candlestick

July-December 1858


The Collected Letters, Volume 34


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BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES; 2006; DOI: 10.1215/ed-34-biographical-notes; CL 34: 269-lastpage-34-284

BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES

Notes on the Carlyles' contemporaries referred to more than once in the present volume are given below, cross-referenced to earlier information. Otherwise they are accounted for in headnotes and footnotes as they occur.

Adamson, Robert (1787–1861; see TC to JA, 14 Feb. 1838), manager of the British Linen Bank, Dumfries; m. Ann (1795–1861); they had two das., Jane (b. 1824) and Helen (b. 1826).

Aird, Thomas (1802–76; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 29 March 1833 [corrected b. date]), poet, journalist, miscellaneous writer, and ed. of Dumfries Herald.

Airlie, Henrietta Blanche, b. Stanley (1829–1921), 7th countess; m., 1851, David Graham Drummond, Lord Airlie (1826–81), 7th earl (see 26:biographical note). They lived at Cortachy Castle, Forfarshire (now Angus).

Aitken, Dav1796–1875; see TC to DA, [17 Feb. 1827]), minister at Minto, Roxburghshire, and Eliza Aitken, b. Stoddart (ca. 1794–1869; see JBW to EA, [26 Sept. 1819], TC to JAC, 17 Feb. 1837, and JWC to EA, [early April 1841]), JWC's childhood friend; m. July 1836.

Aitken, Jean (“Craw”) Carlyle (1810–88), TC's sister; m., 1833, James (b. ca. 1809 in Troqueer), housepainter of English St., Dumfries; they lived in Assembly St., Dumfries. Their sons were James or Jamie (1836–71), who, after a period of unemployment, worked in a mercantile house in London from the end of Sept.; Thomas (1841–69), who was at an inst. for the deaf in Glasgow (see TC to JAC, 4 Nov. 1854); John (1843–1911); Alexander (1855–56). Their das. were Anne (ca. 1839–1919), Margaret (1845–1932), and Mary (1848–95), who m. her cousin Alexander Carlyle, 1879.

Albert (1819–61; ODNB), prince consort.

Alfred Ernest Albert, prince (1844–1900; ODNB), duke of Edinburgh, 2d son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert; he joined the navy as a midshipman, 1858.

Anne (or Ann), servant at Cheyne Row from Nov. 1853 to March 1858; see JWC to MR, [ca. 5 Feb. 1858].

Ashburton, William Bingham Baring (1799–1864; ODNB; see TC to MAC, 8 March 1839, and later vols.), 2d baron from 1848; politician and partner in Baring Bros., bankers; m., 1823, Harriet, b. Montagu (1805–57; ODNB; see TC to MAC, 8 March 1839, and 26:introduction). They had one son, Alexander Montagu (1828–30). The Carlyles and Ashburtons (then Baring) first met, 1839. TC admired them both, particularly Lady Ashburton, who was the center of a literary and political circle. Her close friendship with TC was a cause of jealousy for JWC. After Lady Ashburton's death in Paris, 4 May 1857, JWC wrote of Lord Ashburton: “It is not so much sorrow that troubles him … but bewilderment. … I expect some scheming woman will marry him up” (Oct. 1857; JWC to MR, [2 Oct. 1857]). He m. Louisa Stewart-Mackenzie (see Stewart-Mackenzie), 17 Nov. 1858.

Austin, Mary Carlyle (1808–88), TC's sister, m., 1831, James (1805–78), farmer of The Gill, 6 mi. SW of Ecclefechan. They had one surviving son, James (b. 1848), and eight das.: Margaret (1831–74); Grace (b. 1833), who m., 1856, William Yeoward (b. ca. 1824) of Toronto; Jessie (b. 1834); Jane (b. 1840); Mary Anne (b. 1842); Catherine (b. 1844); Isabella (b. 1846); and Mary C. (b. 1851).

Austin, Peter (ca. 1778–1861), father of James; formerly farmer of Carstammon; looked after by his da. Margaret (b. ca. 1812) in a cottage on the farm.

Austin, Robert (1815–74), of Carstammon farm, Peter's youngest son; m. Elspeth, b. Milligan (ca. 1823–1900); they had five children by 1858; a sixth was born in 1859. Peter had worked for the Carlyles at Craigenputtoch; see TC to MAC, 3 Dec. 1833.

Ballantine, James (ca. 1807–77; ODNB), stained-glass artist and writer; ed. of the Chronicle of the Hundredth Birthday of Robert Burns (Edinburgh, 1859).

Ballantyne, Thomas (1806–71; ODNB; see TC to TB, 23 Feb. 1839, and 30:introduction), author and journalist; associated with several publications, including the Manchester Guardian, the Leader, the Illustrated London News, and his weekly newspaper, the Statesman (Oct. 1857 to April 1859); he anthologized TC and other writers.

Baring, Francis (1800–68), Lord Ashburton's brother and successor; m., 1832, Hortense Eugenie Claire, b. Maret (ca. 1812–82), da. of the duke of Bassano.

Baring, Frederick (1806–68), Lord Ashburton's brother; rector of Itchinstoke, Hampshire, 2 mi. W of The Grange, the Ashburton country house; m., 1831, Frederica Mary Catherine, b. Ashton (1804–84).

Baring, Louisa (1804–88), and Lydia Emily (1814–68), Lord Ashburton's sisters.

Botkin, Vassily Petrovich (1811–69), author of Pis'ma ob Ispanii (Letters about Spain) (St. Petersburg, 1847; Paris, 1857), aesthete, man of letters, translator of TC's writings into Russian; see TC to HT, 4 June 1857.

Braid, Betty, b. Pringle (1795–1875) in Prestonkirk, E. Lothian; Grace Welsh's Haddington servant, close to JWC (see JWC to SS, [29 Oct. 1846], and JWC to TC, [5 Sept. 1849]); m. to Alexander (1792–1874), b. in Haddington, stonemason and shopkeeper. They had one surviving son, George Pringle (1827–65), who suffered ill health. Their “rough little provision-shop” was at 15 Adam St. (see TC to JWC, 12 Sept. 1843); they moved in May 1858 to Upper Stenhouse, Liberton, S Edinburgh.

Brookfield, William Henry (1809–74; ODNB; see JWC to WHB, [1 April 1846?]), well-connected clergyman and school inspector; m., 1841, Jane Octavia, b. Elton (1821–96). Their children were Magdalene (b. 1850), Arthur (b. 1853), and Charles Hallam Elton (1857–1913).

Brougham, Henry Peter, 1st Baron Brougham and Vaux (1778–1868; ODNB), lawyer, journalist, politician; m., 1819, Mary Ann Spalding, b. Eden (d. 1865).

Browning, Elizabeth Barrett, b. Moulton Barrett (1806–61; ODNB), poet; m., 1846, Robert Browning (1812–89; ODNB), poet, TC's friend since the mid-1830s (see TC to JAC, 26 Sept., and TC to RB, 4 Dec. 1855). Robert Wiedeman Barrett (“Pen”) (1849–1912) was their only child. They had been living in Florence since 1847.

Buckley, Geraldine, b. Mildmay (d. 1912), da. of George and Mary Mildmay; m., 5 Jan. 1858, Alfred Buckley (1829–1900) of New Hall, Wiltshire.

Bullock, John (1815–90) (b. 1815 in Kings Lynn, Norfolk), letter carrier, who had probably taken over from John Piper as the Carlyles' postman after changes to the postal service; see TC to JWC, 1 Sept. 1857.

Butler, Charles (1802–97; see TC to JCA, 18 Nov. 1853), U.S. lawyer, financier, land speculator, entrepreneur, and philanthropist; welcome in Britain for his part in handling the threat by some states in the U.S., in the 1840s, to repudiate their bonds; met TC Nov. 1853 and looked after his Illinois bonds and other investments; m., 1825, Eliza, b. Ogden (d. 1878). They had three sons, Abraham Ogden Butler (1832–56) and two who died in infancy, and two das., Emily and Anna (d. 1877).

Cameron, Julia Margaret, b. Pattle (1815–79; ODNB), b. in Calcutta; photographer; m., 1838, Charles Hay Cameron (1795–1880; ODNB), jurist; they met in India and moved to England, 1848, where they lived at Ashburton Cottage, Putney Heath, SW London. They had five sons and a da., Julia (1839–73), who m., 1859, Charles Lloyd Norman.

Carlyle, Alexander (Alick) (1797–1876), TC's brother; emigrated with his family to Canada, 1843; settled at the Bield, ;FR4-1/2 mi. W of Brantford, Ontario; m., 1830, Janet, b. Clow (1808–91). They had six sons, including Thomas (1833–1921), the eldest, and Robert (1851–1932), the youngest; and five das., the eldest of whom was Jane Welsh (1831–84), m., 1852, Robert Sims. Four of their children died in infancy: an unidentified son (1832–33), Margaret (1835–36), James (b. 1840) (all buried in Ecclefechan; see TC to AC, 3 Oct. 1856), and Euphemia (1853–54).

Carlyle, Alexander (1843–1931; see TC to AC, 4 May 1843), Alexander and Janet's son; m., 1879, his cousin Mary Aitken; lived with TC from 1879 and ed. the Carlyles' letters.

Carlyle, James (Jamie) (1805–90), TC's brother, farmer at Scotsbrig; m., 1834, Isabella, b. Calvert (d. 1859), who had long been unwell. Their children were James (b. 1835), who worked in Glasgow as a clerk, John (b. 1836), Thomas (1839–41), and Janet (Jessie or Jenny) (1843–74).

Carlyle, John (ca. 1792–1872), TC's half-brother; emigrated to the U.S., 1837, then moved to Canada (see TC to AC, 15 Aug. 1840); he had let his previous farm as it was “new, consequently hard to till” (John Carlyle to TC, 3 May 1855) and bought a small farm at Mount Pleasant, nr. Brantford, Ontario, by May 1855; m., 1817, Margaret (Peggy), b. Benn (1798–1867). They had five children: Janet (1818–89), Mary (1821–50), John (1825–97), James (1830–1900), and William (1833–1911). The two youngest were schoolteachers.

Carlyle, John Aitken (Jack, “The Doctor”) (1801–79; ODNB), TC's brother, physician and translator; m., 2 Nov. 1852, Phoebe Elizabeth Hough Watt, b. Fowler, a widow from nr. Moffat with four sons (see Watt brothers). She d. in childbirth, 1854; the child was stillborn.

Carlyle, Margaret Aitken (1771–1853), TC's mother; she had been living with James and Isabella Carlyle at Scotsbrig. She d. 25 Dec. 1853. TC's father, James Carlyle, d. 1832; they m. 1795.

Chalmer, Francis (sometimes Chalmers or Chambers), and family; see JWC to TC, [7 Sept. 1846], and JWC to TC, [16 Sept. 1847]; wealthy neighbor at 4 Cheyne Row; possibly a retired lawyer, as JWC consults him when she needs “some honest lawyer”; see JWC's Journal, 11 April 1856.

Chambers, Robert (1802–71; ODNB), publisher, author, and ed. of Chambers's Edinburgh Journal which became Chambers's Journal of Popular Literature, Science, and Arts in 1854.

Chancellor, George, owner of livery stables at 1 Cheyne Row (see TC to JAC, 5 [4] Feb. 1839) until 1853; his dunghill was blamed for the rank atmosphere (see JWC to TC, [3 July 1849], and TC to JWC, [30 Aug. 1857]). From 1854 to 1856, he was listed as coach proprietor in the cottage, Cheyne Row (no street number); after that he was not listed in the London Post Office Directory.

Chapman, Edward (1804–80; ODNB), senior partner in Chapman & Hall, TC's publisher since 1842 (see TC to JF, [5 Feb. 1842]); m., 1841, Mary, b. Whiting (b. ca. 1820).

Chapman, Frederic (1823–95; ODNB), m. Clara, b. Woodin (d. 1866); Edward Chapman^s cousin and junior partner in Chapman & Hall.

Chapman, John (1821–94; ODNB; see TC to JCH, 21 March 1844), m., 1843, Susanna, b. Brewitt (ca. 1807–92), freethinking publisher, author, and physician. He was an agent for American firms and proprietor of the Westminster Review from 1851. Having studied medicine and worked as a surgeon in the 1840s, he took a medical degree at St. Andrews Univ. in 1857, which enabled him to practice as a physician. He then combined both careers, publishing and medicine.

Chorley, John Rutter (1806–67; ODNB; see TC to JWC, [early Aug. 1845]), poet and scholar of Spanish literature, reviewer for the Athenaeum; highly regarded by TC. He helped in supervising the building of the soundproof room in 1853 (see Carlyle, Reminiscences 154) and in proofreading Frederick (see TC to CRO, 15 Aug., and TC to JWC, 19 Aug. 1857).

Chrystal, Jeannie, b. Welsh (b. 1818); m., 1853, Andrew Chrystal of Glasgow (see TC to JWC, 10 Aug. 1849, JWC to JW, [11 May 1851]). Her regular correspondence with JWC ended after her marriage. Her da., Mary, was b. March 1857.

Combe, George (1778–1858; ODNB), phrenologist, founder of the Phrenology Society and author of several phrenological studies, including Phrenology Applied to Painting and Sculpture (1855); m., 1833, Cecilia Siddons (1794–1868), da. of the actress Sarah Siddons (1755–1831; ODNB). For Combe's phrenological analysis of TC (recorded in Combe's diary, 1852), see JWC to TC, [27 June 1858].

Common, John (ca. 1827–89), m. Margaret, b. Smith (1829–64); they had three children by 1858, Thomas (b. 1853), John Smith (b. 1855), and Helen (b. 1857).

Cooke, John George; he had met JWC in 1856 (see JWC's Journal, 18 May 1856) and was to become a close friend. She described him in 1864: “a man between thirty and forty; tall, strong, silent, sincere; has been a sailor, a soldier, a New Zealand settler, ‘a Man about Town,’ and a Stock Broker!!!” (Bliss, JWC 319). Friend of Walter Mantell.

Craik, George Lillie (1798–1866; ODNB; see JWC to SS, [20 Sept. 1835]), author, prof. of English lit. and history, Queen's Coll., Belfast, since 1849; friend of the Carlyles since 1835; m., 1826, Jeannette, b. Dempster (d. 1856) (see JWC to TC, [30 Aug. 1838]). They had one son and three das.; JWC mentions two, Mary (b. 1827) and Georgiana (b. 1831); the third, Isabella, d. 1842 (see JWC to JW, [8 Dec. 1842]).

Craven, Dr. Robert Martin (1824–1903), surgeon, Hull General Infirmary, and lecturer on anatomy, Hull School of Medicine; he had a long and distinguished career; knighted, 1896; m., 1859, his 2d wife, Mary May Welsh.

Darwin, Erasmus Alvey (1804–81; see TC to JAC, 15 June 1835, and TC to JAC, 17 Feb. 1837), the Carlyles' close friend since 1835; living at 57 Queen Anne St., Cavendish Sq., since 1853; Charles Darwin's brother.

Davidson, Dav1811–1900), capt., army engineer, and inventor; b. Haddington, where he was a childhood friend of JWC; later maj., then lt. col.; knighted, 1894. He invented telescopic sights for rifles, shown at the Great Exhibition (1851), and the collimating telescope, 1855. He m., 1849, Margaret, b. Buchanan (ca. 1822–99). By 1858 they had two sons, Henry Chisholm (b. 1851) and David Albert (b. 1853), and four das., Jane (b. 1852), Mary (b. 1855), Alice (b. 1856), and Margaret (b. 16 Nov. 1857). By 1864 they had ten children in all, five sons and five das. His aunt, Janet Davidson (1782–1869), lived at Craighope House, Court St., Haddington (see JWC to TC, [23 July 1857]).

De Vere, Aubrey Thomas (1814–1902; ODNB; see JWC to TC, [14 Jan. 1848]), Irish poet and essayist; known to the Carlyles since 1845.

Derby, Edward George Geoffrey Smith Stanley (1799–1869; ODNB), 14th earl, politician; m., 1825, Emma Caroline, b. Bootle-Wilbraham (1805–76). He was from a traditionally Whig family but moved to the Conservative Party, which he led 1846–48, becoming prime minister three times, 1852, 1858–59, and 1866–68.

Dickens, Charles (1812–70; ODNB), novelist; friend of the Carlyles since the early 1840s; m., 1836, Catherine Thomson, b. Hogarth (d. 1879); separated from her, June 1858.

Disraeli, Benjamin (1804–81; ODNB), Tory politician and novelist; M.P. for Buckinghamshire, 1847–76; chancellor of the exchequer in Derby's govt., Feb.–Dec. 1852 and 1858–59; later prime minister; m., 1839, Mary Anne Lewis, b. Evans (1792–1872); not personally known to TC.

Dobbie, Rev. Edward (1773–1857; see TC to JWC, 9 March 1842), retired minister, d. 22 Feb. 1857; Mary Russell's father.

Donaldson sisters of Sunny Bank (Tenterfield), Haddington: Jean (1770–1860), JWC's godmother; Jess (1774–1860); and Catherine (Kate) (1779–1852); they were friends of JWC's mother and paternal aunts of Eliza and John William Donaldson.

Donaldson, John William (1811–61; ODNB; see TC to JWC, 31 Aug. 1842), philologist; m., 1840, Laetitia, b. Mortlock. Headmaster of King Edward's School, Bury St. Edmunds, 1841–55. The school declined under Donaldson, and he resigned in 1855; he went to live in Cambridge, where he became a tutor. He had a sister, Eliza, who was apparently living in London (see JWC to EDO, [20 Aug. 1856]).

Dufferin, Frederick Temple Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood (1826–1902; ODNB), 1st marquis; diplomat, author, and yachtsman.

Dunwoodie, Isabella; see McTurk.

Emerson, Ralph Waldo (1803–82; see TC to JAC, 27 Aug. 1833), philosopher, essayist, poet, and transcendentalist. He first met TC Aug. 1833; in spite of their differences, they had close ties; he introduced many Americans to TC and played a leading part in arranging the publication of TC's works in the U.S.

Erskine, Thomas (1788–1870; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 1 Feb. 1838), of Linlathen, Dundee; theologian and retired advocate.

Farie, Robert (1813–82; see TC to JAC, 20 Nov. 1846), nonpracticing barrister; of independent means; translator of German works; known to the Carlyles since 1846.

Fergus, John (1797–1865; see JWC to TC, [17 July 1837], and TC to JF, 7 Nov. 1845), of Kirkcaldy; owner of John Fergus & Co., flax spinners and bleachers; M.P. for Fife, 1847–59. He and his sisters, Elizabeth Pepoli, Jessie (Janet) (b. 1794), Charlotte Nixon (1795–1853), and Jane (b. 1804; m., 1841, Robert W. Royd [or Royds; see TC to JWC, 9 Aug. 1852]), were all old friends of the Carlyles. There was a fifth sister, Isabella (b. 1798), m., 1824, Hugh Lumsden.

Forster, John (“Fuz”) (1812–76; ODNB; see TC to JHLH, 8 Feb. 1832, TC to JF, 17 Jan. 1839, and TC to JF, [25? Jan. 1839]), historian, journalist, biographer, and ed. of the Examiner, 1847–55; sec. to the Lunacy Commission 1855–61; friend of the Carlyles since the late 1830s and TC's literary adviser. He m., 1856, Eliza Ann, b. Crosbie (ca. 1819–94), widow of the publisher Henry Colburn (d. 1855; ODNB). After a two-month holiday in the Lake District, Forster gave up his home in Lincoln's Inn Fields, and they went to live at 46 Montagu Sq.

Fox, Anna Maria (1816–97), and Caroline (1819–71; ODNB), Quaker sisters living in Falmouth in Cornwall; das. of Robert Were Fox (1789–1877; ODNB), geologist and physicist, and Maria, b. Barclay (1786–1858); they were part of philanthropic, literary, and scientific circles, and had known the Carlyles since 1840; see TC to MAC, 20 May 1840.

Foxton, Frederick Joseph (ca. 1807–70; see TC to JCH, 6 June 1853), lapsed Church of Wales clergyman; B.A. 1829, Pembroke Coll., Oxford; author of Popular Christianity (1844) and The Priesthood and the People (1862). TC found him sometimes tedious, but gentlemanly.

Frankau, Rosetta or Rosette (d. 1898; see JWC to JN, [3 July 1849]), Neuberg's sister; m., prob. 1853, Adolph Frankau (1820–56; see TC to JAC, 19 Nov. 1856) and had two children. From Oct. 1856, Neuberg lived with his sister at 25 Oakley Villas, Adelaide Rd.

Garthwaite, Tom (ca. 1810–94), Ecclefechan tailor; and his sons, John (1838–1922) and Thomas (1839?—1922).

Gilchrist, Alexander (1828–61; ODNB), biographer; m., 1851, Anne, b. Burrows (1828–85; ODNB), also a writer. They had four children: Percy Carlyle (1851–1935), Beatrice (ca. 1853–81), Herbert (1857–1914), and Grace (b. 1859). They lived at 6 Cheyne Row from 1856 to 1861.

Graham, William (ca. 1774–1860; see TC to WG, 15 Sept. 1820, TC to JAC, 20 Nov. 1846, and other vols.), TC's old friend, living retired and in poor health on the slopes of Burnswark, 3 mi. N of Ecclefechan, where he had formerly farmed. His sister, Elizabeth (1784–1861), was also in poor health (see TC to JWC, 28 Dec. 1853, TC to AC, 8 April 1854).

Grierson, Helen (ca. 1789–1862), m. William Grierson (b. 1781?), a retired draper; they lived at 31 N. Drumlanrig St., Thornhill; see JWC to MR, [5 Nov. 1856] (where her birth date is different; according to her death certificate her age at death was about 73). Friend of Mary Russell.

Hanning, Janet (1813–97), TC's sister; m., 1836, Robert (1796–1878), who had emigrated to Canada in mysterious disgrace, 1841; she joined him in Hamilton, Ontario, Aug. 1851, with their two das., Margaret (b. 1838) and Mary (b. 1840). They had two other das., Catherine (b. 1852 or 1853) and Jane, both b. in Canada.

Harrison, Robert (1820–97), librarian of Leeds Lib., 1855–57, and the London Lib., 1857–93. He had taught in St. Petersburg and was later one of the founders of the Lib. Assoc. of the United Kingdom, 1877. Both Carlyles were to be on friendly terms with him.

Hawkes, Emilie (d. 1893), da. of William Henry Ashurst (ca. 1791–1855; ODNB), portrait painter; unhappily married to Sydney Hawkes, whom she later divorced; see JWC's Journal, 13 Nov. 1855, and 27 March 1856; a strong supporter of Mazzini and Young Italy movement; m., 1860, Carlo Venturi (d. 1866); author of Joseph Mazzini: A Memoir (1875).

Helps, Arthur (1813–75; ODNB), writer and historian; of independent means; clerk to the privy council, 1860; friend of the Carlyles since the early 1840s; m. Bessy, b. Fuller (see JWC to TC, [17 July 1843]).

Hill, Rowland (1795–1879; ODNB), responsible for introducing the penny post, 1840; sec. to the post office from 1854. TC often used his name to refer to the postal service.

Hoggan, Mary (1797–1875), living at Bellevue, Thornhill, with her brother Edward Hoggan.

Hostage, Thomas Ives Brayne (d. 1861), and his wife, friends of John Carlyle, living in Winnington (now Northwich), Cheshire; see TC to IC, 21 July 1856.

Howden, Dr. Thomas (1787–1868; see JWC to JAC, [28 July 1849]), partner of JWC's father; m. Helena Shortess, b. MacNaughton (1785–1858) and living at Maitlandfield, Haddington; Helena d. 29 March 1858. They had 13 children, including Helena Shortess (1810–91), m., 1845, John Ferme (b. ca. 1797); Jane (1820–93); and Agnes Catherine (1829–1906), who lived with them. One of their sons, also Thomas (1812–1900), medical practitioner, lived in JWC's old house in Lodge St., Haddington, with his 2d wife, Jessie Cunningham, b. Mylne (1833–90). His 1st wife was his cousin, Agnes, b. Howden (1826–44).

Hunt, James Henry Leigh (1784–1859; ODNB), poet, essayist, and journalist; m., 1809, Marianne, b. Kent (ca. 1788–1857). They had nine children and had lived at 4 Upper Cheyne Row, 1833–40.

Hunter, John (1795?—1858), m. Catherine, b. Brown (b. 1820); Janet Pringle's uncle and aunt, living at Bennan, Tynron.

Huxham, Mrs., Geraldine Jewsbury's landlady, at 3 Oakley St., nr. King's Road, Chelsea; see JWC's Journal, 8 Nov. 1855.

Irving, Edward (1792–1834; ODNB; see TC to JOFE, 25 Aug. 1819, later vols., and Carlyle, Reminiscences), the Carlyles' great friend; religious leader and preacher.

Jewsbury, Geraldine Endsor (1812–80; ODNB; see TC to GEJ, 12 April 1840), novelist, reviewer, and misc. writer; a friend of the Carlyles, particularly of JWC, since 1841. For her sister Maria Jane (1800–1833), see JWC's Journal, 16 May 1856. Her brothers were Thomas Smith (b. 1802), Henry Richard Smith (1803–73), Arthur (b. 1815), and Francis (Frank) Harding (1819–78), who m., 1853, Emily, b. Vandeburgh. Jewsbury lived with Frank in Manchester until 1854. She moved to 3 Oakley St., nr. Cheyne Row, summer 1854. She met Walter Mantell, late 1856, and apparently fell in love with him; he did not reciprocate, but they remained close and exchanged over 500 letters in the course of the friendship.

Jones, Dr. Henry Bence (1813–73; ODNB), prominent physician and chemist; m., 1842, Millicent, b. Acheson (d. 1887).

Jones, John Edward, sublibrarian, London Lib. He twice applied for the post of librarian with TC's support, but did not get it; see TC to JAC, 10 May 1852, TC to JAC, 26 May 1852, TC to UC, 7 April 1857, and TC to JAC, 2 July 1857. He remained with London Lib. until his resignation, June 1893.

Larkin, Charlotte, b. Brett (d. 1862), Henry Larkin's mother, who lived nr. Hoxton.

Larkin, Henry (1820–99), collector or cashier for the Chelsea Steamer Co.; partner in an engineering business; author of Extra Physics and the Mystery of Creation (1878), which included an appendix (written in 1858) giving an analysis of Sartor Resartus, and of Carlyle and the Open Secret of His Life (1886). For TC's early contacts with him, see TC to HL, 29 Dec. 1850, and TC to HL, 29 March 1852. He worked on TC's indexes from 1856: “He did for me all manner of maps, indexes, summaries, copyings, sortings, miscellanea of every kind” (for the complete note on Larkin by TC, see JWC to TC, [19 July 1858]). His brother John Richard Larkin (1818–76) also helped TC with the maps for Frederick.

Lewes, George Henry (“Ape”) (1817–78; ODNB; see TC to UC, 16 Oct. 1839), author, journalist, and coed., with Thornton Hunt, of the Leader; known to the Carlyles from 1835; m., 1841, Agnes, b. Jervis (1822–1902; see TC to JAC, 26 Aug. 1848); they had three surviving children. She was to have four children with Thornton Hunt, the first of whom was b. 1850, when the Leweses were living in Hunt's house (see JWC to TC, [4 Aug. 1850]). In 1851, Lewes's friendship developed with Mary Ann (later Marian) Evans (George Eliot [1819–80; ODNB]). They set up home together, 1855; the Carlyles remained on friendly terms with Lewes.

Louis Napoleon, see Napoleon III.

Lytton, Edward George Earle Lytton Bulwer (1803–73; ODNB), writer and politician; m., 1823, Rosina Anne Doyle, b. Wheeler (1802–82; ODNB), novelist. Before their legal separation, 1836, they had two children: a da., Emily (1828–47), and a son, Edward Robert Bulwer-Lytton (1831–91; ODNB).

Macready, William Charles (1793–1873; ODNB ), actor-manager; retired 1851; m., 1824, Catherine Frances, b. Atkins (1805–52); the Carlyles' friend since 1839; moved to Sherborne, Dorset, 1850. Their da. Lydia Jane (1842?—58) was JWC's godchild; she died of scarletina, 20 June 1858.

McTurk, Robert (1793–1860), old friend of JWC; m., 1827, Janet, b. Hastings (ca. 1802–71). His father, Tom McTurk, had owned Strathmilligan, Nithsdale, 8 mi. N of Craigenputtoch, where JWC's maternal grandfather, Walter Welsh, had lived. His sister Isabella McTurk (ca. 1802–99) m., ca. 1837, William Dunwoodie (1790–1848), farmer at Townhead, Dumfriesshire; they had 5 das.

McVeagh, Mary (1784–1860), widow of a bank agent; she lived at Old Manse, Morton, nr. Thornhill; friend of Mary Russell; see JWC to MR, [5 Nov. 1856]. The 1851 census spells her name McVeagh; her death certificate records her name as Macveay; JWC also varied the spelling of the name.

Magnus, Eduard (1799–1872), German portrait painter; see TC to LOA, 7 Oct. 1852, and TC to WWV, 22 April.

Mantell, Walter Baldock Durant (1820–95), b. Lewes, E. Sussex, settled in New Zealand, 1840. He held various official posts. On leave of absence in London from 1855, he began his long, ultimately fruitless, correspondence with the Colonial Office on the subject of broken promises to the Maoris, resigning his commission in protest, 1857. He met Jewsbury, late 1856, and corresponded extensively with her on his return to New Zealand, 1859. See also 33:276–77.

Marshall, James (see TC to MAC, 19 June 1847), from Ayrshire, sec. to Maria (1786–1859; see TC to JWC, 25 Sept. 1852), grand duchess of Saxe-Weimar.

Martin, Frederick (1830–83; ODNB; see TC to FEMA, 15 Oct. 1856, and 32:biographical note), misc. writer; b. Geneva, educated at Heidelberg; m., 1856, Susannah, b. Styles (b. 1835). TC's amanuensis Oct. 1856–March 1857 (see TC to FEMA, 15 Oct. 1856, and TC to TW, 8 April 1857); by 1858 a subeditor of the Statesman (see Espinasse 242); founded The Statesman's Year Book (1864); author of The Life of John Clare (1865), Handbook of Contemporary Biography (1870), and books on commerce and commercial firms. He pbd. an unauthorized biography of TC in the first issue of his Biographical Magazine (1877), about which TC complained; no other issue of the magazine was pbd. (Espinasse 260–63). It was discovered later that Martin had stolen and then sold manuscripts, papers, and letters from TC (see Slater, CEC 65–66, and Wilson, Carlyle 5:249–51).

Mazzini, Giuseppe (1805–72; see TC to JSM, 6 Dec. 1839, and 28:introduction), Italian revolutionary; friend of the Carlyles since the late 1830s. He was usually based in London but continued to encourage active resistance to Austrian domination. His mother was Maria, b. Drago (1785–1852).

Menzies, John (1808–79; ODNB), bookseller and newsagent at 61 Princes St., Edinburgh. He ran a wholesale book business, published Scottish guide books, and opened his first railway bookstall in 1857. He m., 1845, Rossie, b. Marr, and had two sons and three das.

Mildmay, Henry Bingham St. John (1828–1905), 2d son of Humphrey St. John Mildmay (1794–1853) and Anne Eugenia, b. Baring (d. 1839), Lord Ashburton's sister, who had m. 1823.

Mildmay, Sir Henry Bouverie Paulet St. John (1810–1902), 5th bart., son of Sir Henry Carew St. John and Charlotte Mildmay; m., 1851, Helena, b. Shaw-Lefevre (1823–97), da. of Viscount Eversley.

Mildmay, Sir Henry Carew St. John (1787–1848), 4th bart., m. 1st, 1809, Charlotte, b. Bouverie (1788–1810); m. 2d, 1815, her sister Harriet, b. Bouverie (1790–1834), who had been m., 1808, to Archibald John Primrose (1783–1868), 4th earl of Rosebery, and divorced, 1815, on grounds of her adultery with Mildmay. Eldest brother of Capt. George William and Humphrey St. John Mildmay.

Mildmay, Humphrey Francis St. John (1825–66), M.P., eldest son of Humphrey St. John Mildmay (1794–1853) and Anne Eugenia, b. Baring (d. 1839).

Mildmay, Mary, b. Baillie (ca. 1803–92), m., 1832, Capt. George William St. John Mildmay (1792–1851). She lived at 51 Eaton Sq. Her son was Capt. Herbert Alexander Mildmay (1836–1922), capt. in the Rifle Brigade; for her da. Geraldine, see Buckley. Her first husband, m., 1823, was John Morritt (ca. 1798–1826), by whom she had a da., Isabel Elizabeth (1827–98), who m., 1846, George William Barrington (1824–86), 7th Viscount Barrington from 1867.

Mill, John Stuart (1806–73; ODNB), utilitarian philosopher and economist, administrator at India House since 1823; m., 1851, Harriet Taylor (1807–58), widow of John Taylor (1796–1849), who strongly influenced his thinking. She d. 3 Nov. He had met TC in Sept. 1831 (see TC to JWC, 4 Sept. 1831). They remained on friendly terms even after the MS of vol. 1 of The French Revolution was burned while in Mill's keeping (see TC to JC, 7 March 1835). They had become estranged because of many differences in temperament and attitudes to social questions; Mill also believed that TC and other friends disapproved of his marriage.

Montégut, Jean Baptiste Joseph Émile (1825–96), critic and translator; he had joined the staff of Revue des Deux Mondes, 1847, and wrote widely on British and American literature, incl. on TC.

Napoleon III (Louis Napoleon) (1808–73), pres. of France 1849 to Dec. 1851, when he seized power; he declared himself emperor and assumed the title Napoleon III, 1852. He m., 1853, Eugénie, b. de Montijo (1826–1920); their son was Napoleon Eugène Louis Jean Joseph (1856–79), prince imperial.

Neuberg, Joseph (1806–67; see TC to JN, 21 Dec. 1839, 25:biographical note), German-born, retired Nottingham businessman; naturalized Briton, 1845. He met TC, whom he had long admired, in 1848; helped him as an unpaid sec., translated his work, and twice accompanied him on visits to Germany. He helped TC with work on Frederick. From Oct. 1856, Neuberg lived with his sister, Rosetta (or Rosette) Frankau, at 25 Oakley Villas, Adelaide Rd.

Newnham, Mrs., cook; she sometimes helped out at Cheyne Row; see JWC to MR, 29 March.

Orlich, Leopold von (1804–60), Prussian military historian.

Pepoli, Elizabeth, b. Fergus (1792–1862; see JWC to TC, [12 Oct. 1835], and JWC to TC, [9 April 1841]), countess; old Kirkcaldy friend of the Carlyles; m., 1839, Count Carlo Pepoli (1796–1881; see JWC to JCA, [mid Aug. 1835]), poet, prof. of philosophy at Bologna; a political exile after the revolution against papal govt., 1831. He returned to Bologna, 1859.

Piper, John (1817–83?; see JWC to TC, [11 Sept. 1847], and 292), b. in Eltham, Kent; the Carlyles' postman, of 15 Radnor St., King's Rd., Chelsea; possibly moved to a different area, autumn 1857, due to changes in the postal service (see TC to JWC, [3 Aug. 1857]4); regularly took Nero for walks. His wife (d. 1855) had occasionally helped at Cheyne Row (see TC to JAC, 15 Dec. 1855). He was in the Middlesex Lunatic Asylum in 1881, according to the census of that year.

Plattnauer, Richard, brother of Hedwig von Reichenbach; political refugee from Prussia (see JWC to HW, [5 July 1847]); apparently introduced by Godefroy Cavaignac to the Carlyles, who befriended him (see JWC to JW, [ca. 29 Aug. 1844]). He was subject to periods of insanity; he lived on the Continent and in England, and had worked as a private tutor to the Downshire children.

Pringle, Janet, b. Hunter (b. 1827), JWC's cousin (see JWC to MR, [30 Dec. 1853], and JWC to MR, 3 March 1854); m., 1847, Dr. Andrew Pringle (1820–58) of Lann Hall, nr. Thornhill, who d. 17 Jan. 1858. They had three sons: Andrew (b. 1850), Robert Hunter (b. 1852), and John James (b. 1855); see JWC to MR, 30 Dec. 1854.

Queensberry, Archibald William Douglas (1818–58), 8th marquess, m., 1840, Caroline-Margaret (1821–1904), da. of Gen. Sir William Robert Clayton, 5th bart. He d. in a shooting accident 6 Aug.; she became a Roman Catholic in 1867 and later joined the order of the Sisters of Mercy.

Richardson, Wellwood (ca. 1804–74), a stock seller and factotum in Dumfriesshire.

Robson, Charles, of Robson, Levey, & Franklyn, printers, 23 Gt. New St., Fetter Lane. Robson had been TC's printer since 1837.

Rosdal, Mr., friend of Neuberg's in Hamburg.

Rouse, James (ca. 1827–95; see 31:biographical note), the Ashburtons' doctor; later of 2 Wilton St., Grosvenor Pl.; FRCS, 1863. TC liked him; see TC to JWC, 16 Sept. 1856.

Ruskin, John (1819–1900; ODNB), author, artist, and social reformer; m., 1848, Euphemia Chalmers, b. Gray (1828–97); marriage annulled, 1855. He pbd. Modern Painters (1843–56), The Seven Lamps of Architecture (1849), and The Stones of Venice (1851–53). He was J. M. W. Turner's foremost admirer. A friend of TC, he was strongly influenced by him.

Russell, Mary, b. Dobbie (1802–75; see TC to AC, 7 April 1832), m., 1829, Dr. James Russell (b. ca. 1798), of Holmhill, Thornhill; close friends of JWC and her mother.

Sandwich, Mary Anne Julia Louisa Harriet, b. Lowry-Corry (1781–1862; see TC to MAC, 3 Sept. 1848), dowager countess; m., 1804, George John Montagu (1773–1818), 6th earl of Sandwich. Mother of Lady Harriet Ashburton and John William Montagu (1811–84), 7th earl.

Southam, Charlotte b. Watson (1842–1905), the Carlyles' maid since April 1858; orphaned in childhood, she had been adopted by her uncle and aunt, Thomas (d. 1864) and Elizabeth Southam, whose surname she took. She stayed with the Carlyles until June 1861 and continued to visit and correspond with them thereafter. She m., 1866, Adolphus J. Mills, a carpenter; they lived in Lawrence St., at the W end of Cheyne Row.

Stanhope, Philip Henry (1805–75; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 11 March 1839), 5th Earl Stanhope, historian and politician; pres. of Society of Arts, 1846–75. See also 25:biographical note.

Stanley, Henrietta Maria, b. Dillon (1807–95; ODNB), m., 1826, Edward John (1802–69; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 27 Feb. 1840), Whig politician who was created Baron Eddisbury of Winnington, 1848, and succeeded as 2d Baron Stanley of Alderley, 1850; both were friends of the Carlyles, but she closer than her husband. Their da. Henrietta Blanche was Lady Airlie.

Sterling, Anthony Coningham (1805–71; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 2 Dec. 1836, and later vols.); m., 1829, Charlotte, b. Baird (d. 1863), who suffered attacks of insanity and was jealous of JWC (see JWC to HW, [12 Nov. 1844], and JWC to HW, [9 Jan. 1845]). Friend of the Carlyles since 1837. Served in the Crimea 1854–55, retired with the rank of col. 1857, but employed as military secretary to Colin Campbell, Lord Clyde, during the Indian Mutiny 1858–59. Guardian, 1844–53, of das. of his brother John (1806–44; ODNB): Anna Charlotte (Lotta) (1833–67), Catherine Susan (Kate) (1834–60), and Julia Maria (1836–1910) (see JWC to KS, [19 Nov. 1853]); though not of his son, Edward Coningham Sterling (b. 1831; see JWC to HW, [9 Jan. 1845]). JWC had been particularly fond of Kate Sterling but strongly disapproved of her marriage, 1856, to Alexander J. Ross (1819–87); see JWC to TC, [27 July 1852], and JWC's Journal, 25 March 1856.

Stewart-Mackenzie, Louisa Caroline (1827–1903; ODNB), da. of James Alexander Stewart (1784–1843), Liberal M.P. for Ross and Cromarty since 1830, who m., 1817, Mary Frederica Elizabeth, b. Mackenzie (1783–1862; ODNB); he added his wife's name on marriage. Louisa was lively and beautiful, with an interest in the arts, natural history, and evangelicism, but with no substantial dowry. She had been in love with the historical writer and art collector William Stirling of Keir, later Stirling-Maxwell (1818–78; ODNB; see TC to WS, 24 Feb. 1848), but he had never encouraged her. She had then been courted by the painter Sir Edwin Landseer (1802–73; ODNB). She m. Lord Ashburton, 17 Nov. 1858.

Tait, Robert Scott (1816–97), portrait painter (exhibited at the Royal Academy 1848–75) and pioneer photographer; a friend of the Carlyles since 1853. His first portrait of TC (now at Carlyle's House) was painted 1854–55, shown at the Royal Academy 1856; see TC to AGI, 6 May 1856. He took photographs of the Carlyles, of their house, and for TC's use in Frederick. His A Chelsea Interior (also at Carlyle's House), painted 1857–58, exhibited at the Royal Academy 1858, made use of photographs.

Tauchnitz, Christian Bernhard (1816–95), Leipzig printer and publisher who began the Library of American Authors series 1841; pbd. French Revolution, 3 vols. (Leipzig, 1851), and Neuberg's Thomas Carlyle's Ausgewählte Schriften, 6 vols. (Leipzig, 1855–56); see TC to JN, 25 July 1851.

Tennyson, Alfred (1809–92; ODNB), poet; friend of the Carlyles since the early 1840s; TC and Tennyson had a strong mutual regard; poet laureate from 1850. He m., 1850, Emily Sarah, b. Sellwood (1813–96).

Thackeray, William Makepeace (1811–63; ODNB; see JWC to TC, [3 Aug.], and TC to JAC, 12 Aug. 1837, and later vols.), novelist; friend of the Carlyles since the 1830s. He m., 1836, Isabella, b. Shawe (d. 1894), who was mentally ill from 1840. His das. were Anne Isabella (1837–1919) and Harriet Marian (1840–75).

Till, Pearson (1809–81), owner of livery stables at corner of Church St. and Manor St., Chelsea.

Turgenev, Ivan (1818–83), Russian novelist, dramatist, and short-story writer, whom TC had met, June 1857 (see 4 June 1857).

Twisleton, Ellen, b. Dwight (1828–62), of Boston, Mass.; JWC's close friend and confidante, with whom JWC colluded in writing an account of her early life at Craigenputtoch (see GEJ to JAF, 22 Nov. 1876, and Ellen Twisleton's Account). She m., 1852, Hon. Edward Turner Boyd Twisleton (1809–74; ODNB), a close and respected friend of the Carlyles (see TC to JWC, 5 July 1853). They lived at 3 Rutland Gate.

Usedom, Count Karl Georg Ludwig Guido von (1805–84), Prussian diplomat and adviser at the court of Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia, living in Carsitz; his 2d wife, m. 1849, was Olympia (1811-87), da. of Sir John Malcolm (1769-1833; ODNB), diplomat, and Isabella Charlotte, b. Campbell; see Carlyle, Journey 18-19; they had a da., Hildegard (b. 1852).

Varnhagen von Ense, Karl August (1785–1858; see TC to KAVE, 31 Dec. 1837), Prussian soldier, diplomat, and biographer, with whom TC had corresponded since 1837; TC wrote “Varnhagen von Ense's Memoirs,” 1838 (Works 29:88–117). He was a keen collector of autograph manuscripts, some contributed by TC. He m., 1814, Rahel Antonie Friederike Levin (1771–1833; see TC to KAVE, 31 Dec. 1837). TC met him in Berlin, 1 Oct. 1852 (see TC to JWC, 1–2 Oct. 1852, and TC to JAC, 3 Oct. 1852). He d. 10 Oct. 1858.

Victoria (1819–1901; ODNB), queen since 1837; m. Albert, 1840.

Victoria Adelaide Mary Louise (1840–1901), princess royal, the queen's eldest da.; m., 25 Jan. 1858, Friedrich Wilhelm of Prussia (1831–88).

Watt brothers, John A. Carlyle's stepsons: Tom (b. 1838), at sea from Oct. 1856 (see TC to IC, 12 Nov. 1856); Henry (b. 1839), also at sea, from June 1854 (see TC to JCA, 30 June 1854); Arthur (b. 1840), at school in Edinburgh from Oct. 1856; and William (b. 1842), who had been at school in Vevey, Switzerland, and was now to go to the Royal Military College in Woolwich.

Wedgwood, Frances (Fanny), b. Mackintosh (1800–1889; see TC to HWE, 11 Dec. 1836), the Carlyles' friend, though now less close; m., 1832, Hensleigh Wedgwood (1803–91; ODNB; see TC to HWE, 11 Dec. 1836), mathematician and philologist, Erasmus A. Darwin's cousin. Their children were Frances Julia “Snow” (1833–1913), James Mackintosh “Bro” (1834–64), Ernest Hensleigh (1838–98), Katherine Euphemia “Effie” (1839–1934), Alfred Allen (1842–92), and Hope (1844–1935).

Welsh, Alexander (Alick) (b. 1816), eldest child of JWC's maternal uncle John; m., ca. 1849, Sophy, b. Martin (b. ca. 1827). Their children were John (Jackie) (b. ca. 1853), Isabella (b. 1856; see JWC to TC, [29 Aug. 1856]), and Margaret (b. 1858).

Welsh, Ann (d. 1877), Elizabeth Welsh (d. 1877), and Grace Welsh (d. 1867), JWC's paternal aunts (see TC to JWC, 10 March 1842, TC to JWC, 11 March 1842, and JWC to JW, [ca. 26 June 1843]). They lived at Craigen Villa, Morningside, Edinburgh.

Welsh, Grace, b. Welsh (1782–1842), JWC's mother, m., 1800, Dr. John Welsh (1776–1819; see JBW to EWE, 5 Oct. 1819), JWC's father, doctor in Haddington.

Welsh, Helen (ca. 1813–53), da. of JWC's maternal uncle John.

Welsh, Jeannie (ca. 1798–1828), JWC's maternal aunt; for her death, see TC to JAC, 16 April 1828, and Carlyle, Reminiscences 127–29.

Welsh, Jeannie (Babbie), da. of JWC's maternal uncle John; see Chrystal.

Welsh, John (d. 1853; see TC to JCA, 12 Oct. 1853), JWC's maternal uncle, retired brass and copper founder, who had lived at 20 Maryland St., Liverpool; m. Mary (d. 1838); for her death, see TC to AC, 15 Oct. 1838; parents of Helen, Jeannie Chrystal, Margaret, Alexander, Walter, Mary, and John.

Welsh, John (1824–59), meteorologist (see JWC to MW, [ca. 20 Aug. 1842]); son of JWC's paternal uncle George and Margaret, b. Kissock; apptd. asst. at Kew Observatory, 1850; known for balloon ascents, 1852 (see JWC to MW, [17 Aug. 1852]).

Welsh, John (d. 1860), youngest son of JWC's maternal uncle John.

Welsh, Margaret, b. Kissock (ca. 1805–88; see JWC to MW, [late Feb. 1841], and JWC to MW, [Feb.–March 1846]), widow of JWC's paternal uncle George (1793–1835), living at 19 St. John^s Grove, Richmond, nr. London.

Welsh, Margaret (Maggie) (b. 1821), da. of JWC's maternal uncle John.

Welsh, Mary, youngest da. of JWC's maternal uncle John.

Welsh, Robert (ca. 1786–1841; see TC to JWC, 29 April 1841, and JWC to MW, [8 July 1842?]), JWC's paternal uncle, an Edinburgh solicitor; m., 1821, Mary, b. May (b. 1796). Their children were John May (b. 1824) (see JWC to MR, 12 July 1845); Mary May Welsh (1829–85), who m. Robert Martin Craven, 24 March 1859; Sarah (b. 1832); Annabella (b. 1834); Robert (b. 1835); and Grace (b. 1836).

Welsh, Rev. Walter (ca. 1815–79; see JWC to JW, [8 Jan. 1843]), unmarried son of JWC's maternal uncle John; minister at Auchtertool, Fife, since 1842. Two of his sisters, Margaret and Mary, lived with him.

Wilhelm of Prussia (1797–1888), prince; m., 1829, Augusta of Saxe-Weimar (1811–90); served as regent 1858–61, after his brother Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia (1795–1861) suffered a disabling stroke July 1857. In 1861 he became Wilhelm I.

Wilson, Jane (1790–1890; see JWC's Journal, 27 Nov. 1855), longtime friend of the Carlyles.

Wilson, Thomas (b. 1811; see 22:introduction and 26:biographical note), formerly curate at St. Peter Mancroft, Norwich, 1845–47; he left the Church of England because he rejected the Thirty-Nine Articles; he turned to TC for help and was found a teaching appointment in Weimar, Dec. 1853; see TC to JMA, 11 Dec. 1853. He made regular visits to London.

Woolner, Thomas (1825–92; ODNB; see TC to TWO, [21 Feb. 1851], and TC to LA, 20 Oct. 1854), sculptor and poet.

Wynn, Charlotte Williams (1807–69; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 17 July 1845), diarist, friend of Varnhagen von Ense.