October 1856-July 1857

The Collected Letters, Volume 32


BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES ; 2004; DOI: 10.1215/ed-32-biographical-notes; CL 32: firstpage-32-243-lastpage-32-260


Notes on the Carlyles' contemporaries referred to more than once in the present volume are given below, cross-referenced to earlier information. Otherwise they are accounted for in headnotes and footnotes as they occur.

Adamson, Robert (d. 1861; see TC to JA, 14 Feb. 1838), manager of the British Linen Bank, Dumfries.

Aird, Thomas (1802–76; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 29 March 1833), poet, journalist, miscellaneous writer, and ed. of Dumfries Herald.

Airlie, Henrietta Blanche, b. Stanley (1829–1921), 7th countess; m. 1851 Lord Airlie, David Graham Drummond (1826–81), 7th earl (see 26:biographical note). They lived at Cortachy Castle, Angus.

Aitken, Jean (“Craw”) Carlyle (1810–88), TC's sister, m. to James (1809?), b. in Troqueer, housepainter of English St., Dumfries; they lived in Assembly St., Dumfries. Their sons were James or Jamie (1836–71), who had gone to Glasgow to be a clerk in Nov. 1853; Thomas (1841–69), who was at an institute for the deaf in Glasgow (see TC to JAC, 4 Nov. 1854); John (b. 1843); and a son whose name is not known (1855–56; wrongly named John in vol. 30). Their das. were Anne (ca. 1839–88); Margaret (b. 1845); and Mary (d. 1895), who was to marry her cousin Alexander Carlyle, 1879.

Albert (1819–61; ODNB), prince consort.

Allingham, William (1824–89; ODNB; see TC to WA, 4 Sept. 1850), poet; b. in Ireland where he worked in a bank; visited London annually from 1843; apptd. to customs office in Donegal, ca. 1846; introduced to TC by Leigh Hunt; pbd. Poems (1850) and other works.

Anne, servant at Cheyne Row from Nov. 1853 to March 1858; see A. Carlyle, NLM 2:176–77. She replaced Fanny. There was another Anne, older, who had three das., with the Carlyles from June 1851 (see TC to MAC, 11 June 1851, and JWC to MR, 6 Jan. 1852); she became ill, March 1852, returned to the Carlyles in April, but left 20 July 1852; see JWC to FJ, 15 July 1852.

Ashburton, Harriet Baring, b. Montagu (1805–57; ODNB; see TC to MAC, 8 March 1839, later vols., and 26:biographical note). She was the center of a literary and political circle, was TC's warmly admired friend, and a cause of jealousy for JWC; the Carlyles and the (then) Barings first met, 1839; m., 1823, to William Bingham Baring (1799–1864; ODNB; see TC to MAC, 8 March 1839 and later vols.), 2d Baron Ashburton from 1848, partner in Baring Bros., bankers, and politician.

Austin, Mary Carlyle (1808–88), TC's sister, m. to James (d. 1878), farmer of Gill, 6 mi. SW of Ecclefechan. Their seven das. included Margaret (1831–74) and Jessie (b. 1834); they had one son, James (b. 1848).

Bacon, Delia Salter (1811–59), American author, introduced to TC by Emerson; working in England, 1853–57, to prove that a group led by Francis Bacon wrote Shakespeare's plays; pbd. Philosophy of the Plays of Shakespere Unfolded (1857); mentally ill, 1857–59. TC had offered her help and advice that she did not take. See 28:introduction.

Barlow, Rev. John (1799–1869), sec. of the Royal Institution, 1843–60, and chaplain in ordinary at Kensington Palace, 1854–59; m. 1824, Cecilia Anne, b. Lam; see also JWC's Journal, 25 March 1856.

Binnie, Mary, b. Gillespie (ca. 1794–1866), JWC's second cousin, widow of Thomas Binnie; see JBW to TC, 10 May 1823 (where he is wrongly identified as JWC's cousin) and JWC to TC, 18 Sept. 1856.

Blackie, John Stuart (1809–95; ODNB; see TC to JSB, 28 April 1834, and TC to JSB, 16 April 1849); regius prof. of Latin, Marischal Coll., Aberdeen, 1839; prof. of Greek, Univ. of Edinburgh, 1852; m., 1842, Eliza, b. Wyld.

Bölte, Amalie Charlotte Elise Mariana (1811–91; see 22:introduction, and JWC to HW, 15 July 1847), German writer and trans., in England as a governess, 1839–51; close friend of the Carlyles; regular correspondent of Varnhagen von Ense; she had returned to Dresden, summer 1851, where she met TC briefly in 1852 (see TC to JWC, 25 Sept. 1852).

Braid, Betty (1795–1875), JWC's old servant now living in Edinburgh; m. to Alexander (1792–1874). They had one son, George (1829–65), who suffered ill health.

Bridges, William, sec. to the Mitre General Life Assurance Assoc., 23 Pall Mall.

Brookfield, William Henry (1809–74; ODNB; see JWC to WHB, 1 April 1846), well-connected clergyman and school inspector; m., 1841, Jane Octavia, b. Elton (1821–96). Their children were Magdalene (b. 1850), Arthur (b. 1853), and Charles Hallam Elton (b. 19 May 1857). After Jane Brookfield's close friendship with Thackeray, differences arose between him and the Brookfields; all parties were friends of the Ashburtons.

Brown, Dr. Samuel (1817–56; ODNB; see TC to JWC, 27 Aug. 1843), chemist, atomic theorist, lecturer, and writer; originally from Haddington; m., 1849, his cousin Helen, b. Littlejohn. He admired TC, who largely returned his liking. He had been in failing health for some time (see TC to JAC, 24 Jan. 1851 and E. Arbuckle, “Dr. Samuel Brown of Edinburgh” Carlyle Annual 11 [1990] 77–86). He d. in Edinburgh, 20 Sept. 1856.

Browning, Elizabeth Barrett, b. Moulton Barrett (1806–61; ODNB), poet, admirer of TC; m., 1846, Robert Browning, TC's friend since the mid-1830s. Her poem Aurora Leigh was pbd., Nov. 1856. Robert Wiedeman Barrett (“Pen”) (1849–1912) was their only child. They had been living in Florence since 1847.

Browning, Robert (1812–89; ODNB), poet; TC's friend since the mid-1830s. He and TC liked and admired each other, see TC to JAC, 26 Sept. 1855, and TC to RB, 4 Dec. 1855; JWC liked Browning less, see JWC to TC, 2 Sept. 1852, and JWC's Journal, 4 July 1856.

Bruce, Henry Austin (1815–95; ODNB), lawyer, liberal M.P. for Merthyr Tydfil, Glamorganshire, 1852–68; created 1st Baron Aberdare, 1873; m., 1854, Norah, da. of Sir William Francis Patrick Napier (1785–1860; ODNB).

Butler, Charles (1802–97; see TC to JCA, 18 Nov. 1853), m., 1825, Eliza A., b. Ogden; U.S. lawyer, financier, land speculator, entrepreneur, and philanthropist; welcome in Britain for his part in handling the threat by some states in the U.S., in the 1840s, to repudiate their bonds; met TC, Nov. 1853, and looked after his Illinois bonds. He had three sons, two of whom died in infancy, the oldest, Abraham Ogden Butler (ca. 1833–56), graduate of New York Univ., 1853, d. 6 June 1856, and two das., Emily and Anna. He was Delia Bacon's benefactor, who enabled her to come to England to carry out her studies of the authorship of Shakespeare's plays.

Byng, Hon. Frederick Gerald (“Poodle”) (1784–1871; see TC to JWC, 8 July 1844), 5th son of John Byng (b. 1742?), 5th Viscount Torrington; socialite, formerly a clerk in the Foreign Office; member of the Ashburton circle.

Campbell, Sir Colin (1792–1863; ODNB), maj. gen., 1854; lieut. gen., 1856; 1st Baron Clyde, 1858. His name was originally MacIver, but he took Campbell after his mother, Agnes Campbell of Islay. TC says he is Anthony Sterling's cousin (see TC to JAC, 6 March 1854), but the relationship is unconfirmed; if there was one, it was presumably through Sterling's maternal grandmother, Elizabeth Coningham, b. Campbell (see TC to MAC, 27 July 1836). He commanded the Highland Brigade at the battle of Alma in the Crimea, 1854; inspector-general of the Infantry, 1856; commander of forces in India, from July 1857.

Carlyle, Alexander (Alick) (1797–1876), TC's brother, who emigrated with his family to Canada, 1843; settled at the Bield, 4 ½ mi. W of Brantford, Ontario; m., 1830, Janet, b. Clow (1808–91). They had six sons, Robert (1851–1932) the youngest, and five das.; the oldest da. was Jane Welsh (1831–84), m. Robert Sims, 1852. Their 5th da., Euphemia, b. 27 Dec. 1853, d. 21 March 1854.

Carlyle, Alexander (1843–1931; see TC to AC, 4 May 1843), Alexander and Janet's son; m. his cousin Mary Aitken, 1879; lived with TC and ed. the Carlyles' letters and TC's other writings.

Carlyle, James (Jamie) (1805–90), TC's brother, farmer at Scotsbrig; m., 1834, Isabella, b. Calvert (d. 1859), who had long been unwell. Their children included James (1835–71), working in Glasgow as a clerk; John (b. 1836); Thomas (1838–41); and Janet (Jessie or Jenny) (1843–74).

Carlyle, John (1792?–1872), TC's half-brother; emigrated to U.S., 1837, then moved to Canada (see TC to AC, 15 Aug. 1840); he had let his previous farm as it was “new, consequently hard to till,” and bought a small farm at Mount Pleasant, near Brantford, Ontario, by May 1855; m. Margaret (Peggy), b. Benn (1798–1867). They had five children: Janet (1818–89), Mary (1821–50), John (1825–97), James (1830–1900), and William (1833–1911). The two youngest were schoolteachers.

Carlyle, John Aitken (Jack, “The Doctor”) (1801–79; ODNB), TC's brother, physician and trans.; m., 2 Nov. 1852, Phoebe Elizabeth Hough Watt, b. Fowler, a widow from nr. Moffat with four sons (see Watt). She d. in childbirth, 1854.

Carlyle, Margaret Aitken (1771–1853), TC's mother; had been living with James and Isabella Carlyle at Scotsbrig. She d. 25 Dec. 1853.

Carlyle, Thomas (1833–1921), Alexander and Janet's oldest son; moved to Hamilton, Ontario, April 1855, and returned to the Bield, Aug. 1855.

Chapman, Edward (1804–80), senior partner in Chapman & Hall, TC's publisher since 1842; m. Mary, b. Whiting.

Chapman, Frederic (1823–95; ODNB), m. Clara, b. Woodin (d. 1866); junior partner in Chapman & Hall and Edward Chapman's cousin.

Chapman, John (1821–94; ODNB; see TC to JCH, 21 March 1844), freethinking publisher and author, an agent for American firms; proprietor of the Westminster Review.

Chorley, John Rutter (1806–67; ODNB; see TC to JWC, 25 July 1843, and TC to JWC, 8 Aug. 1845), reviewer for the Athenaeum; highly regarded by TC (see Carlyle, Reminiscences 154). He helped in supervising the building of the soundproof room, 1853.

Chrystal, Jeannie, b. Welsh; m., 28 April 1853, Andrew Chrystal of Glasgow (see TC to JWC, 10 Aug. 1849, and JWC to JW, 11 May 1851). Her regular correspondence with JWC ended after her marriage.

Clough, Arthur Hugh (1819–61; ODNB; see TC to AHC, 17 Dec. 1845, and TC to JWC, 3 April 1849), poet; m., 13 June 1854, Blanche, b. Smith (1829–1900), Florence Nightingale's cousin; principal of Univ. Hall, London, 1849–51; prof. of English lang. and lit., Univ. Coll., London, 1850–51; resigned. He left for the U.S., 30 Oct. 1852, and returned June 1853, to take up a post, secured for him by Lady Ashburton, TC, and others, as examiner in the Education Office.

Craik, George Lillie (1798–1866; ODNB; see JWC to SS, 20 Sept. 1835), author, prof. of English lit. and history, Queen's Coll., Belfast, from 1849; friend of the Carlyles since 1835; m., 1826, to Jeannette, b. Dempster (see JWC to TC, 30 Aug. 1838); she died mid-1856. According to the ODNB; they had one son and two surviving das, Georgina and Mary; Isabella d. 1842 (see JWC to JW, 8 Dec. 1842).

Darwin, Erasmus Alvey (1804–81; see TC to JAC, 15 June 1835, and TC to JAC, 17 Feb. 1837), the Carlyles' close friend since 1835; Charles Darwin's brother; living at 57 Queen Anne St., Cavendish Sq., since 1853.

Davidson, David (1811–1900), capt., army engineer and inventor, b. Haddington, where he was a childhood friend of JWC; later maj., then lt. col.; knighted 1894. He invented telescopic sights for rifles, shown at the Great Exhibition, 1851, and the collimating telescope, 1855. M., 1849, Margaret, b. Buchanan (1822?–99). They had two sons: Henry Chisholm (b. 1851), David Albert (b. 1853); and three das.: Jane (b. 1852), Mary (b. 1855), and Alice (b. 8 Aug. 1856).

Delane, John Thadeus (1817–79; ODNB), ed. of the Times, 1841–77; attacked the govt. in the Times for the conduct of the Crimean War, although apparently supported the war itself.

Dickens, Charles (1812–70; ODNB), novelist; friend of the Carlyles since the early 1840s; m., 1836, Catherine Thomson, b. Hogarth (d. 1879). Petitioned with TC and Forster for a pension for the Lowe sisters, 1855–56.

Disraeli, Benjamin (1804–81; ODNB), Tory politician and novelist; M.P. for Buckinghamshire, chancellor of the exchequer in Derby's govt., Feb. to Dec. 1852; later prime minister; m., 1839, Mary Anne Lewis, b. Evans (1792–1872); not personally known to TC.

Dobbie, Rev. Edward (1773–1857; see TC to JWC, 9 March 1842), retired minister, d. 22 Feb. 1857; Mary Russell's father.

Donaldson sisters of Sunny Bank, Haddington: Jean (1770–1860), JWC's godmother; Jess (1774–1860); and Catherine (Kate) (1779–1852); friends of JWC's mother; paternal aunts of Eliza and John William.

Donaldson, Betty, b. Cundale, widow of Stuart Donaldson (1776–1849); J. W. Donaldson's mother. Eliza was her da., apparently living in London.

Donaldson, Elizabeth (Eliza), John William's sister (see JWC to TC, 8 Aug. 1856) and niece of JWC's godmother, Jean.

Donaldson, John William (1811–61; ODNB; see TC to JWC, 31 Aug. 1842), philologist; headmaster of King Edward's School, Bury St. Edmunds, 1841–55. The school declined under Donaldson, and he resigned; he went to live in Cambridge, where he became a tutor.

Donne, William Bodham (1807–82; ODNB), trans.; friend of FitzGerald and James Spedding; former Cambridge “Apostle.” He wrote for various quarterlies; appointed chief librarian, London Lib., 12 June 1852; resigned, 21 March 1857; deputizing for John Mitchell Kemble (1807–57; ODNB) from 1849, he became examiner of plays, 1857–1874.

Downshire, Lady Caroline Frances, b. Stapleton-Cotton (1815–93), m., 1837, Arthur Wills Blundell Sandys Trumbull Windsor Hill (1812–68), 4th marquess of Downshire. They had three children; Alicia Maria (d. 1928), Arthur Wills Blundell Trumbull Sandys Roden Hill (1844–74), and Arthur William (1846–1931).

Dwight, Elisabeth (1830–1901), later Cabot, Ellen Twisleton's sister. She had come to Britain with Ellen from Boston, Oct. 1855, and left to return to Boston, 4 Oct. 1856.

Eliot, George (pseud.), b. Mary Ann (later Marian) Evans (1819–80; ODNB), novelist; began her friendship with G. H. Lewes, 1851, which developed into a relationship that lasted until his death. Pbd. influential “Carlyle's Life of Sterling,” Westminster Review 57 (1852): 247–51.

Ellice, Edward (“Bear”) (1783–1863; ODNB); deputy gov. of the Hudson's Bay Co., see TC to JAC, 28 Jan. 1847. He m., 1809, Lady Hannah Althea (d. 1832), widow of Capt. Bettesworth and sister of Charles Grey, 2d earl (1764–1845; ODNB), by whom he had one son, also Edward (1810–80; ODNB). In 1843 he m. Anne Amelia, b. Keppel (1803–44), Lady Leicester, widow of Thomas William Coke (1752–1842), 1st earl of Leicester. As M.P. for Coventry he had supported the 1832 Reform Act, but opposed further reforms. From 1834 he acted as confidential adviser to liberal govts. He refused a peerage. He owned estates in Scotland, Canada, and the U.S. Described by his close friend and colleague, Lord Ashburton: “He is a boy still, & will remain a boy to his end” (n.d.; MS: NLS Acc. 11388).

Emerson, Ralph Waldo (1803–82; see TC to JAC, 27 Aug. 1833), philosopher, essayist, poet, and transcendentalist. He first met TC, Aug. 1833; in spite of their differences they had close ties; he introduced many Americans to TC.

Erskine, Thomas (1788–1870; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 1 Feb. 1838), of Linlathen, Dundee; theologian and long retired advocate. TC first became involved in the appeal for the Lowe sisters through him.

Evans, George de Lacy (1787–1870; ODNB), soldier; served in India, the Iberian Peninsula, and at Waterloo; retired on half pay, 1818. Radical M.P. in the 1830s, then served again in Spain, 1835–37, and the Crimea, 1854; M.P. for Westminster, 1846, 1852, 1857, and 1859–65; K.C.B., 1838; G.C.B., 1855. M., 1834, Josette, b. Arbuthnot (d. 1861), the wealthy widow of P. Hughes, esq.

Farie, Robert (1813–82; see TC to JAC, 20 Nov. 1846), nonpracticing barrister of independent means; trans. of German works; known to the Carlyles since 1846.

Farrer, Annie Louisa (b. ca. 1817–1910; see TC to JAC, 11 Sept. 1848), lively member of the Ashburton circle; for Mary, her older sister, see Tierney. Their mother was Mary, b. Anstruther (d. 1860; see 27:biographical note). There were five brothers; see JWC to TC, 23 Sept. 1850.

Fergus, John (1797–1865; see JWC to TC, 17 July 1837, and TC to JF, 7 Nov. 1845), of Kirkcaldy; flax manufacturer on a large scale; M.P. for Fife, 1847–59. He and his sisters, Elizabeth Pepoli, Jessie (Janet) Fergus (b. 1794), Charlotte Nixon (1795–1853), and Jane (b. 1804, m. Robert W. Royd [or Royds], 1841), were all old friends of the Carlyles. There was a 5th sister, Isabella (b. 1798), m. Hugh Lumsden, 1824.

Ferme, Helena Shortess, b. Howden (1810–91), Dr. Thomas Howden's da.; m., 1845, John Ferme (b. ca. 1797). Their children were Helena MacNaughton (b. ca. 1846), William Thomas (b. ca. 1847), Walter Howden (b. ca. 1849), Jane Frances (b. ca. 1850), and Georgina (b. ca. 1851). There were two older children, presumably from John Ferme's previous marriage, listed in the 1851 census when the family was living at 2 High St., Haddington: James (b. ca. 1834) and Sarah (b. ca. 1836).

FitzGerald, Edward (1809–83; ODNB; see TC to EF, 18 Sept. 1842), poet and trans.; TC's friend since 1842. He left Boulge Cottage, Woodbridge, Suffolk, in 1853 because of his father's bankruptcy, and lived mainly at Farlingay Hall, Woodbridge, Suffolk, the home of Job Smith and his wife. John (1803–79), his older brother, lived at Boulge Hall, which he inherited when his mother, Mary Frances, b. FitzGerald, d. Jan. 1855. Their father was John Purcell (1775–1852), who took his wife's family name after her father's death. In 1855 FitzGerald became considerably better off when he inherited a share of his mother's estate; he m., 4 Nov. 1856, Lucy, b. Barton (1808–98), a writer mainly on religion, da. of his friend Bernard Barton (1784–1849; ODNB), a selection of whose works she edited, (Selections from the Poems and Letters of Bernard Barton [1849]), to which FitzGerald had written a preface. He had married reluctantly, and, after spending much of their time apart, the FitzGeralds separated Aug. 1857. He settled an income of approximately £300 a year on her.

Forster, John (“Fuz”) (1812–76; ODNB; see TC to GE, 15 Feb. 1832, and TC to JF, 17 Jan. 1839), historian, journalist, biographer, and ed. of the Examiner, 1848–55; sec. to the Lunacy Commission, 1855–61; friend of the Carlyles since the late 1830s, and TC's literary adviser. He m., 24 Sept. 1856, Eliza Ann, b. Crosbie (1819?–94), widow of the publisher Henry Colburn (d. 1855; ODNB). After a two-month holiday in the Lake District, Forster gave up his home in Lincoln's Inn Fields and the couple went to live at 46 Montagu Sq.

Foxton, Frederick Joseph (ca. 1807–70), lapsed Church of Wales clergyman; B.A., 1829, Pembroke Coll., Oxford; author of Popular Christianity (1840; repbd. 1849) and The Priesthood and the People (1862). TC sometimes found him tedious but a thorough gentleman.

Fraser, Alexander Campbell (1819–1914; ODNB), m., 1850, Jemima Gordon, b. Dyce; prof. of logic and metaphysics in the Theological Coll. of the Free Church in Edinburgh, 1846–56, and of Edinburgh Univ., 1856–91; ed. North British Review, 1850–57.

Friedrich Wilhelm IV (1795–1861), king of Prussia, 1840–61.

Froude, James Anthony (1818–94; ODNB; see TC to JWC, 3 April 1849), journalist, historian; m., 1849, Charlotte Maria, b. Grenfell (d. 1860) of Taplow Court, sister-in-law of Charles Kingsley, Froude's close friend. He first met the Carlyles, June 1849; came to know them better after moving to London, 1860.

Garthwaite, Tom (ca. 1810–94), Ecclefechan tailor.

Gilchrist, Alexander (1828–61; ODNB), biographer, m., 1851, Anne, b. Burrows (1828–82). They moved to 6 Cheyne Row, autumn 1856.

Goderich, George Frederick Samuel Robinson (1827–1909; ODNB; see TC to CK, 21 March 1851), viscount; Christian socialist, Liberal M.P. for Huddersfield, 1853–57; m., 1851, Henrietta Anne Theodosia (1833–1907), b. Vyner. Their da., Mary Sarah, b. 14 July 1857, d. 3 July 1858. His father was Frederick John Robinson (1782–1859; ODNB), 1st earl of Ripon, prime minister, 1827–28.

Graham, William (ca. 1774–1860 [corrected dates]; see TC to WG, 15 Sept. 1820, TC to JAC, 20 Nov. 1846, and other vols.), TC's old friend, living retired and in poor health on the slopes of Burnswark, 3 mi. N of Ecclefechan, where he had formerly farmed. Elizabeth (ca. 1784–1861), his sister, was also failing (see TC to JWC, 28 Dec. 1853, and TC to AC, 8 April 1854).

Grey, Henry George (1802–94; ODNB; see TC to JWC, 8 July 1844), 3d Earl Grey; sec. for the colonies, 1846–52; leader of Whigs in House of Lords from 1845. M., 1832, Maria, b. Copley (1803–79). Known to TC since 1844. Grey had opposed Palmerston and the Crimean War, and praised Russian peace efforts in 1855; he was never offered another cabinet position after being replaced in the Colonial Office in 1852.

Grove, William Robert (1811–96; ODNB), barrister, queen's counsel, 1853; he defended the poisoner William Palmer, May 1856. He was a prominent scientist and vice pres. of the Royal Inst.

Guthrie, Dr. Thomas (1803–73; ODNB), preacher and philanthropist; promoter of ragged schools; minister of Free St. John's, Edinburgh; moderator of the Free Church of Scotland, 1862.

Hanning, Janet (1813–97), TC's sister; m., 1836, Robert (d. 1878), who had emigrated to Canada in mysterious disgrace, 1841; she rejoined him in Hamilton, Ontario, Aug. 1851, with their two das., Margaret (b. 1838) and Mary (b. 1840). They had two other das., Catherine (b. 1852 or 1853) and Jane, both b. in Canada.

Harrison, Robert (1820–97), librarian of Leeds Lib., 1855–57, and the London Lib., 1857–93. He had taught in St. Petersburg and was later one of the founders of the Lib. Association of the U.K. Both Carlyles were to be on friendly terms with him.

Hawkes, Emilie (d. 1893), da. of William Henry Ashurst (1791–1855; ODNB); portrait painter, see JWC's Journal, 13 Nov. 1855; a strong supporter of Mazzini (see TC to JARO, 23 March 1844); m. Sidney Hawkes, whom she later divorced; m., 1860, Carlo Venturi (d. 1866); author of Joseph Mazzini: A Memoir (1875).

Helps, Arthur (1813–75; ODNB), writer and historian of private means; clerk to the privy council, 1860: friend of the Carlyles since the early 1840s; m. to Bessy, b. Fuller (see JWC to TC, 17 July 1843.)

Howden, Dr. Thomas (1787–1868), JWC's father's partner, see JWC to JAC, 28 July 1849. Living at Maitlandfield, Haddington. His son, also Thomas (1812–1900), medical practitioner, lived in JWC's old house in Lodge St., Haddington, with his 2d wife, Jessie Cunningham, b. Mylne (1833–90); his first wife was his cousin, Agnes, b. Howden (d. 1844).

Irving, Edward (1792–1834; ODNB; see TC to RM, 12 Feb. 1817, later vols., and Carlyle, Reminiscences), the Carlyles' great friend; religious leader and preacher.

Jewsbury, Geraldine Endsor (1812–80; ODNB; see TC to GEJ, 12 April 1840), novelist, reviewer, and misc. writer; a friend of the Carlyles, particularly of JWC, since the early 1840s. She had four brothers: Thomas Smith (b. 1802), Henry Richard Smith (1803–73), Arthur (b. 1815), and Francis (Frank) Harding (1819–78), who m., 1853, Emily, b. Vanburgh. Jewsbury lived with Frank in Manchester till 1854. She moved to 3 Oakley St., near Cheyne Row, Chelsea, summer 1854.

Jones, John Edward, sublibrarian, London Lib. He was appointed asst., July 1844, at a salary of 10s. a week; by Nov. 1846, when he was senior asst., his salary was 30s. a week. He applied for the post of librarian on Cochrane's death in 1852; see TC to JAC, 5 May 1825, TC to JAC, 10 May 1852, and TC to LOA, 10 May 1852. He and John Edward Jones (1806–62; ODNB), sculptor, are confused at TC to JF, 12 Dec. 1846, and 27:biographical note. He remained with London Lib. until his resignation, June 1893.

Ker, Alan (1819–85), eldest son of Robert of Greenock; in the judicial service of the W. Indies; attorney gen. of Antigua, 1851–54; chief justice of Nevis, 1854–56, and Dominica, 1856–61; m., 1851, Mary, b. Tennyson (1810–84), Alfred's sister.

Kingsley, Charles (1819–75; ODNB), author, briefly associated with the Christian Socialist movement; m., 1844, Fanny, b. Grenfell (1814?–91; ODNB); he wrote several novels critical of the social order, including Alton Locke (1850) and Yeast (1851).

Landor, Walter Savage (1775–1864; ODNB), poet and man of letters, whom TC had known since 1836; separated from his wife and living in Bath where Dickens and Forster regularly visited him. His “Imaginary Conversations” was pbd., Fraser's Magazine 53:443–60, in April 1856.

Lansdowne, Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice (1780–1863; ODNB; see TC to JF, 17 Jan. 1839), 3d marquess; Whig politician; pres. of the Privy Council under Grey, Melbourne, and Russell; respected as patron of the arts and lit.; known to TC since they joined in founding the London Lib.

Larkin, Henry (1820–99), collector or cashier for the Chelsea Steamer Co.; partner in engineering business; author of Extra Physics and the Mystery of Creation (1878), which included an appendix (written in 1858) analysing of Sartor Resartus, and of Carlyle and the Open Secret of His Life (1886). For TC's early contacts with him, see TC to HL, 29 Dec. 1850, and TC to HL, 29 March 1852; he worked on TC's indexes from 1856: “He did for me all manner of maps, indexes, summaries, copyings, sortings, miscellanea of every kind” (for the complete note on Larkin by TC, in JWC to TC, 19 July 1858, see Froude, LM 2:362).

Laurence, Samuel (1812–84; ODNB; see TC to JCA, 6 July 1838), portraitist and friend of the Carlyles; he sketched or painted many of TC's circle; a close friend of James Spedding. He left for the U.S. in Dec. 1853, arriving Jan. 1854. During his stay he lived with Charles Butler and his family in New York.

Leighton, Robert (1822–88), of Leighton, Son & Hodge, bookbinders, 13 Shoe Lane and 2, 3, 25 & 26 Harp Alley.

Lewes, George Henry (“Ape”) (1817–78; ODNB; see TC to UC, 16 Oct. 1839), author, journalist, and co-ed. with Thornton Hunt of the Leader; known to the Carlyles from 1835; m., 1841, Agnes, b. Jervis (1822–1902; see TC to JAC, 26 Aug. 1848), with a family of three surviving children. She was to have four children with Thornton Hunt, the first of whom was b. 1850, when the Leweses were living in Hunt's house (see JWC to TC, 4 Aug. 1850). In 1851 Lewes's friendship developed with Marian Evans (George Eliot). They left for Germany together, July 1854; the Carlyles remained on friendly terms with Lewes.

Locock, Charles (1799–1875; ODNB), gynecologist, obstetrician, physician to Lady Ashburton; see TC to JAC, 25 Sept. 1848.

Louis Napoleon; see Napoleon III.

Lowe, Ann Elizabeth (1777?–1860), and Frances Meliora Lucia Lowe (ca. 1783–1866), das. of Mauritius Lowe (1746–93), painter and friend of Samuel Johnson. Ann was Johnson's goddaughter and a beneficiary of his will. They were living in poverty at 5 Minerva Pl., Old Kent Rd., Deptford. TC and others petitioned unsuccessfully for a govt. pension for them, followed by a public subscription, May 1855 to April 1856.

Lowe, Robert (1811–92; ODNB), politician; leader writer for the Times from 1851; M.P. for Kidderminster, 1852–59; joint sec. of the board of control, 1852–55, and vice president of the board of trade and paymaster gen., 1855–58; m., 1836, Georgiana, b. Orred (d. 1884); member of the Ashburton circle. JWC described them in her journal, 8 Nov. 1855: “The Lowes are ‘hand-made,’ both; which so few people about me are; and so I like them tho' the man ‘has no tenderness,’ (Lady A says) and the woman less than none!– Lady Duncannon says Mr Lowe ‘always reminds her of the negative of a photograph'” (see JWC's Journal, 8 Nov. 1855). Lowe was an albino (see D. W. Sylvester, Robert Lowe and Education [Cambridge, 1974] 3).

Lushington, Vernon (1832–1912); writer and barrister. He met TC in Dec. 1856, having written a series of articles on him for the Oxford and Cambridge Magazine. He helped TC with his Collected Works, 16 vols. (1857–58). See Fielding, “Vernon Lushington” 8:18.

Macaulay, Thomas Babington (1800–1859; ODNB), historian and Whig M.P. for Edinburgh, 1839–47. After his defeat in the general election of 1847, he turned to literature and pbd. the first two vols. of his History of England (1849). In the general election, 1852, he triumphed again at Edinburgh, but resigned his seat because of ill health, Jan. 1856; he continued to write, incl. the remaining vols. of The History of England.

Mackenzie, Colin (1806–81; ODNB), brig. gen. (later lt. gen.) in the Indian Army, see JWC to JW, 13 April 1844; m. Helen Douglas, 1843. He suffered severe injuries at Bolarum, 1855; see TC to JWP, 15 July 1856.

Mackenzie, Helen, b. Douglas, writer on India and religious matters; author of Storms and Sunshine of a Soldier's Life (Edinburgh, 1884) and Six Years in India (1857); m. Colin Mackenzie, 1843. She was his 2d wife. She was deaf. They first met the Carlyles in 1844; see JWC to JW, 13 April 1844, and JWC to LA, 12 June 1848. They were members of the Free Church of Scotland.

Martin, Frederick (1830–83; ODNB), misc. writer; b. Geneva, educated at Heidelberg; TC's amanuensis, Oct. 1856–March 1857; founded The Statesman's Year Book (1864); author of The Life of John Clare (1865), Handbook of Contemporary Biography (1870), and books on commerce and commercial firms. According to Espinasse, Martin said he had been Heinrich Heine's sec. and lived a bohemian life in Paris. In England he had taught in a boys' boarding school and, to escape “from a miserable existence of this kind, he wrote offering his services to Carlyle as literary assistant.” He pbd. an unauthorized biography of TC in the first issue of his Biographical Magazine (1877) about which TC complained; no other issue of the magazine was pbd. (Espinasse 260–63). It was discovered later that Martin had stolen and then sold manuscripts, papers, and letters from TC; see Slater, CEC 65–66, and Wilson, Carlyle 5:249–51.

Martineau, Harriet (1802–76; ODNB; see TC to LEM, 21 Feb. 1841), journalist and writer, esp. on public affairs; once a Unitarian, now a freethinker; known to the Carlyles since 1836, she and TC usually held each other in mutual esteem; occasionally she and JWC were in disagreement. She lived at Ambleside.

Maurice, J. Frederick D. (1805–72; ODNB; see JWC to JCA, 13 Aug. 1835), Broad Church leader and Christian Socialist; prof. of English lit. and history, 1840, and prof. of theology, 1846, King's Coll., London; he was dismissed, Oct. 1853, after his Theological Essays were pbd. to strong criticism from conservative churchmen (see TC to LA, 3 Nov. 1853). His 2d wife, m. 1849, was Georgiana, b. Hare (see TC to JWC, 5 April 1849).

Mazzini, Giuseppe (1805–72; see TC to JSM, 6 Dec. 1839, and 28:introduction), Italian revolutionary; friend of the Carlyles since the late 1830s. He was usually based in London, but continued to keep alive active resistance to Austrian domination.

Miller, Hugh (1802–56; ODNB; see TC to UC, 5 April 1848, and TC to HMI, 9 March 1854), Scottish geologist, writer, and member of the Free Church of Scotland; a stonemason and later an accountant; ed. of the Witness from 1840. He wrote many books on paleontology, geology, and theology, including The Old Red Sandstone (Edinburgh, 1841), Foot-prints of the Creator (1849), and The Testimony of the Rocks (Edinburgh, 1857). He m., 1837, Lydia Falconer, b. Fraser (1811?–76; ODNB); author (pseud. Harriet Myrtle) of children's stories and the novel Passages in the Life of an English Heiress (1847), pbd. anonymously. She helped to edit the Witness and edited Miller's works after his death. See also Elizabeth Sutherland, Lydia, Wife of Hugh Miller of Cromarty (East Linton, 2002) and Wilson, Carlyle 5:349–50.

Milnes, Richard Monckton (1809–85; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 14 July 1836), Conservative M.P., society figure, author, later Baron Houghton; the Carlyles' friend since the late 1830s; m., 1851, Annabel, b. Hungerford (Crewe); their das. were Amicia, b. 1852, and Florence, b. 1855. Disappointed expectations and disagreements made Milnes lose practical interest in politics after 1851 and devote himself to literature.

Montagu, Anna Dorothea, b. Benson (1773?–1856), 3d wife of Basil Montagu (1770–1851; ODNB); see JBW to TC, 14 Oct. 1823, later vols., and Carlyle, Reminiscences 83, 285–90; JWC had met her again in 1854; see JWC to JAC, 9 May 1854.

Napoleon III (Louis Napoleon) (1808–73), pres. of France, 1849 to Dec. 1851, when he seized power; was declared emperor and assumed the title Napoleon III, 1852. M., 1853, Eugénie, b. de Montijo (1826–1920). Their son, Napoleon Eugène Louis Jean Joseph (1856–79), prince imperial, was born 16 March.

Neuberg, Joseph (1806–67; see TC to JN, 21 Dec. 1839, and 25:biographical note), German-born retired Nottingham businessman; naturalized Briton, 1845. He met TC in 1848; helped him as an unpaid sec., translated his work, and twice accompanied him on visits to Germany. In Germany for most of 1853, from Oct. 1853 he lived in Willesden. He helped TC with work on Frederick. He visited Germany, early Sept. 1854, but was back and in poor health by mid-Oct. 1854. His sister was Rosette or Rosetta (d. 1898; see JWC to JN, 3 July 1849); she m., probably 1853, Adolph Frankau (1820–56), and had two children. From Oct. 1856, Neuberg lived with Mrs. Frankau at 25 Oakley Villas, Adelaide Rd.

Palmerston, Henry John Temple (1784–1865; ODNB), 3d Viscount Palmerston; m., 1839, Emily, b. Lamb, formerly Lady Cowper (1787–1869). Whig foreign minister, 1830–41 and 1846–51, then home sec., 1852 until he became prime minister, Feb. 1855. His strong militaristic stand against Russia had popular and press approval, but he was wildly over- optimistic about the progress of the war and was unhappy about the peace negotiations; a populist but strongly opposed to the widening of the vote.

Parker, John William (1792–1870; ODNB; see TC to ES, 14 May 1847), publisher and printer; pbd. Fraser's Magazine 1847–63. His son, also John William Parker (1820–60), was ed. of Fraser's Magazine from 1847.

Patmore, Coventry Kersey Deighton (1823–96; ODNB), poet; asst. in British Museum Lib., 1846; friend of Tennyson and Ruskin; he had sent TC some of his essays, 1850 (see TC to CP, 22 July 1850).

Pepoli, Elizabeth, b. Fergus (1792–1862; see JWC to TC, 12 Oct. 1835, and JWC to TC, 9 April 1841), countess, old Kirkcaldy friend of the Carlyles; m., 1839, Count Carlo Pepoli (1796–1881; see JWC to JCA, 13 Aug. 1835), poet, prof. of philosophy, Bologna; a political exile after the revolution against papal govt., 1831; prof. of Italian, Univ. Coll., London, 1838–46. He was a deputy in the Roman republic; he returned to Bologna, 1859.

Piper, John (see JWC to TC, 11 Sept. 1847), the Carlyles' postman, of 15 Radnor St., King's Rd., Chelsea; his wife had occasionally helped at Cheyne Row; she d. Dec. 1855, see TC to JAC, 15 Dec. 1855.

Plattnauer, Richard, brother of Hedwig von Reichenbach; apparently introduced to the Carlyles, who befriended him (see, for example, JWC to JW, 29 Aug. 1844) by Godefroy Cavaignac (see JWC to TC, 30 Aug. 1841); liberal or revolutionary exile from Prussia (see JWC to HW, 5 July 1847). He was subject to periods of insanity; lived on the Continent and in England; he worked as a private tutor, currently to the Downshire children.

Pringle, Janet, b. Hunter, m. to Dr. Pringle of Lann Hall, nr. Thornhill; JWC's cousin (see JWC to MR, 30 Dec. 1853). They had three sons.

Procter, Bryan Waller (“Barry Cornwall”) (1787–1874; ODNB; see TC to JBW, 23 June 1824, and TC to JAC, 31 Aug. 1832), poet and barrister, m., 1824, Anne Benson, b. Skepper (b. 1799; see JBW to TC, 14 Oct. 1823), da. of Anna Dorothea Montagu; old friends of the Carlyles; see also Carlyle, Reminiscences 286–87, 290.

Reichenbach, Oskar von (b. 1815; see JWC to JW, 12 Sept. 1844), count, Silesian landowner, liberal deputy to Frankfurt parliament, 1848–49; m. to Hedwig, b. Plattnauer, a close friend of JWC; their son was also Oskar. Forced into exile, he came to London with his family, 1850; they lived at Paulton's Sq., Chelsea, until they emigrated to America, April 1853. They lived in Norristown, Pennsylvania.

Rennie, George (1802–60; ODNB), sculptor and politician, gov. of the Falkland Islands 1847–55; JWC's old Haddington admirer, see JBW to EA, 15 Jan. 1822, and Carlyle, Reminiscences 67; Mrs. Rennie, his wife, b. Cockerell (see JWC to EA, 1 Aug. 1834).

Robson, Charles, of Robson, Levey, & Franklyn, printers, 23 Gt. New St., Fetter Lane. Robson had been TC's printer since 1837.

Ross, Alexander J. (1819–87; see JWC's Journal, 25 March 1856), liberal theologian and writer; educ. Edinburgh Univ.; minister, Free Church of Scotland, Langholm, Dumfriesshire, 1844–47; moved to Brighton, 1847, to become minister of Hanover Church; left the Free Church, 1852; became an unattached minister, the Pavilion Chapel, Brighton; lectured frequently at Brighton Mechanics' Inst.; ordained into the Church of England, 1865. He met Kate Sterling at F. D. Maurice's in London; they m., 1856. The Carlyles shared the Sterling family's dislike of Ross.

Ross, Catherine Susan (Kate) (1834–60), da. of John Sterling (1806–44; see TC to JSM, 27 May 1835), poet, journalist, and the Carlyles' close friend, whose life TC had pbd., 1851. She had been JWC's protégée. She m. Alexander J. Ross, May 1856. JWC and TC strongly disapproved of the match; see JWC to TC, 27 July 1852, and JWC's Journal, 25 March 1856.

Rouse, James (ca. 1827–95; see 31:biographical note), the Ashburtons' doctor; later of 2 Wilton Street, Grosvenor Pl.; FRCS, 1863. TC liked him; see TC to JWC, 16 Sept. 1856.

Ruskin, John (1819–1900; ODNB), author, artist, and social reformer; m., 1848, Euphemia Chalmers, b. Gray (1827–97), marriage annulled, 1855. He pbd. 4 vols. of Modern Painters (1843, 1846, 1856), The Seven Lamps of Architecture (1849), and The Stones of Venice (1851–53). He was J. M. W. Turner's foremost admirer. A friend of TC, he was strongly influenced by him.

Russell, Mary, b. Dobbie (d. 1875; see TC to AC, 7 April 1832), m. to Dr. James Russell, of Holmhill, Thornhill; close friends of JWC and her mother.

Saffi, Aurelio (1819–90), count, poet, and politician; had been one of the triumvir with Mazzini governing the short-lived Roman republic; in exile in Switzerland, 1850, and London, from 1851. He was with Mazzini in the Milan uprising of Feb. 1853. From Nov. 1853 he lived in Oxford, where he lectured in Italian language and lit. at the Taylor Inst. He m., 30 June 1857, Georgiana Janet Crauford (d. 1911), 2d da. of John Crauford of Auchenames, W Kilbride.

Sand, George, pseud. of Amandine Aurore Lucile Dudevant, b. Dupin (1804–76; see TC to MN, 21 June 1841), French novelist.

Sandwich, Mary Anne Julia Louisa Harriet, b. Lowry-Corry (1781–1862; see TC to MAC, 3 Sept. 1848), dowager countess, m., 1804, George John Montagu (1773–1818), 6th earl of Sandwich; Lady Ashburton's mother.

Scott, Alexander John (1805–66; ODNB); known to TC through Edward Irving since 1831, see TC to JWC, 22 Aug. 1831. Principal of Owens College, Manchester, 1851–57; helped found the Manchester Working Men's College.

Soyer, Alexis Benoît (1810–58; ODNB); French cook at the Reform Club, 1837; he advised on food for the British army and for the hospitals in the Crimea. See also TC to JCHI, 5 July 1851.

Spedding, James (1808–81; ODNB; see JWC to JCA, 13 Aug. 1835, and TC to TSS, 20 Sept. 1845), authority on Francis Bacon; former sec. in the Colonial Office, from which he had retired, 1841.

Stanhope, Philip Henry (1805–75; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 11 March 1839), 5th earl; styled Viscount Mahon, 1816–55; historian and politician; pres. Society of Arts, 1846–75. See also 25:biographical note.

Stanley, Edward John (1802–69; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 27 Feb. 1840), Whig politican, created Baron Eddisbury of Winnington, 1848; succeeded as 2d Baron Stanley of Alderley, 1850; m., 1826, to Henrietta Maria, b. Dillon (1807–95; ODNB); both friends of the Carlyles, but she closer than her husband.

Sterling, Anthony Coningham (1805–71; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 2 Dec. 1836 and later vols.), capt. in 73rd Foot on half pay until 1854; friend of the Carlyles since 1837, and guardian until Oct. 1853 of his brother John's das. (see JWC to KS, 19 Nov. 1853), though not the oldest child, Edward. He had been a devoted admirer of JWC, but differences had arisen between them; m., 1829, Charlotte, b. Baird (d. 1863; see JWC to HW, 12 Nov. 1844, and JWC to HW, 9 Jan. 1845), who suffered attacks of insanity and was jealous of JWC. Brigade maj. and asst. adjutant gen. of Highland Division in the Crimea, 1854–55. He was critical of the command in the Crimea but disapproved of open criticism in the press and of Roebuck's committee. His Letters from the Army in the Crimea; Written during the Years 1854, 1855 & 1856 by a Staff Officer who was there was pbd. for private circulation (1857); publicly pbd. as The Highland Brigade in the Crimea (1895).

Sterling, Catherine Susan (Kate); see Ross, Catherine Susan.

Sterling, Julia Maria (1836–1910) and Anna Charlotte (Lotta) (1833–67), Kate Ross's sisters, also close to JWC. Their brother was Edward Coningham Sterling (b. 1831; see JWC to HW, 9 Jan. 1845), now apparently living in London (see JWC to KS, 12 March 1854 and his calls on JWC, noted in her Journal, JWC's Journal, 5 Dec. 1855, 15 July 1856, and JWC's Journal, 22 June 1856).

Stirling, Christian (1789–1866; see TC to JAC, 12 Oct. 1844), Thomas Erskine's sister; widowed 1830, she had lived with him since 1847; photographed by Tait, May 1855, when she and Erskine stayed several months in London (see TC to JWC, 21 Aug. 1856).

Stodart, John Riddle (d.1871; see JWC to TC, 5 Sept. 1849), writer to the signet and notary public; JWC's old suitor; m., 1826, to Jemima Henrietta, b. Brown (1807–65).

Tait, Robert Scott (1816–97), portrait painter (exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1848–75) and pioneer photographer; a friend of the Carlyles since 1853. His first portrait of TC (now at Carlyle's House) was painted 1854–55, shown at the R.A., 1856; see TC to AGI, 6 May 1856. He took photographs of the Carlyles, of their house, and also photographs for TC's use in Frederick. His well-known A Chelsea Interior (also at Carlyle's House), painted 1857–58, exhibited at the R. A., 1858, made use of photographs.

Taylor, Henry (1800–1886; ODNB; see TC to MAC, 10 Nov. 1831), author and civil servant; m., 1839, Theodosia Alice, b. Spring Rice (1818–91; see JWC to TC, 9 Sept. 1838), Lord Monteagle's da.; they had a son, Aubrey (1845–70), and two das., Eleanor and Ida.

Tennyson, Alfred (1809–92; ODNB), poet; friend of the Carlyles since early 1840s; they had a strong mutual regard; poet laureate, 1850. He m., 1850, Emily Sarah, b. Sellwood (1813–96).

Terrot, Charles Hughes (1790–1872; ODNB; see JWC to JW, 15 June 1843), bishop of Edinburgh, 1841–72, and JWC's old, unwanted admirer; see also JWC's Journal, 21 June 1856.

Thackeray, William Makepeace (1811–63; ODNB; see JWC to TC, 3 Aug. 1837, TC to JAC, 12 Aug. 1837, and later vols.), novelist; friend of the Carlyles since the 1830s and intimate of the Ashburton circle. M., 1836, Isabella, b. Shawe (d. 1894), who was mentally ill from 1840. He had been deeply devoted to Jane Brookfield, but broke from her in 1851. After Vanity Fair (1847–48) and Pendennis (1848–50), he wrote Henry Esmond, pbd. Oct. 1852, which was dedicated to Lord Ashburton, who, with his wife, had acted as an intermediary with the Brookfields. He lectured in the U.S., 1852; suffered ill health the latter part of 1854, when he also traveled in Italy and Europe. He reluctantly returned to the U.S. for a 2d lecture tour in Oct. 1855. Since returning to London in May 1856, he had been unwell and, in Aug. 1856, left for a tour of Europe. His two das. were Anne Isabella (1837–1919), and Harriet Marian (1840–75).

Tierney, Mary, b. Farrer, m. Jan. 1855, Matthew Edward Tierney (1816–60), lt. col., Coldstream Guards; 3d bart. from May 1856.

Todhunter family, Neuberg's neighbors when he lived in Willesden prior to Oct. 1856.

Twisleton, Ellen, b. Dwight (1828–62), of Boston, U.S.; JWC's close friend and confidante, with whom JWC colluded in writing an account of her early life at Craigenputtoch (see GEJ to JAF, 22 Nov. 1876). M., 1852, Hon. Edward Turner Boyd Twisleton (1809–74; ODNB), who was a close and respected friend of the Carlyles (see TC to JWC, 5 July 1853).

Tyndall, John (1820–93; ODNB), prof. of natural philosophy at the Royal Inst. from 1853; TC's admirer, who later became a close friend.

Varnhagen von Ense, Karl August (1785–1858; see TC to KAVE, 31 Dec. 1837), Prussian soldier, diplomat, and biographer with whom TC had corresponded since 1837; TC wrote “Varnhagen von Ense's Memoirs,” 1838, Works 29:88–117. His letters from Amalie Bölte met his persistent curiosity about the Carlyles. He was a keen collector of autograph manuscripts, some contributed by TC. He m., 1814, Rahel Antonie Friederike Levin (1771–1833, see TC to KAVE, 31 Dec. 1837). He and TC met in Berlin, 1 Oct. 1852 (see TC to JWC, 1 Oct. 1852, and TC to JAC, 3 Oct. 1852).

Venables, George (1810–88; ODNB), lawyer and journalist; fellow and tutor of Jesus Coll., Cambridge, and M.A., 1835; barrister, Inner Temple, 1836; contributor to the Saturday Review from its founding, 1855, and the Times, 1857–88; friend of Tennyson and Thackeray, who claimed he was the model for Warrington in Pendennis (1848–50).

Victoria (1819–1901; ODNB), queen since 1837; m. Albert, 1840.

Villiers, Charles Pelham (1802–98; ODNB), official of the Court of Chancery, 1833–52; M.P. for Wolverhampton, 1835–98.

Watt, Arthur (b. 1844?), from Oct. 1856 at school in Edinburgh; William Watt (b. 1843?), at school in Vevey, Switzerland; Henry Watt (b. 1839?), at sea; and Tom Watt (b. 1838?), from Oct. 1856 at sea: John A. Carlyle's stepsons.

Wedgwood, Frances (Fanny), b. Mackintosh (1800–1889; see TC to HWE, 11 Dec. 1836), the Carlyles' friend, though now less close; m., 1832, to Hensleigh Wedgwood (1803–91; ODNB; see TC to HWE, 11 Dec. 1836), mathematician and philologist, Erasmus A. Darwin's cousin. Their children were Frances Julia (Snow) (1833–1913), James Mackintosh (Bro) (1834–64), Ernest Hensleigh (1838–98), Katherine Euphemia (Effie) (1839–1934), Alfred Allen (1842–92), and Hope (1844–1935).

Welsh, Alexander (Alick), oldest child of JWC's maternal uncle John Welsh; m. Sophy, b. Martin. They had a son John (Jackie) (b. 1853?) and a new baby; see JWC to TC, 29 Aug. 1856.

Welsh, Ann (d. 1877), Elizabeth Welsh (d. 1877), and Grace Welsh (d. 1867): all JWC's paternal aunts in Edinburgh (see TC to JWC, 10 March 1842, and JWC to JW, 26 June 1843). They lived at Craigen Villa, Morningside, Edinburgh.

Welsh, Grace, b. Welsh (1782–1842), JWC's mother, m., 1800.

Welsh, Helen (ca. 1813–53), da. of JWC's maternal uncle John Welsh; d. Dec. 1853.

Welsh, Jeannie (1798?–1828), JWC's maternal aunt; for her death, see TC to JAC, 16 April 1828 and Carlyle, Reminiscences 127–29.

Welsh, Jeannie (Babbie), da. of JWC's maternal uncle John Welsh; see Chrystal.

Welsh, Dr. John (1776–1819; see JBW to EWE, 5 Oct. 1819), JWC's father, doctor in Haddington, m. 1800.

Welsh, John (d. 1853; see TC to JCA, 12 Oct. 1853), JWC's maternal uncle, retired brass and copper founder, who had lived at 20 Maryland St., Liverpool; m. to Mary (d. 1838); for her death, see TC to AC, 15 Oct. 1838; parents of Helen, Jeannie, Margaret, Alexander, Walter, Mary, and John (d. 1860).

Welsh, John (1824–59; ODNB; see JWC to MW, 20 Aug. 1842), meteorologist; son of JWC's paternal uncle George Welsh and Margaret, b. Kissock; apptd. asst. at Kew Observatory, 1850; known for balloon ascents, 1852 (see JWC to MW, 17 Aug. 1852).

Welsh, John (d. 1860), youngest son of JWC's maternal uncle John Welsh.

Welsh, Margaret, b. Kissock (1803–88; see JWC to MW, 28 Feb. 1841, and JWC to MW, 28 Feb. 1846), widow of JWC's paternal uncle George Welsh (1793–1835), now living in London.

Welsh, Margaret (Maggie) (b. 1821), da. of JWC's maternal uncle John Welsh.

Welsh, Mary, youngest da. of JWC's maternal uncle John Welsh.

Welsh, Robert (1784?–1841; see TC to JWC, 29 April 1841, and JWC to MW, 8 July 1842), JWC's paternal uncle, an Edinburgh solicitor.

Welsh, Rev. Walter (ca. 1799–1879; see JWC to JW, 8 Jan. 1843), unmarried son of JWC's maternal uncle John Welsh; minister at Auchtertool, Fife, since 1842. Two of his sisters, Margaret and Mary, were living with him.

White, Walter (1811–93; ODNB), asst. sec. and librarian of the Royal Society; travel writer.

Wilson, Thomas (b. 1811; see 22:introduction, and 26:biographical note), formerly curate at St. Peter Mancroft, Norwich, 1845–47; he left the Church of England because he rejected the Thirty-Nine Articles; he turned to TC for help, and was found a teaching appointment in Weimar, Dec. 1853; see TC to JMA, 11 Dec. 1853. He made regular visits to London.

Woolner, Thomas (1825–92; ODNB; see TC to TWO, 21 Feb. 1851, and TC to LA, 20 Oct. 1854), sculptor and poet, member of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood.

Wynn, Charlotte Williams (1807–69; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 17 July 1845), friend of Varnhagen von Ense.

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