. He called himself capt. although he was probably a lieut.; see JBW to TC, 10 Nov. 1824, and TC to MAC, 15 July 1840, K. J. Fielding, “Captain James Belial Baillie—Jane Carlyle's Wicked Cousin,” Carlyle Newsletter 4 (1983): 2–11, and Carlyle, Reminiscences 49–55, 74–75. For his “wife,” see Carlyle, Reminiscences 55, 75.

Ballantyne, Thomas (1806–71; ODNB; see TC to TB, 23 Feb. 1839), author and journalist; formerly of Manchester; associated with several publications, including the Leader and, by 1855, the Illustrated London News; anthologized TC and other writers.

Barlow, Rev. John (1799?–1869), chaplain in ordinary to Kensington Palace; sec. to the Royal Inst.; m., 1824, Cecilia Anne, b. Law.

Blackie, John Stuart (1809–95; ODNB; see TC to JSB, 28 April 1834, and TC to JSB, 16 April 1849); regius prof. of Latin, Marischal Coll., Aberdeen, 1839; prof. of Greek, Univ. of Edinburgh, 1852; m., 1842, Eliza, b. Wylde.

Bölte, Amalie Charlotte Elise Mariana (1811–91; see 22:introduction, and JWC to HW, 15 July 1847), German writer and trans., in England as a governess, 1839–51; close friend of the Carlyles; regular correspondent of Varnhagen von Ense. She had returned to Dresden, summer 1851, where she met TC briefly in 1852 (see TC to JWC, 25 Sept. 1852).

Braid, Betty, JWC's old servant now living in Edinburgh; m. to Alexander. They had one son, George (d. 1865), who suffered ill health.

Broke (sometimes Brooke), Lady Elizabeth-Zilpah de Capell; her 2d husband, m. 1851, was Sir Arthur de Capell Broke (1791–1858; ODNB). They had an estate at Oakley Hall, Great Oakley, Hants.

Brookfield, William Henry (1809–74; ODNB; see JWC to WHB, 1 April 1846), well-connected clergyman and school inspector; m., 1841, Jane Octavia, b. Elton (1821–96). Their children were Magdalene (b. 1850) and Arthur (b. 1853). After Jane Brookfield's close friendship with Thackeray, differences arose between Thackeray and the Brookfields; all parties were friends of the Ashburtons.

Browning, Robert (1812–89; ODNB), poet; TC's friend since the mid-1830s; m., 1846, Elizabeth, b. Moulton Barrett (1806–61; ODNB); living in Florence since 1847.

Byng, Hon. G. F. (“Poodle”) (1784–1871; see TC to JWC, 8 July 1844), socialite, formerly a clerk in the Foreign Office; member of the Ashburton circle.

Campbell, Sir Colin (1792–1863; ODNB), maj. gen., 1854; lieut. gen., 1856; later 1st Baron Clyde. His name was originally MacIver, but he took Campbell after his mother, Agnes Campbell of Islay. TC says he is Anthony Sterling's cousin (see TC to JAC, 6 March 1854), but the relationship is unconfirmed; if there was one it was presumably through Sterling's maternal grandmother, Elizabeth Coningham, b. Campbell (see TC to MAC, 27 July 1836). He had commanded the Highland Brigade at the battle of Alma in the Crimea, 1854.

Carlyle, Alexander (Alick) (1797–1876), TC's brother, who emigrated with his family to Canada, 1843; settled at the Bield, 4½ mi. W of Brantford, Ontario; m., 1830, Janet, b. Clow (1808–91). They had six sons, Robert (1851–1932) the youngest, and five das.; the oldest da. was Jane Welsh (1831–84), m. Robert Sims, 1852. Their fifth da., Euphemia, b. 27 Dec. 1853, d. 21 March 1854.

Carlyle, Alexander (1843–1931; see TC to AC, 4 May 1843), Alexander and Janet's son; m. Mary Carlyle Aitken, 1879; lived with TC and ed. the Carlyles' letters and TC's other writings.

Carlyle, James (Jamie) (1807–90), TC's brother, farmer at Scotsbrig; m., 1834, Isabella, b. Calvert (d. 1859), who had long been unwell. Their children included James (1835–71), working in Glasgow as a clerk, John (b. 1836), Thomas (1838–41), and Janet (Jessie or Jenny) (1843–74).

Carlyle, John (1792?–1872), TC's half-brother; emigrated to U.S., 1837, then moved to Canada (see TC to AC, 15 Aug. 1840); he had let his previous farm as it was “new, consequently hard to till,” and bought a small farm at Mount Pleasant, near Brantford, Ontario, by May 1855; m. Margaret (Peggy), b. Benn, (1798–1867). They had five children: Janet (1818–89), Mary (1821–50), John (1825–97), James (1830–1900), and William (1833–1911). The two youngest were school teachers; William was expected to teach in Brantford high school, autumn 1855.

Carlyle, John Aitken (Jack, “The Doctor”) (1801–79; ODNB), TC's brother, physician, and trans.; m., 2 Nov. 1852, Phoebe Elizabeth Hough Watt, b. Fowler, a widow from nr. Moffat with four sons (see Watt). She d. in childbirth, 19 Aug. 1854.

Carlyle, Margaret Aitken (1771–1853), TC's mother; had been living with James and Isabella Carlyle at Scotsbrig. She d. 25 Dec. 1853.

Carlyle, Thomas (1833–1921), Alexander and Janet's oldest son; moved to Hamilton, Apr., and returned to the Bield, Aug. 1855.

Chalmers, Francis (sometimes Chalmer or Chambers) and family (see JWC to TC, 7 Sept. 1846, and JWC to TC, 16 Sept. 1847); wealthy neighbor at 4 Cheyne Row. Possibly a retired lawyer, as JWC consults him when she needs “some honest lawyer”; see JWC's Journal, 11 Apr. 1856. He is not listed in the 1856 law directory.

Chapman, Edward (1804–80), partner in Chapman & Hall, TC's publisher since 1843.

Chapman, John (1821–94; ODNB; see TC to JCH, 21 March 1844), freethinking publisher and author, an agent for American firms; proprietor of the Westminster Review.

Childs, Charles (1807–76; ODNB), son of John Childs (1784–1853; ODNB; see TC to JCHI, 24 Sept. 1841), founder of John Childs & Son, printers, of Bungay, Suffolk, and TC's friend since the early 1840s. Charles had taken over his father's business.

Chorley, John Rutter (1806–67; ODNB; see TC to JWC, 25 July 1843, and TC to JWC, 8 Aug. 1845), reviewer for the Athenaeum; highly regarded by TC (see Carlyle, Reminiscences 154). He helped in supervising the building of the soundproof room, 1853.

Chrystal, Jeannie, b. Welsh; m., 28 April 1853, Andrew Chrystal of Glasgow (see TC to JWC, 10 Aug. 1849, and JWC to JW, 11 May 1851). Her regular correspondence with JWC ended after her marriage.

Clough, Arthur Hugh (1819–61; ODNB; see TC to AHC, 17 Dec. 1845, and TC to JWC, 3 April 1849), poet; m., 13 June 1854, Blanche, b. Smith (1829–1900), Florence Nightingale's cousin; principal of Univ. Hall, London, 1849–51; prof. of English lang. and lit., Univ. Coll., London, 1850–51; resigned. He left for the U.S., 30 Oct. 1852, and returned June 1853, to take up a post, secured for him by Lady Ashburton, TC, and others, as examiner in the Education Office.

Coutts, Angela Georgina Burdett (1814–1906; ODNB), wealthy philanthropist who administered her own private charities; friend of Disraeli, Gladstone, Dickens, and others.

Crabbe, Rev. George (1785–1857; ODNB), of Bredfield Rectory, Woodbridge, Suffolk, where he lived with his da. Caroline; son of the poet, George Crabbe (1754–1832); friend of FitzGerald, who frequently stayed with him.

Darwin, Erasmus Alvey (1804–81; see TC to JAC, 15 June 1835, and TC to JAC, 17 Feb. 1837), the Carlyles' close friend since 1835; Charles Darwin's brother. He had moved to 57 Queen Anne St., Cavendish Sq., 1853.

Delane, John Thadeus (1817–79; ODNB), editor of the Times, 1841–77; attacked the govt. for the conduct of the Crimean War.

Dickens, Charles (1812–70; ODNB), novelist; friend of the Carlyles since the early 1840s; m., 1836, Catherine Thomson, b. Hogarth (d. 1879). Petitioned with TC and Forster for a pension for the Lowe sisters, 1855–56.

Disraeli, Benjamin (1804–81; ODNB), Tory politician and novelist; chancellor of the exchequer in Derby's govt., Feb. to Dec. 1852; not personally known to TC.

Donaldson sisters of Haddington: Jean (1770–1860), JWC's godmother; Jess (1774–1860); and Catherine (Kate) (1779–1852); friends of JWC's mother; paternal aunts of John William.

Donaldson, John William (1811–61; ODNB; see TC to JWC, 31 Aug. 1842), philologist; headmaster of King Edward's School, Bury St. Edmunds, 1841–55. The school declined under Donaldson, and he resigned; he went to live in Cambridge, where he became a tutor.

Donne, William Bodham (1807–82), poet and trans.; friend of FitzGerald and James Spedding; former Cambridge “Apostle.” He wrote for various quarterlies; appointed chief librarian, London Lib., 12 June 1852.

Duffy, Charles Gavan (1816–1903; ODNB; see TC to MAC, 28 April 1845), Irish nationalist and ed. of the Nation, whom TC visited in Ireland in 1846 and 1849; independent M.P. for New Ross, 1852–55; m., 1846, Susan, b. Hughes (d. 1878), his 2d wife. They emigrated to Australia with their three children, Nov. 1855.

Dwight, Elisabeth (1830–1901), later Cabot, Ellen Twisleton's sister. She had returned with Ellen from Boston in Oct. 1855.

Eastlake, Sir Charles Lock (1793–1865; ODNB), historical painter; pres. of Royal Academy, 1850–65; director of the National Gallery, 1855.

Eliot, George (pseud.) (1819–80; ODNB), b. Mary Ann (later Marian) Evans; began her friendship with G. H. Lewes, 1852, which developed into the relationship that lasted until his death. Pbd. influential “Carlyle's Life of Sterling,” Westminster Review 57 (1852): 247–51.

Ellice, Edward (“Bear”) (1783–1863; ODNB), active politician and deputy gov. of the Hudson's Bay Co.; close friend and colleague of Lord Ashburton.

Emerson, Ralph Waldo (1803–82; see TC to JAC, 27 Aug. 1833), philosopher, essayist, poet, and transcendentalist. He first met TC, Aug. 1833; in spite of their differences they had close ties; he introduced many Americans to TC.

Erskine, Thomas (1788–1870; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 1 Feb. 1838), of Linlathen, Dundee; theologian and long retired advocate. TC first became involved in the appeal for the Lowe sisters through him.

Farie, Robert (1813–82; see TC to JAC, 20 Nov. 1846), nonpracticing barrister of independent means; trans. of German works; known to the Carlyles since 1846.

Farrer, Annie Louisa (b. ca. 1826; see TC to JAC, 11 Sept. 1848), lively member of the Ashburton circle. For Mary, her older sister, see Tierney. Their mother was Mary, b. Anstruther (d. 1860; see 27:biographical note). There were five brothers; see JWC to TC, 23 Sept. 1850.

Fergus, John (1797–1865; see JWC to TC, 17 July 1837), of Kirkcaldy; flax manufacturer on a large scale; M.P. for Fife, 1847–59. He and his sisters, Elizabeth Pepoli, Jessie (Janet) Fergus (b. 1794), Charlotte Nixon (1795–1852), and Jane (b. 1804, m. Robert W. Royd [or Royds], 1841), were all old friends of the Carlyles. The fifth sister, Isabella (b. 1798), m. Hugh Lumsden, 1824.

FitzGerald, Edward (1809–83; ODNB; see TC to EF, 18 Sept. 1842), poet and trans.; TC's friend since 1842. He left Boulge Cottage, Woodbridge, Suffolk, in 1852 because of his father's bankruptcy, living mainly at Farlingay Hall, Woodbridge, Suffolk, the home of Job Smith and his wife. John (1803–79), his older brother, lived at Boulge Hall, which he inherited when his mother, Mary Frances, b. FitzGerald, d. Jan. 1855. Their father was John Purcell (1775–1852), who took his wife's family name after her father's death.

Forster, John (“Fuz”) (1812–76; ODNB; see TC to GE, 15 Feb. 1832, TC to JF, 17 Jan. 1839), historian, journalist, biographer, and ed. of the Examiner, 1848–55; sec. to the Lunacy Commission, 1855–61; friend of the Carlyles since the late 1830s and TC's literary adviser. He lived at 58 Lincoln’s Inn Fields.

Forster, William Edward (1818–86; ODNB; see TC to JOST, 14 Dec. 1842), Bradford woolen trader; former Quaker, later prominent liberal politician; friend of the Carlyles since the early 1840s; m., 1850, Jane, b. Arnold.

Fraser, Mrs., who let her house, 14 Montpelier Sq., Brompton, to John A. Carlyle, 1855.

Froude, James Anthony (1818–94; ODNB; see TC to JWC, 3 April 1849), journalist, historian; first met the Carlyles, June 1849; came to know them better after coming to live in London, 1860.

Garthwaite, Tom, Ecclefechan tailor.

Gilchrist, Alexander (1828–61; ODNB), biographer. He moved to 6 Cheyne Row, 1856.

Glen, Archibald, brother of William of Carstammon, see TC to AG, 7 June 1839; lived at 86 Miller St., Glasgow; in the textile business, and, by 1852, a commission agent.

Glen, Margaret, b. Scott (1789–1868), from Powfoot; m., 1810, the Rev. William Glen (1778–1849), Scottish missionary and trans.; see TC to RM, 14 June 1815, TC to MAC, 19 April 1849, and Carlyle, Reminiscences 222–26. Their son, John (b. 1817), obtained TC's help in getting her a civil list pension in 1853 (see TC to MAC, 6 Sept. 1853).

Glover, John H. (d. 1860), librarian at Buckingham Palace.

Goderich, George Frederick Samuel Robinson (1827–1909; ODNB; see TC to CK, 21 March 1851), viscount; Christian socialist, Liberal M.P. for Huddersfield, 1853–57; m., 1851, Henrietta Anne Theodosia (1833–1907), b. Vyner. His father was Frederick John Robinson (1782–1859; ODNB), 1st earl of Ripon, prime minister, 1827–28.

Graham, William (1770–ca. 1857; see TC to WG, 15 Sept. 1820, TC to JAC, 20 Nov. 1846, and other vols.), TC's old friend, living retired and in poor health on the slopes of Burnswark, where he had farmed, 3 mi. N of Ecclefechan. Elizabeth, his sister, was also failing (see TC to JWC, 28 Dec. 1853, and TC to AC, 8 April 1854).

Granville, George Leveson–Gower (1815–91; ODNB), 2d earl; pres. of the Privy Council, 1851–54; m., 1840, Maria Louisa, the duke of Dalberg's da.

Greene, Richard, a Lichfield banker who helped raise money for the Lowe sisters' appeal.

Grote, Harriet, b. Lewin (1792–1878; ODNB), biographer; m., 1820, George Grote (1794–1871; ODNB); see TC to JSM, 18 July 1833.

Guizot, François Pierre Guillaume (1787–1874; see TC to MAC, 26 Feb. 1848), French historian and former politician; premier, 1840–48; forced into political retirement by the 1848 revolution, after which he wrote hist. works. TC had met him in March 1840 (see TC to JAC, 17 March 1840).

Hallam, Henry (1777–1859; ODNB), historian; trustee of the British Museum Lib.

Hanning, Janet (1813–97), TC's sister; m. Robert (d. 1878), who had emigrated to Canada in mysterious disgrace, 1841; she rejoined him in Hamilton, Ontario, Aug. 1851, with their two das., Margaret (b. 1838) and Mary (b. 1840). They had two other das., Catherine (b. 1852 or 1853) and Jane, both b. in Canada.

Hawkes, Emilie (1819/20?–93), da. of William Henry Ashurst (1792–1855; ODNB); a strong supporter of Mazzini (see TC to JARO, 23 March 1844); m. Sydney Hawkes, whom she later divorced; m., 1860, Carlo Venturi (d. 1866); author of Joseph Mazzini: A Memoir (1875).

Hunt, James Henry Leigh (1784–1859; ODNB), essayist, poet, and former neighbor of the Carlyles; Thornton Leigh Hunt's father.

Hunter, Dr. Jacob (see JWC to JW, 19 Oct. 1842, and TC to JBO, 7 June 1845), physician; wrongly identified as of Moffat (see TC to JAC, 19 Sept. 1848, TC to JWC, 9 Sept. 1850, and 25:biographical note, and elsewhere); John Carlyle's friend.

Hunter, Robert Hope Alston, physician of Moffat, L.R.C.S. and lic. midw., Edinburgh, 1825; staff surg., half-pay; corresponding hon. member Bombay Med. & Phys. Soc.; many contributions to various journals (Medical Directory for Scotland [1856]).

Irving, Edward (1792–1834; ODNB; see TC to RM, 12 Feb. 1817, later vols., and Carlyle, Reminiscences), the Carlyles' great friend; religious leader and preacher.

Jeffrey, Lord Francis (1773–1850; ODNB; see TC to AC, 26 Jan. 1820 and later vols.), lawyer, judge, and literary critic; early friend and benefactor of the Carlyles.

Jewsbury, Geraldine Endsor (1812–80; ODNB; see TC to GEJ, 12 April 1840), novelist, reviewer, and misc. writer; a friend of the Carlyles, particularly of JWC, since the early 1840s. She had four brothers: Thomas Smith (b. 1802), Henry Richard Smith (1803–73), Arthur (b. 1815), and Francis (Frank) Harding Jewsbury (1819–78), m., 1853, Emily, b. Vanburgh; both lived in Manchester. Jewsbury lived with Frank till 1854. She moved to 3 Oakley St., near King's Road, Chelsea, summer 1854.

Jones, John Edward (1806–62; ODNB; see TC to JF, 12 Dec. 1846), was appointed asst. librarian in London Lib., 1844; on Cochrane's death, he was a candidate for the librarian's post, to which he was never appointed in his remaining years at the Lib.

Ker, Alan (1819–85), eldest son of Robert of Greenock; attorney gen. of Antigua, 1851–54; chief justice of Nevis, 1854–56, and Dominica, 1856–61; m., 1851, Mary, b. Tennyson (1810–84), Alfred's sister.

Lansdowne, Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice (1780–1863; ODNB; see TC to JF, 17 Jan. 1839), 3d marquess; Whig politician; pres. of the Privy Council under Grey, Melbourne, and Russell; respected as patron of the arts and lit.; known to TC since they joined in founding the London Lib.

Lewes, George Henry (“Ape”) (1817–78; ODNB; see TC to UC, 16 Oct. 1839), author, journalist and co-ed., with Thornton Hunt, of the Leader; known to the Carlyles from 1835; m., 1841, Agnes, b. Jervis (1822–1902; see TC to JAC, 26 Aug. 1848), with a family of three surviving children. Agnes's 1st of 4 children with Thornton Hunt was b. 1850 when the Leweses were living in Hunt's house (see JWC to TC, 4 Aug. 1850). In 1852 Lewes's friendship developed with Marian Evans (George Eliot). They left for Germany together, July 1854; the Carlyles remained on friendly terms with Lewes.

Louis Napoleon, see Napoleon III.

Lowe, Ann Elizabeth (ca. 1777–1860), and Frances Meliora Lucia (ca. 1783–1866), das. of Mauritius Lowe (1746–93), painter and friend of Samuel Johnson. Ann was Johnson's goddaughter and a beneficiary of his will. They were living in poverty at 5 Minerva Pl., Old Kent Rd., Deptford. TC and others petitioned for a govt. pension for them from May 1855.

Lowe, Robert (1811–92; ODNB), politician; leader writer for the Times; M.P. for Kidderminster, 1852–59; joint sec. of the board of control, 1852–55, and paymaster gen., 1855–58; m., 1836, to Georgiana, b. Orred (d. 1884).

Macaulay, Thomas Babington (1800–1859; ODNB), historian and Whig M.P. for Edinburgh, 1839–47. After his defeat in the general election of 1847, he turned to literature and pbd. 2 vols. of his History of England (1848). In the general election, 1852, he triumphed again at Edinburgh but suffered a decline in health; he continued to write.

Maccall, William (1812–88; ODNB; see TC to WM, 5 Aug. 1848), impoverished writer, Unitarian preacher, and lecturer; m., 1842, Alice, b. Haselden, of Bolton; Elizabeth was their da.

Macready, William Charles (1793–1873; ODNB), actor-manager; retired, 26 Feb. 1851; m., 1824, Catherine Frances, b. Atkins (1805–52); the Carlyles' friend since 1839; moved to Sherborne, Dorset, 1850.

Magnus, Eduard (1799–1872), German portrait painter; prof. in Berlin since 1844.

Marshall, James (see TC to JMA, 3 June 1847, and TC to MAC, 19 June 1847), originally from Ayrshire; asst. to the grand duke and duchess of Weimar; m. with children (see TC to MAC, 17 March 1853); his son died at the end of 1854.

Martineau, Harriet (1802–76; ODNB; see TC to LEM, 21 Feb. 1841), journalist and writer, esp. on public affairs; once a Unitarian, now a freethinker; known to the Carlyles since 1836, she and TC usually held each other in mutual esteem; occasionally she and JWC were in disagreement. She lived at Ambleside.

Martineau, James (1805–1900; ODNB; see JWC to TC, 17 July 1843), Unitarian clergyman; m., 1828, Helen, b. Higginson (1804–77); Harriet's estranged brother.

Maurice, J. Frederick D. (1805–72; ODNB; see JWC to JCA, 13 Aug. 1835), Broad Church leader and Christian Socialist; prof. of English lit. and history, 1840, and prof. of theology, 1846, King's Coll., London; he was dismissed, Oct. 1853, after his Theological Essays were pbd. to strong criticism from conservative churchmen (see TC to LA, 3 Nov. 1853). His 2d wife, m. 1849, was Georgiana, b. Hare (see TC to JWC, 5 April 1849).

Mazzini, Giuseppe (1805–72; see TC to JSM, 6 Dec. 1839, and 28:introduction), Italian revolutionary; friend of the Carlyles since the late 1830s. He was usually based in London but continued to keep alive active resistance to Austrian domination.

Milman, Rev. Henry Hart (1791–1868; ODNB; see TC to HMM, 3 March 1840, and TC to RMM, 10 March), dean of St. Paul's and early reviewer of Sartor; m., 1824, Mary Ann; well known to TC.

Milnes, Richard Monckton (1809–85; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 14 July 1836), Conservative M.P., society figure, author; the Carlyles' friend since the late 1830s; m., 1851, Annabel, b. Hungerford (Crewe); their das. were Amicia, b., 1852, and Florence, b. 1855. Disappointed expectations and disagreements made Milnes lose practical interest in politics after 1851, and devote himself to literature.

Mitchell, Helen (see JWC to MAC, 27 Oct. 1840, and JWC to JCA, 1 May 1849), the Carlyles' maid, 1837–46; left to keep house for her brother in Dublin; returned, 1848–49; dismissed for drunkenness; believed to have killed herself.

Montagu, Anna Dorothea, b. Benson (1773?–1856), 3d wife of Basil Montagu (1770–1851; ODNB); see JBW to TC, 14 Oct. 1823, and later, Carlyle, Reminiscences 83, 285–90; JWC had met her again in 1854; see JWC to JAC, 9 May 1854.

Montégut, Jean Baptiste Joseph Émile (1825–96), critic and trans.; he had joined the staff of Revue des Deux Mondes, 1847, and wrote widely on British and American literature, incl. on TC.

Napoleon III (Louis Napoleon) (1808–73), pres. of France, 1849 to Dec. 1851, when he seized power; declared emperor and assumed the title Napoleon III, 1852. M., 1853, Eugénie, b. de Montijo (1826–1920).

Neuberg, Joseph (1806–67; see TC to JN, 21 Dec. 1839, and 25:biographical note), German-born retired Nottingham businessman; naturalized Briton, 1845. He met TC in 1848; helped him as an unpaid sec., translated his work, and twice accompanied him on visits to Germany. In Germany for most of 1853, from Oct. 1853 he lived in Willesden. He was helping TC with work on Frederick. He visited Germany, early Sept. 1854, but was back and in poor health by mid-Oct. 1854. His sister was Rosette or Rosetta (d. 1898; see JWC to JN, 3 July 1849); she m., probably 1853, a Mr. (possibly Adolph) Frankau (d. 1856; see 29:biographical note), and had two children. From 1858, Mrs. Frankau is listed as living at 25 Oakley Villas, Adelaide Rd., which she shared with Neuberg.

Newton, Sarah Ann (b. 1821?), m. Robert Nodes Newton (1813?–64; see TC to JAC, 4 Sept. 1847), textile manufacturer, brother of Elizabeth Paulet of Seaforth, nr. Liverpool (d. 1879), the Carlyles' former friend; they had three sons and three das. and had lived at Longcar Cottage, Barnsley. They appear to have separated some time after a bitter quarrel in 1852, involving Frank Jewsbury (see JWC to FJ, 6 July 1852, and JWC to FJ, 10 July 1852); in Apr.–May 1854, Sarah Ann was working as a nurse in London before taking a position as lady's companion, encouraged by JWC (see JWC to JAC, 9 May 1854).

Owen, Richard (1804–92; ODNB; see TC to JWC, 26 Aug. 1842), naturalist; first Hunterian prof. of comparative anatomy and physiology, Royal Coll. of Surgeons, 1836–56; supt. of the Natural History Dept., British Museum, 1856–83; m., 1835, Caroline Amelia (d. 1873), da. of William Clift (see TC to JWC, 26 Aug. 1842), Owen's assoc. at the Royal Coll.; she taught herself several languages and comparative anatomy.

Palmerston, Henry John Temple (1784–1865; ODNB), 3d Viscount Palmerston; m., 1839, Emily, b. Lamb, formerly Lady Cowper (b. 1787). Whig foreign minister, 1846–52, then home sec. until he became prime minister, Feb. 1855. His strong militaristic stand against Russia had popular and press approval, but he was wildly overoptimistic about the progress of the war; a populist but strongly opposed to widening of the vote.

Panizzi, Anthony (1797–1879; ODNB), Italian immigrant, naturalized Briton; distinguished keeper of printed books at the British Museum; TC strongly disapproved of his management of the lib. and the catalogue; see TC to LOA, 6 Feb. 1849.

Parker, John William (1792–1870; ODNB; see TC to ES, 14 May 1847), publisher and printer; pbd. Fraser's Magazine, 1847–63. His son, John William Parker (1820–60), was ed. of Fraser's from 1847.

Pepoli, Elizabeth, b. Fergus (1792–1867; see JWC to TC, 12 Oct. 1835, and JWC to TC, 9 April 1841), countess, old Kirkcaldy friend of the Carlyles; m., 1839, Count Carlo Pepoli (1796–1881; see JWC to JCA, 13 Aug. 1835), poet, prof. of philosophy, Bologna; a political exile after the revolution against papal govt., 1831; prof. of Italian, Univ. Coll., London, 1838–46. He was a deputy in the Roman republic and returned to Bologna, 1859.

Piper, John (see JWC to TC, 11 Sept. 1847), the Carlyles' postman, of 15 Radnor St., King's Rd., Chelsea; his wife had occasionally helped at Cheyne Row; she d. Dec. 1855; see TC to JAC, 15 Dec.

Plattnauer, Richard, brother of Hedwig von Reichenbach; apparently introduced to the Carlyles, who befriended him (see JWC to JW, 29 Aug. 1844), by Godefroy Cavaignac; liberal or revolutionary exile from Prussia (see JWC to HW, 5 July 1847). He was subject to periods of insanity; had been a private tutor; lived on the Continent and in England.

Procter, Bryan Waller (“Barry Cornwall”) (1787–1874; ODNB; see TC to JBW, 23 June 1824, and TC to JAC, 31 Aug. 1832), poet and barrister, m., 1824, Anne Benson, b. Skepper (b. 1799; see JBW to TC, 14 Oct. 1823), da. of Anna Dorothea Montagu; old friends of the Carlyles.

Rawlins, Henry; John Forster's manservant.

Reichenbach, Oskar von (b. 1815; see JWC to JW, 12 Sept. 1844), count, Silesian landowner, liberal deputy to Frankfurt parliament, 1848–49; m. to Hedwig, b. Plattnauer, a close friend of JWC; son, Oskar. Forced into exile, he came to London with his family, 1850; they lived at Paulton's Sq., Chelsea, until they emigrated to America, 20 April 1853.

Rennie, George (1802–60; ODNB), JWC's old Haddington admirer; see JBW to EA, 15 Jan. 1822 and Carlyle, Reminiscences 67; Mrs. Rennie, his wife, b. Cockerell; see JWC to EA, 1 Aug. 1834.

Ruskin, John (1814–1900; ODNB), author, artist, social reformer; m., April 1848, Euphemia Chalmers, b. Gray (1827–97); marriage annulled, 1855. He pbd. 2 vols. of Modern Painters (1843, 1846), The Seven Lamps of Architecture (1849), and The Stones of Venice (1851–53). A friend of TC, he was strongly influenced by him.

Russell, Elizabeth Ann, b. Rawdon (1794?–1874), m., 1817, Lord George William Russell (1790–1846), maj. gen., 2d son of 6th duke of Bedford and Lord John's brother; always known as Lady William Russell; one of JWC's “select quality friends … who loved her like a daughter” (Carlyle, Reminiscences 187); see also 25:biographical note.

Russell, Lord John (1792–1878; ODNB), prime minister, 1846–51; foreign sec., 1852–53; member of the cabinet without office, 1853; in favor of parliamentary reform and a strong line against Russia. He became pres. of the Privy Council, June 1854, sec. of the colonies, Feb. 1855, resigned, July 1855. His 2d wife, m., 1841, was Frances Anna Maria Elliot (d. 1898), 2d da. of Gilbert, 2d earl of Minto.

Russell, Mary, b. Dobbie (d. 1875; see TC to AC, 7 April 1832), m. to Dr. James Russell, of Holmhill, Thornhill; close friends of JWC and her mother.

Saffi, Aurelio (1819–90), count, poet, and politician; had been one of the triumvir with Mazzini governing the short-lived Roman republic; in exile in Switzerland, 1850, and London, from 1851. He was with Mazzini in the Milan uprising of Feb. 1853. From Nov. 1853, he lived in Oxford where he lectured in Italian language and lit. at the Taylor Institution.

Sand, George, pseud. of Amandine Aurore Lucie Dudevant, b. Dupin (1803–76; see 27:biographical note), French novelist.

Sandwich, Mary Anne Julia Louisa Harriet, b. Lowry-Corry (1781–1862; see TC to MAC, 3 Sept. 1848), dowager countess, m., 1804, George John Montagu (1773–1818), 6th earl of Sandwich; Lady Ashburton's mother.

Smith, Job (d. 1862), and his wife (d. 1859), tenant farmers at Farlingay Hall (from 1852), where Edward FitzGerald sometimes lived. Mrs. Smith suffered bouts of insanity. Alfred was their son.

Stanley, Edward John (1802–69; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 27 Feb. 1840), Whig politician, created baron Eddisbury of Winnington, 1848; succeeded as 2d baron Stanley of Alderley, 1850; m. to Henrietta Maria, b. Dillon (1807–95; ODNB); both friends of the Carlyles, but she closer than her husband.

Stephen, Sir James (1789–1859; ODNB; see JWC to JCA, 13 Aug. 1835), under-sec. for colonies, 1836–47; prof. of modern history, Cambridge Univ., 1849–59.

Sterling, Anthony Coningham (1805–71; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 2 Dec. 1836, and later vols.), capt. in 73rd Foot on half-pay until 1854; friend of the Carlyles since 1837, and guardian until Oct. 1853 of his brother John's das. (see JWC to KS, 19 Nov. 1853), though not the oldest child, Edward. He had been a devoted admirer of JWC, but differences had arisen between them; m., 1829, Charlotte, b. Baird (d. 1863; see JWC to HW, 12 Nov. 1844, and JWC to HW, 9 Jan. 1845), who suffered attacks of insanity and was jealous of JWC. Brigade maj. and assistant adjutant gen. of the Highland Division in the Crimea, 1854–55. He was critical of the command in the Crimea but disapproved of open criticism in the press and of Roebuck's committee. His Letters from the Army in the Crimea; Written during the Years 1854, 1855 & 1856 by a Staff Officer who was there was pbd. for private circulation (1857); publicly pbd. as The Highland Brigade in the Crimea (1895).

Sterling, Catherine Susan (Kate) (1834–60), da. of John Sterling (1806–44; see TC to JSM, 27 May 1835), poet, journalist, and the Carlyles' close friend, whose life TC had pbd., 1851. She had been JWC's protégée. She married Andrew J. Ross, 17 May 1856. JWC and TC strongly disapproved of the match; see JWC's Journal, 25 March, and JWC to TC, 27 July 1852. JWC was also close to her sisters, Julia Maria (1836–1910) and Anna Charlotte (Lotta) (1833–67). Their brother was Edward Coningham Sterling (b. 1831; see JWC to HW, 9 Jan. 1845), now apparently living in London (see JWC to KS, 12 March 1854 and his calls on JWC, noted in her Journal, 5 Dec. 1855, 18 May, and 22 June 1856).

Stirling, William (1818–78; ODNB; see TC to WS, 24 Feb. 1848), historical writer, art expert, especially on Spain, and M.P.; Keir was his estate near Stirling.

Tait, Robert Scott (1816–97), portrait painter (exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1848–75) and pioneer photographer; a friend of the Carlyles since 1853. His first portrait of TC (now at Carlyle's House) was painted 1854–55, shown at the R.A., 1856; see I. W. Dyer, Bibliography of Carlyle's Writings (1928) frontispiece. He took photographs of the Carlyles, of their house, and for TC's use in Frederick. His well-known A Chelsea Interior (also at Carlyle's House), painted 1857–58, exhibited at the R.A., 1858, made use of photographs.

Taylor, Henry (1800–1886; ODNB; see TC to MAC, 10 Nov. 1831), author and civil servant; m., 1839, Theodosia Alice, b. Spring Rice (1818–91; see JWC to TC, 9 Sept. 1838), Lord Monteagle's da; they had a son, Aubrey (1845–70), and two das., Eleanor and Ida.

Taylor, Tom (1817–80; ODNB), dramatist and journalist who wrote for Punch, of which he later became ed.; sec. of the Board of Health, 1854.

Tennyson, Alfred (1809–92; ODNB), poet; friend of the Carlyles since early 1840s; they had a strong mutual regard; poet laureate, 1850. He m., 1850, Emily Sarah, b. Sellwood (1813–96).

Terrot, Charles Hughes (1790–1872; ODNB; see JWC to JW, 15 June 1843), bishop of Edinburgh, 1841–72, and JWC's old, unwanted admirer; see also JWC's Journal, 21 June 1856.

Thackeray, William Makepeace (1811–63; ODNB; see JWC to TC, 3 Aug. 1837, TC to JAC, 12 Aug. 1837, and later vols.), novelist; friend of the Carlyles since the 1830s and intimate of the Ashburton circle. M., 1836, Isabella, b. Shawe (d. 1894), who was mentally ill from 1840. He had been deeply devoted to Jane Brookfield but broke from her in 1852. After Vanity Fair (1847–48) and Pendennis (1849–50), he wrote Henry Esmond, pbd. Oct. 1852, which was dedicated to Lord Ashburton, who, with his wife, had acted as an intermediary with the Brookfields. He lectured in the U.S., 1852; he suffered ill health the latter part of 1854, when he also traveled in Italy and Europe. His two das. were Anne Isabella (1837–1919) and Harriet Marian (1840–75). He reluctantly returned to the U.S. for a 2d lecture tour in Oct. 1855.

Thiers, Louis Adolphe (1797–1877; see TC to LAAL, 20 Oct. 1845), French politician and historian; m., 1833, Elise, b. Dosne (ca. 1812–80). In 1851 he was a champion of order in the constituent and legislative assemblies but was arrested and exiled on 2 Dec. 1851. He returned to France, 1852, and worked on his Histoire du Consulat et de l'Empire. Member of the Ashburton circle.

Tierney, Mary, b. Farrer, m. Jan. 1855, Matthew Edward Tierney (1816–60), lt. col., Coldstream Guards; 3d bart. from May 1856.

Tyndall, John (1820–93; ODNB), prof. of natural philosophy at the Royal Inst. from 1853; TC's admirer who later became a close friend; see also TC to LOA, 18 Jan. 1856 (vol. 31).

Todhunter family, neighbors of Neuberg in Willesden.

Twisleton, Hon. Edward Turner Boyd (1809–74; ODNB), public servant; B.A., Oxford, 1829; fellow of Balliol Coll., 1830–38; barrister, 1835; asst. poor law commissioner, 1839. He was chief commissioner of the Poor Laws in Ireland, 1839–49, when he resigned in protest at govt. policy. In 1850, he visited the U.S., to investigate public schools in New England, and met Ellen Dwight (1828–62) of Boston; they were m., 19 May 1852. He was a close and respected friend of the Carlyles. His wife was now an even closer friend of JWC.

Venables, George (1810–88; ODNB), lawyer and journalist; fellow and tutor of Jesus Coll., Cambridge, and M.A., 1835; barrister, Inner Temple, 1836; contributor to the Saturday Review from its founding, 1855, and the Times, 1857–88; Tennyson's and Thackeray's friend.

Victoria (1819–1901; ODNB), queen since 1837; m. Albert, 1840.

Villiers, Charles Pelham (1802–98; ODNB), official of the Court of Chancery, 1833–52; M.P. for Wolverhampton, 1835–98.

Watt, Arthur (b. 1844?), William (b. 1843?), Henry (b. 1839?), at sea, and Tom (b. 1838?), in school in Germany; John A. Carlyle's stepsons.

Wedgwood, Frances (Fanny), b. Mackintosh (1800–1889; see TC to HWE, 11 Dec. 1836), the Carlyles' friend, though now less close; m. to Hensleigh Wedgwood (1803–91; ODNB; see TC to HWE, 11 Dec. 1836), mathematician and philologist, Erasmus A. Darwin's cousin.

Welsh, Alexander (Alick), oldest child of JWC's maternal uncle John Welsh, m. Sophy, b. Martin. Their son (b. 1853?) was John.

Welsh, Ann (d. 1877), sister of Elizabeth Welsh (d. 1877) and Grace Welsh (d. 1867), all JWC's paternal aunts in Edinburgh (see TC to JWC, 11 March 1842, and 1JWC to JW, 26 June 1843).

Welsh, Grace, b. Welsh (1782–1842), JWC's mother, m. 1800.

Welsh, Helen (ca. 1813–53), da. of JWC's maternal uncle John Welsh; d. Dec. 1853.

Welsh, Jeannie (1798?–1828), JWC's maternal aunt; for her death, see TC to JAC, 16 April 1828 and Carlyle, Reminiscences 127–29.

Welsh, Jeannie (Babbie), Helen's younger sister; see Chrystal.

Welsh, Dr. John (1776–1819; see JBW to EWE, 5 Oct. 1819), JWC's father, doctor in Haddington, m. 1800.

Welsh, John (d. 1853; see TC to JCA, 12 Oct. 1853), JWC's maternal uncle, retired brass and copper founder, who had lived at 20 Maryland St., Liverpool; m. to Mary (d. 1838); for her death, see TC to AC, 15 Oct. 1838; parents of Helen, Jeannie Chrystal, Margaret (b. 1821), Alexander, Walter, and John (d. 1860).

Welsh, John (1824–59; ODNB; see JWC to MW, 20 Aug. 1842), meteorologist; son of JWC's paternal uncle George and Margaret, b. Kissock; apptd. asst. at Kew Observatory, 1850; known for balloon ascents, 1852 (see JWC to MW, 17 Aug. 1852).

Welsh, John (d. 1860), youngest son of JWC's maternal uncle John Welsh.

Welsh, Margaret (Maggie) (b. 1821), da. of JWC's maternal uncle John Welsh.

Welsh, Margaret, b. Kissock (1803–88; see JWC to MW, 22 Feb. 1841, and JWC to MW, 28 Feb. 1846), widow of JWC's paternal uncle George (1793–1835), now living in London.

Welsh, Robert (1784?–1841; see TC to JWC, 29 April 1841, and JWC to MW, 8 July 1842), JWC's paternal uncle, an Edinburgh solicitor, youngest of four brothers.

Welsh, Rev. Walter (ca. 1799–1879; see JWC to JW, 8 Jan. 1843), unmarried son of JWC's maternal uncle John Welsh; minister at Auchtertool, Fife, since 1842.

Wilberforce, Samuel (1805–73; ODNB; see 27:biographical note), bishop of Oxford.

Wilson, Thomas (b. 1811; see 22:introduction, and 26:biographical note), formerly curate at St. Peter Mancroft Parish Church, Norwich, 1845–47. He left the Church of England because he rejected the Thirty-Nine Articles; he turned to TC for help and was found a teaching appointment in Weimar, Dec. 1853.

Wynn, Charlotte Williams (1807–69; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 17 July 1845), friend of Varnhagen von Ense.

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