January-October 1859

The Collected Letters, Volume 35


BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES; 2007; DOI: 10.1215/ed-35-biographical-notes; CL 35: 251-267


Notes on the Carlyles' contemporaries referred to more than once in the present volume are given below, cross-referenced to earlier information. Otherwise they are accounted for in headnotes and footnotes as they occur.

Adamson, Robert (1787–1861; see TC to JA, 14 Feb. 1838), manager of TC's bank, the British Linen Company, Dumfries; m., 1820, Ann, b. McMillan (1795–1861); they had two das., Jane (b. 1824) and Helen (b. 1826).

Airlie, Henrietta Blanche, b. Stanley (1829–1921), 7th countess; m., 1851, David Graham Drummond Ogilvy, Lord Airlie (1826–81), 7th earl (see 26:biographical note). They lived at Cortachy Castle, Forfarshire (now Angus). Their children were Henrietta Blanche (1852–1925), Clementina Gertrude Helen (1854–1932), David Stanley William (1856–1900), Maude Josepha (1859–1933), Lyulph Gilchrist Stanley (1861–1947), and Griselda Johanna Helen (1865–1934).

Aitken, Jean (“Craw”) Carlyle (1810–88), TC's sister; m., 1833, James (1809–87) from Troqueer, housepainter of English St., Dumfries; they lived in Assembly St., Dumfries. They had two sons who died in infancy (1834–36 and 1855–56), both named Alexander; their surviving sons were James or Jamie (1836–71), who worked in a mercantile house in London from Sept. 1858 and lived in Islington; Thomas (1841–69), who was at an inst. for the deaf in Glasgow (see TC to JAC, 4 Nov. 1854); and John (1843–1911); their das. were Anne (1839–1919), Margaret (1845–1932), and Mary (1848–95), who m., 1879, her cousin Alexander Carlyle.

Albert (1819–61; ODNB), prince consort.

Anderton, Sarah, b. Coxon (ca. 1827–72; see JWC to KS, [28 Jan. 1853]), actor; m., 6 Sept., Stavros Dilberoglue (see below). They lived at 13 Barnsbury Park. Anderton was her stage name.

Anne (or Ann), servant at Cheyne Row Nov. 1853–March 1858; see JWC to MR, [ca. 5 Feb. 1858].

Ashburton, William Bingham Baring (1799–1864; ODNB; see TC to MAC, 8 March 1839, and later vols.), 2d baron from 1848, politician and partner in Baring Bros., bankers. He m., 1823, Harriet, b. Montagu (1805–57;ODNB; see TC to MAC, 8 March 1839, and 26:introduction); they had one son, Alexander Montagu (1828–30). The Carlyles and Ashburtons (then Baring) first met 1839. TC admired them both, particularly Lady Ashburton, who was the center of a literary and political circle. Her close friendship with TC was a cause of jealousy for JWC. After Lady Ashburton's death, JWC wrote of Lord Ashburton: “It is not so much sorrow that troubles him … but bewilderment. … I expect some scheming woman will marry him up” (see JWC to MR, 2 Oct. 1857). He m., 1858, Louisa Caroline, b. Stewart-Mackenzie (1827–1903; ODNB), da. of James Alexander Stewart (1784–1843) and Mary Elizabeth Frederica, b. Mackenzie (1783–1862; ODNB). Louisa was lively and beautiful, with an interest in the arts, natural history, and evangelicism. They had a da., Mary Florence (b. 1860). Where it is necessary for clarity, we refer to Lord Ashburton's first and second wives as Lady Harriet Ashburton and Lady Louisa Ashburton respectively, although these are not the correct forms.

Austin, Mary Carlyle (1808–88), TC's sister, m., 1831, James (1805–78), farmer of The Gill, 6 mi. SW of Ecclefechan. They had eight das.: Margaret (1831–74), m., 1 Nov. 1859, Thomas Stewart (1832–69), farmer at Hollybush; Grace (b. 1833), m., 1856, William Yeoward (b. ca. 1824), of Toronto; Jessie (b. 1836), m., 8 March, George Grierson (b. 1835); Jane (b. 1840); Mary Anne (b. 1842); Catherine (b. 1844); Isabella (b. 1846); and Mary Carlyle (b. 1851); and one surviving son, James (b. 1848).

Ballantyne, Thomas (1806–71; ODNB; see TC to TB, 23 Feb. 1839, and 30:introduction), author and journalist; associated with several publications including the Manchester Guardian, the Leader, the Illustrated London News, and his weekly newspaper, the Statesman (Oct. 1857–April 1859); he anthologized TC and other writers.

Baring, Francis (1800–1868), Lord Ashburton's brother and heir; m., 1832, Hortense Eugenie Claire, b. Maret (ca. 1812–82), da. of the duke of Bassano. Their children were Marie Anne Louise (1833–1928), Alexander Hugh (1835–89), and Denzil Hugh (1837–86).

Baring, Frederick (1806–68), Lord Ashburton's brother; rector of Itchinstoke, Hants., 2 mi. W of The Grange, the Ashburton country house; m., 1831, Frederica Mary Catherine, b. Ashton (1804–84).

Baring, Louisa (1804–88), and Lydia Emily (1814–68), Lord Ashburton's sisters; they lived at 23 Princes Gate, London.

Barnes, Dr. Alfred Brooke (ca. 1802–67), 182 King's Road, Chelsea, physician; m. Susannah (ca. 1804—ca. 1855); they had two sons, Rev. Brooke Cremer (b. 1833) and Dr. Herbert Sedgwick (ca. 1835–65), and two das., Laura Susannah (b. 1829, now dead) and Isabella Emily (b. 1837).

Binnie, Mary, b. Gillespie (ca. 1794–1866), JWC's second cousin, widow of Thomas Binnie, living at Prestonpans; she had a son, Thomas (b. 1824), and a da., Mary (see Godby).

Braid, Betty, b. Pringle (1795–1875); Grace Welsh's Haddington servant, close to JWC (see JWC to SS, [29 Oct. 1846], and JWC to TC, [5 Sept. 1849]); b. in Prestonkirk, E. Lothian; m. Alexander (1792–1874), stonemason and shopkeeper. They had one surviving son, George Pringle (1827–65), who suffered ill health. They had had three sons who died in infancy: Alexander (b. 1826), James (b. 1829), and James (b. 1831). Their “rough little provision-shop” was at 15 Adam St. (see TC to JWC, 12 Sept. 1843); they moved in 1858 to Upper Stenhouse, Liberton, S Edinburgh.

Brodie, David (Therapeutes) (1822–88), M.D., St. Andrews, 1845; m., 1849, Helen, b. Ramage (b. 1816). Medical superintendent of the Home and School for Invalid and Imbecile Youth, 10 Gayfield Sq., Edinburgh.

Brookfield, William Henry (1809–74; ODNB; see JWC to [WHB?], [1 April 1846?]), well-connected clergyman and school inspector; m., 1841, Jane Octavia, b. Elton (1821–96). Their children were Magdalene Alice (b. 1850), Arthur (b. 1853), and Charles Hallam Elton (1857–1913).

Brown, Ford Madox (1821–93; ODNB), Pre-Raphaelite painter and designer. He m., 1841, his cousin Elisabeth, b. Bromley (ca. 1818–46); they had a child who d. in infancy, 1842, and a da. Emma Lucy (1843–94). He later m., 1853, Emma Hill (1829–90), by whom he already had a da., Catherine Emily (b. 1850), and had two sons, Arthur, who d. in infancy 1857, and Oliver Madox Brown (1855–74), artist and poet.

Browning, Elizabeth Barrett, b. Moulton Barrett (1806–61; ODNB), poet; m., 1846, Robert Browning (1812–89; ODNB), poet, TC's friend since the mid-1830s (see TC to JAC, 26 Sept. 1855, and TC to RB, 4 Dec. 1855). Robert Wiedeman Barrett (“Pen”) (1849–1912) was their only child. They had been living in Florence since 1847.

Bullock, John (1815–90), from King's Lynn, Norfolk, letter carrier, who had probably taken over from John Piper as the Carlyles' postman after changes to the postal service; see TC to JWC, 1 Sept. 1857.

Butler, Charles (1802–97; see TC to JCA, 18 Nov. 1853), U.S. lawyer, financier, land speculator, entrepreneur, and philanthropist; welcome in Britain for his part in handling the threat by some states in the U.S. in the 1840s to repudiate their bonds; met TC, Nov. 1853, and looked after his Illinois bonds and other investments; m., 1825, Eliza, b. Ogden (d. 1878). They had five children: Abraham Ogden Butler (1832–56) and two other sons who d. in infancy, and two das., Emily and Anna (d. 1877).

Carlyle, Alexander (Alick) (1797–1876), TC's brother; emigrated with his family to Canada, 1843; settled at the Bield, 4½ mi. W of Brantford, Ontario; m., 1830, Janet, b. Clow (1809–91). They had six sons, including Thomas (1833–1921), the eldest, and Robert (1851–1932), the youngest; and five das., the eldest of whom was Jane Welsh (1831–84), who m., 1852, Robert Sims. Four of their children died in infancy: an unidentified son (1832–33), Margaret (1835–36), James (b. 1840), all buried in Ecclefechan (see TC to AC, 3 Oct. 1856), and Euphemia (1853–54).

Carlyle, Alexander (1843–1931; see TC to AC, 4 May 1843), Alexander and Janet's son; m., 1879, his cousin Mary Aitken; lived with TC from 1879 and ed. the Carlyles' letters and other writings of TC.

Carlyle, James (Jamie) (1805–90), TC's brother, farmer at Scotsbrig; m., 1834, Isabella, b. Calvert (ca. 1813–1 June 1859), who had long been unwell. Their children were James (1835–71), who had been working in Glasgow as a clerk, but had come home to help on the farm; John (b. 1836); Thomas (1839–41); and Janet (Jessie or Jenny) (1843–74).

Carlyle, John (ca. 1792–1872), TC's half-brother; emigrated to the U.S. 1837, then moved to Canada (see TC to AC, 15 Aug. 1840); by May 1855 he was living in a small farm at Mount Pleasant, nr. Brantford, Ontario; m., 1817, Margaret (Peggy), b. Benn (1798–1867). They had five children: Janet (1818–89), Mary (1821–50), John (1825–97), James (1830–1900), and William (1833–1911). The two youngest were schoolteachers.

Carlyle, John Aitken (Jack, “The Doctor") (1801–79; ODNB), TC's brother, physician and translator; m., 1852, Phoebe Elizabeth Hough Watt, b. Fowler (1814–54), widow of Fitz James Watt (1809–48), from Leek in Staffordshire, with four sons (see Watt brothers). She d. in childbirth; the child was stillborn.

Carlyle, Margaret Aitken (1771–1853), TC's mother; she had been living with James and Isabella Carlyle at Scotsbrig. TC's father was James Carlyle (1758–1832); they m. 1795.

Chalmer, Francis (sometimes Chalmers or Chambers), and family; wealthy neighbor at 3 (and apparently owned 4) Cheyne Row; see LM TC to WG, 30 Oct. 1822, and 30:biographical note.

Chancellor, George, owned livery stables at 1 Cheyne Row (see TC to JAC, 8 Feb. [4] Feb. 1839) until 1853; his dunghill was blamed for the rank atmosphere (see JWC to TC, [3 July 1849], and TC to JWC, 31 Aug. 1857).

Chapman, Edward (1804–80; ODNB), senior partner in Chapman & Hall, TC's publisher since 1842 (see TC to JF, [5 Feb. 1842]); m., 1841, Mary, b. Whiting (b. ca. 1820).

Chapman, Frederic (1823–95; ODNB), Edward Chapman's cousin and junior partner in Chapman & Hall; m., 1861, Clara, b. Woodin (d. 1866).

Chapman, John (1821–94; ODNB; see TC to JCH, 21 March 1844), freethinking publisher, author, and physician; m., 1843, Susanna, b. Brewitt (ca. 1807–92). He was an agent for American publishers and proprietor of the Westminster Review from 1851. He studied medicine and worked as a surgeon in the 1840s, then took a medical degree at St. Andrews Univ., 1857, which enabled him to practice as a physician. He then combined both careers, publishing and medicine.

Chatterton, Henrietta Georgiana Marcia, b. Iremonger (1806–76; ODNB), misc. writer and traveler, widow of Sir William Abraham Chatterton (1794–1855). She m., 1 June, Edward Heneage Dering (1827–92); she lived at 5 Seamore Pl., Mayfair.

Chorley, John Rutter (1806–67; ODNB; see TC to JWC, [early Aug. 1845]), poet and scholar of Spanish literature, reviewer for the Athenaeum; highly regarded by TC. He helped supervise the building of the soundproof room in the attic in 1853 (see TC to JCA, 11 Aug. 1853, and Carlyle, Reminiscences 154) and assisted in proofreading Frederick (see TC to CR, 15 Aug. 1857, and TC to JWC, 19 Aug. 1857).

Chrystal, Jeannie, b. Welsh (1818–95); m., 1853, Andrew Chrystal (ca. 1811–83), a wine merchant from Glasgow (see TC to JWC, 10 Aug. 1849, and JWC to JW, [11 May 1851]). Her regular correspondence with JWC ended after her marriage. She had a da., Mary (1857–1937).

Cooke, John George (known as George Cooke), stockbroker; he had met JWC in 1856 (see JWC's Journal, 18 May 1856) and was to become a close friend. She described him in 1864: “a man between thirty and forty; tall, strong, silent, sincere; has been a sailor, a soldier, a New Zealand settler, ‘a Man about Town,’ and a Stock Broker!!!” (Bliss, JWC 319). Friend of Walter Mantell.

Craik, George Lillie (1798–1866; ODNB; see JWC to SS, [20 Sept. 1835]), author, prof. of English lit. and history, Queen's Coll., Belfast, 1849–66; friend of the Carlyles since 1835; m., 1826, Jeannette, b. Dempster (d. 1856) (see JWC to TC, 30 Aug. 1838). They had one son, George Lillie (b. ca. 1825), and three das.; Mary (b. 1827), Isabella (1829–42; see JWC to JW, [8 Dec. 1842), and Georgiana (1831–95).

Craven, Robert; see Welsh, Mary.

Darwin, Erasmus Alvey (1804–81; see TC to JAC, 15 June 1835, and TC to JAC, 17 Feb. 1837), the Carlyles' close friend since 1835; living at 57 Queen Anne St., Cavendish Sq., since 1853; Charles Darwin's brother.

Davidson, David (1811–1900), rtd. maj., army engineer, and inventor; childhood friend of JWC. He invented telescopic sights for rifles, shown at the Great Exhibition (1851), and the collimating telescope, 1855; he was knighted 1894. He m., 1849, Margaret, b. Buchanan (ca. 1822–99); by 1859 they had three sons, Henry Chisholm (b. 1851), David Albert (b. 1853), and Charles (b. 1859), and four das., Jane (b. 1852), Mary (b. 1855), Alice (b. 1856), and Margaret (b. 1857). By 1864 they had ten children in all, five sons and five das. His aunt, Janet Davidson (1782–1869), lived at Craighope House, Court St., Haddington (see JWC to TC, [23 July] 1857).

Derby, Edward George Geoffrey Smith Stanley (1799–1869; ODNB), 14th earl, politician; m., 1825, Emma Caroline, b. Bootle-Wilbraham (1805–76). He was from a traditionally Whig family but moved to the Conservative Party, which he led 1846–48, becoming prime minister three times, 1852, 1858–59, and 1866–68.

Dickens, Charles (1812–70; ODNB), novelist; friend of the Carlyles since the early 1840s; m., 1836, Catherine Thomson, b. Hogarth (1816–79); separated from her June 1858.

Dilberoglue, Stavros (1811–78), brother of Calliope (b. 1835), Greek businessman, philanthropist, and art collector. Born in Smyrna, he moved with his family to Corfu, where they were naturalized Ionian. Stavros had lived in England since mid-1830s, a partner in Cavafy & Co., which traded from 31 Threadneedle St., London. He m., 6 Sept., Sarah Anderton (see above) and became a naturalized Briton in 1861.

Disraeli, Benjamin (1804–81; ODNB), Tory politician and novelist; M.P. for Buckinghamshire 1847–76; chancellor of the exchequer in Derby's govt. Feb.–Dec. 1852 and 1858–59; later prime minister; m., 1839, Mary Anne Lewis, b. Evans (1792–1872).

Dods, William (1795–1873; see JWC to GEJ, [11? Sept. 1857]), Haddington bank agent; childhood admirer of JWC; his first wife was Harriet, b. Shirreff (b. ca. 1804); his second wife, m., 1854, was Jane, b. Wilkie (ca. 1809–85). His oldest son, Peter (1828–1905), lt., Bombay Regiment, m., 1856, Elizabeth Gordon, b. Lorimer (b. 1839). Thomas Dods (1800–1878) was his brother; see JWC to WDO [19? Sept. 1857].

Donaldson sisters of Tenterfield (Sunny Bank), Haddington: Jean (1770–1860), JWC's godmother; Jess (1774–1860); and Catherine (Kate) (1779–1852); friends of JWC's mother; aunts of John William and his siblings. JWC tried to write them a weekly letter, on Wednesdays; see JWC to TC, [22 July 1858].

Donaldson, John William (1811–61; ODNB; see TC to JWC, 31 Aug. 1842), philologist; m. first, 1840, Laetitia, b. Mortlock; their children were Alexander (b. ca. 1843), Gertrude (b. ca. 1845), Edmund (b. ca. 1847), and Alice (b. ca. 1849); m. second, 1852, Louisa Rawlins. Headmaster of King Edward's School, Bury St. Edmunds, 1841–55. The school declined under Donaldson, and he resigned in 1855 and became a tutor in Cambridge. He had two surviving brothers: George Hay (1810–72), m., 1844, Emma, b. Russell (d. 1885), and Stuart Alexander (1812–67; ODNB), m., 1854, Amelia, b. Cowper; they had six children and lived in Australia; and six surviving sisters: Jane Watts (1814–86); Catherine Anne (1817–95), m., 1842, Samuel Rawlins (d. 1885); Eliza (1819–80); Isabella Sarah (1820–89); Janet (1822–94), m., 1850, William Skilbeck (d. 1905); and Helen Kay (1826–1913), m. first, 1847, Thomas Bayley (d. 1858), m. second, 1860, Edward Griffith (d. 1871).

Drummond, Henry (1786–1860; ODNB; see TC to JWC, 17 Aug. 1831, and TC to HD, 9 June 1848), politician, banker, and evangelical follower of Edward Irving; from 1835 apostle of the Catholic Apostolic Church. He lived at Albury Park, Surrey.

Dunwoodie, Isabella; see McTurk.

Eliot, George (1819–80; ODNB), pen name of Mary Ann (later Marian) Evans, author; her novels were much admired by JWC. From 1855 she lived with the author and journalist George Lewes (see below). Her first pbd. work was a translation of David Friedrich Strauss's Life of Jesus (1846). Her first work of fiction, Scenes of Clerical Life, was published in 1858 and her second, Adam Bede, early in 1859.

Emerson, Ralph Waldo (1803–82; see TC to JAC, 27 Aug. 1833), philosopher, essayist, poet, and transcendentalist. He first met TC Aug. 1833; in spite of their differences, they had close ties; he introduced many Americans to TC and played a leading part in arranging the publication of TC's works in the U.S.

Erskine, Thomas (1788–1870; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 1 Feb. 1838), of Linlathen, Dundee; theologian and retired advocate; known to TC since mid-1830s.

Fergus, John (1797–1865; see JWC to TC, 17 July 1837, and TC to JF, 7 Nov. 1845), now living with his sister, Jessie (Janet) (b. 1794), at Whyte House, Kirkcaldy; he also owned land at Strathore, ca. 1½ mi. N; owner of John Fergus & Co., flax spinners and bleachers; M.P. for Fife 1847–23 April 1859. His other sisters were Elizabeth Pepoli (see below), Charlotte Nixon (1795–1853), and Jane (b. 1804), who m., 1841, Robert Whyt Royds (see TC to JWC, 9 Aug. 1852). They were all old friends of the Carlyles. There was a fifth sister, Isabella (b. 1798), who m., 1824, Hugh Lumsden.

c), poet and translator; TC's friend since 1842 (see TC to EF, 18 Sept. 1842). He m., reluctantly, 1856, Lucy, b. Barton (1808–98), religious writer; they were separated in 1857.

Forster, John (“Fuz”) (1812–76; ODNBsee TC to GE, 15 Feb. 1832, and TC to JF, 17 Jan. 1839), historian, journalist, biographer, and ed. of the Examiner 1847–55; sec. to the Lunacy Commission 1855–61; friend of the Carlyles since the late 1830s and TC's literary adviser. He m., 1856, Eliza Ann, b. Crosbie (ca. 1819–94), widow of the publisher Henry Colburn (ca. 1784–1855; ODNB). Forster gave up his home in Lincoln's Inn Fields, and they went to live at 46 Montagu Sq.

Fox, Anna Maria (1816–97), and Caroline (1819–71; ODNB), Quaker sisters living in Falmouth, Cornwall; das. of Robert Were Fox (1789–1877; ODNB), geologist and physicist, and Maria, b. Barclay (1786–1858); they were part of philanthropic, literary, and scientific circles and had known the Carlyles since 1840; see TC to MAC, 20 May 1840.

Garthwaite, Tom (ca. 1810–94), Ecclefechan tailor; his sons were John (1838–1922) and Thomas (1839?—1922).

Gilchrist, Alexander (1828–61; ODNB), biographer; m., 1851, Anne, b. Burrows (1828–85;ODNB), also a writer. They had four children: Percy Carlyle (1851–1935), Beatrice (ca. 1853–81), Herbert (1857–1914), and Grace (1859–1947). They lived at 6 Cheyne Row 1856–61.

Godby, Mary, b. Binnie (1826–86), m., 1848, Frederick Godby (1819—ca. 1856), chief clerk of General Post Office, Edinburgh; they had a son, Hardy Augustus (b. ca. 1850), and a da., Mary (b. ca. 1853). After her husband's death, she moved from Spylaw Bank, Colinton, to Grove St., Edinburgh. She then moved to London, probably late 1850s or early 1860s (see JWC to MR, [5 July 1857], and Carlyle, Reminiscences 163).

Goderich, Lord; see Ripon.

Gordon, John (1797–1882; see TC to AC, 29 March 1827, and TC to JADO, 20 May 1843), school inspector; former gen. sec. of Edinburgh Univ.; TC's old friend; he lived at 21 E. Claremont St., Edinburgh.

Graham, William (ca. 1774–1860; see TC to WG, 15 Sept. 1820, TC to JAC, 20 Nov. 1846, and other vols.), TC's old friend, living retired and in poor health on the slopes of Burnswark, 3 mi. N of Ecclefechan, where he had formerly farmed. His sister, Elizabeth (1784–1861), was also in poor health (see TC to JWC, 28 Dec. 1853, and TC to AC, 8 April 1854).

Hanning, Janet Carlyle (1813–97), TC's sister; m., 1836, Robert (1796–1878), who had emigrated to Canada in mysterious disgrace 1841; she joined him in Hamilton, Ontario, Aug. 1851, with their two das., Margaret (b. 1838) and Mary (b. 1840). They had two other das., Catherine (b. ca. 1852) and Jane, both b. in Canada.

Harrison, Robert (1820–97), librarian of Leeds Lib. 1855–57 and the London Lib. 1857–93. He had taught in St. Petersburg and was later one of the founders of the Lib. Assoc. of the United Kingdom, 1877. Both Carlyles were to be on friendly terms with him.

Hawkes, Emilie (ca. 1819–93; ODNB), supporter of Italian independence and campaigner for women's rights; da. of William Henry Ashurst (ca. 1791–1855; ODNB), portrait painter; unhappily married to Sydney Hawkes, whom she later divorced; see JWC's Journal, 13 Nov. 1855, and 27 March 1856. A strong supporter of Mazzini and the Young Italy movement; m., 1861, Carlo Venturi (ca. 1830–66); author of Joseph Mazzini: A Memoir (1875).

Helps, Arthur (1813–75; ODNB), writer and historian; of independent means; clerk to the privy council, 1860; friend of the Carlyles since the early 1840s. He m., 1836, Bessy, b. Fuller (1813–92; see JWC to TC, [17 July 1843]); they had three sons and four das.

Hill, Rowland (1795–1879; ODNB), responsible for introducing the penny post, 1840; sec. to the post office from 1854. TC often used his name to refer to the postal service.

Howden, Dr. Thomas (1787–1868; see JWC to JAC, [28 July 1849]), partner of JWC's father; m. Helena Shortess, b. MacNaughton (1785–1858), and lived at Maitlandfield, Haddington. They had 13 children, including Helena Shortess (1810–91), m., 1845, John Ferme (b. ca. 1797); Jane (1820–93); and Agnes Catherine (1829–1906), who lived with them. One of their sons, also Thomas (1812–1900), medical practitioner, lived in JWC's old house in Lodge St., Haddington, with his second wife, Jessie Cunningham, b. Mylne (1833–90). His first wife was his cousin Agnes, b. Howden (1826–44).

Hunt, James Henry Leigh (1784–28 Aug. 1859; ODNB), poet, essayist, and journalist; m., 1809, Marianne, b. Kent, (ca. 1788–1857). They had nine children and lived at 4 Upper Cheyne Row 1833–40. They first met the Carlyles 1832 (see TC to JHLH, 20 Feb. 1832); see also Carlyle, Reminiscences 138.

Huxham, Mrs., Geraldine Jewsbury's landlady at 3 Oakley St., nr. King's Rd., Chelsea; see JWC's Journal, 8 Nov. 1855 .

Irving, Edward (1792–1834; ODNB; see TC to RM, 12 Feb. 1817, later vols., and Carlyle, Reminiscences), the Carlyles' great friend; religious leader and preacher.

Jewsbury, Geraldine Endsor (1812–80; ODNB; see TC to GEJ, 12 April 1840), novelist, reviewer, and misc. writer; a friend of the Carlyles, particularly of JWC, since 1841. For her sister Maria Jane (1800–1833), see JWC's Journal, 16 May 1856. Her brothers were Thomas Smith (b. 1802), Henry Richard Smith (1803–73), Arthur (b. 1815), and Francis (Frank) Harding (1819–78), who m., 1853, Emily, b. Vandeburgh. Jewsbury lived with Frank in Manchester until 1854. She moved to 3 Oakley St., nr. Cheyne Row, summer 1854. She met Walter Mantell late 1856 and fell in love with him; he did not reciprocate, but they remained close and exchanged over 500 letters in the course of the friendship.

Jones, Dr. Henry Bence (1813–73; ODNB), prominent physician (including St. George's Hospital 1846–72) and chemist; m., 1842, Millicent, b. Acheson (d. 1887).

Ker, Alan (1820–85), eldest son of Robert and Augusta Ker of Greenock; in the judicial service of the W. Indies; chief justice of Dominica, 1856–61; m., 1851, Mary, b. Tennyson (1810–84), Alfred's sister; they had a son, Walter (b. 1854). For Ker's paternal aunt Ann, see Scott.

Langley, Samuel (b. 1823), from Cork, impoverished writer. TC paid Langley to do some museum research for him 1859–60 and gave him various charitable donations 1859–66 from Lady Harriet Ashburton's bequest (for the bequest, see TC to LOA, 29 July 1858). TC initially described him as “an Indigt Litr man” (14 March 1859; MS: NLS 20753) and finally as “blarneying Irishn, not witht merit, poor soul, tho' continually or far too often falling insolvent” and sends £5 “as a final gift to him” (8 Nov. 1866; MS: Bodleian Lib.).

Larkin, Henry (1820–99), collector or cashier for the Chelsea Steamer Co.; partner in an engineering business; author of Extra Physics and the Mystery of Creation (1878), which included an appendix (written in 1858) giving an analysis of Sartor Resartus, and of Carlyle and the Open Secret of His Life (1886). For TC's early contacts with him, see TC to HL, 29 Dec. 1850, and TC to HL, 29 March 1852. He worked on TC's indexes from 1856: “He did for me all manner of maps, indexes, summaries, copyings, sortings, miscellanea of every kind” (for the complete note on Larkin by TC, see JWC to TC, [19 July 1858]). His brother John Richard Larkin (1818–76) also helped TC with maps for Frederick. He also had a brother Richard (b. 1825) and a sister Ann (b. 1821). Henry m., 1862, Louisa, b. Wagstaff. His mother, Charlotte, b. Brett (ca. 1785–1862), lived nr. Hoxton.

Lewes, George Henry (“Ape”) (1817–78; ODNB; see TC to UC, 16 Oct.), author, journalist, and co-ed., with Thornton Hunt, of the Leader; known to the Carlyles from 1835; m., 1841, Agnes, b. Jervis (1822–1902; see TC to JAC, 26 Aug. 1848); they had three surviving children. She was to have four children with Thornton Hunt, the first of whom was b. 1850, when the Leweses were living in Hunt's house (see JWC to TC, [4 Aug. 1850]). In 1851 Lewes's friendship developed with Mary Ann (later Marian) Evans (George Eliot; see above), and they set up home together 1855; the Carlyles remained on friendly terms with Lewes.

Liddell, James (ca. 1792–1867), and his sisters Isobel (b. ca. 1790) and Eliza (b. ca. 1801), of Kirkton Farm, Fife; owner of Auchtertool House. Possibly related to the Liddells on the Isle of Wight, with whom Mary and Maggie Welsh stayed in May 1858; see TC to JAC, 28 Dec. 1857. See also JWC to TC, [7 July 1844], JWC to JW, [19 May 1846], and JWC to JW, [28 May 1850].

Louis Napoleon; see Napoleon III.

Macready, William Charles (1793–1873; ODNB>), actor-manager; retired 1851; living in Sherborne, Dorset. The Carlyles' friend since 1839. He m., 1824, Catherine Frances, b. Atkins (1806–52). Their children were Christina Letitia (1830–50), William Charles (1832–71), Catherine Francis Birch (1835–69), Edward Neville Bourne (b. 1836), Harriet Joanna (1837–40), Henry Frederick Bulwer (1838–57), Walter Francis Shiel (1840–53), JWC's godchild Lydia Jane (1842–58), Cecilia (1847–1935), and Jonathan (1850–1908). Macready's sister was Letitia Margaret (1794–1858). He moved to Wellington Sq., Cheltenham, early 1860, and m. Cecile Louise Frederica, b. Spencer (1827–1908), April 1860.

McTurk, Robert (1793–1860), old friend of JWC; m., 1827, Janet, b. Hastings (ca. 1802–71); they had one son, James Hastings (1832–44?). They lived at Hastings Hall, Moniaive, Dumfriesshire. His father, James McTurk, had owned Strathmilligan, Nithsdale, 8 mi. N of Craigenputtoch, where JWC's maternal grandfather, Walter Welsh, had lived. His sister Isabella (ca. 1802–99) m., ca. 1837, William Dunwoodie (1790–1848), farmer at Townhead, Dumfriesshire; they had five das.

Magnus, Eduard (1799–1872), German portrait painter; see TC to MAC, 23 Oct. 1852, and TC to WWV, 22 April 1858.

Mantell, Walter Baldock Durant (1820–95), b. Lewes, E Sussex, settled in New Zealand 1840. He held various official posts. On leave of absence in London from 1855, he began his long, ultimately fruitless, correspondence with the Colonial Office on the subject of broken promises to the Maoris, resigning his commission in protest 1857. He met Jewsbury late 1856 and corresponded extensively with her after his return to New Zealand Oct. 1859. See also 33:biographical note.

Marshall, James, from Ayrshire (see TC to MAC, 17 March 1853); sec. to Maria, grand duchess of Saxe-Weimar (1786–1859; see TC to JWC, 25 Sept. 1852).

Mazzini, Giuseppe (1805–72; see TC to JSM, 6 Dec. 1839, and 28:introduction), Italian revolutionary; friend of the Carlyles since the late 1830s. He was usually based in London but continued to encourage active resistance to Austrian domination. His mother was Maria, b. Drago (1785–1852).

Menzies, John (1808–79; ODNB), bookseller and newsagent at 61 Princes St., Edinburgh. He ran a wholesale book business, published Scottish guidebooks, and opened his first railway bookstall in 1857. In 1859 he closed the retail business and moved to warehouse premises at 2 S. Hanover St., Edinburgh. He m., 1845, Rossie, b. Marr, and had two sons and three das.

Mill, John Stuart (1806–73; ODNB), utilitarian philosopher and economist, administrator at India House since 1823; m., 1851, Harriet Taylor (1807–58), widow of John Taylor (1796–1849), who strongly influenced his thinking. He met TC in Sept. 1831 (see TC to JWC, 4 Sept. 1831), and they remained on friendly terms even after the MS of vol. 1 of The French Revolution was burned while in Mill's keeping (see TC to JC, 1 March 1835). They later became estranged because of many differences in temperament and attitudes to social questions; Mill also believed that TC and other friends disapproved of his marriage.

Milnes, Richard Monckton (1809–85; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 14 July 1836), author, M.P. for Pontefract, 1837–63; created Baron Houghton 1863; lived at 16 Upper Brook St., London, and Fryston Hall, Yorkshire; the Carlyles' friend since the late 1830s, despite political differences. Milnes supported religious and civil liberties, progressive causes such as education for the working class, and prison reform. TC called him a “most bland-smiling, semi-quizzical, affectionate, highbred, Italianised little man of 5 feet, who has long olive-blond hair, a dimple next to [no] chin, and flings his arms round your neck when he addresses you [in pub]lic society!” (TC to RWE, 6 Jan. 1840). He m., 1851, Annabel, b. Hungerford Crewe (1814–74); they had two das., Amicia (b. 1852) and Florence (b. 1855), and a son, Robert Offley Ashburton (1858–1945).

Napoleon III (Louis Napoleon) (1808–73), pres. of France 1849–1851, when he seized power; declared himself emperor and assumed the title Napoleon III 1852. He m., 1853, Eugénie, b. de Montijo (1826–1920). Their son was Napoleon Eugène Louis Jean Joseph (1856–79), prince imperial.

Neuberg, Joseph (1806–67; see TC to JN, 21 Dec. 1839, and 25:biographical note), German-born, naturalized Briton 1845, retired Nottingham businessman; m., 1841, Marion (d. 1848; see JWC to JN, 22 July 1848). He was introduced to TC, whom he had long admired, by Emerson, 1848; helped TC as an unpaid sec., translated his work, and twice accompanied him on visits to Germany. From 1856 Neuberg lived at 25 Oakley Villas, Adelaide Rd., with his widowed sister, Rosetta (or Rosette) Frankau (d. 1898), who had m., ca. 1853, Adolph Frankau (1820–56; see TC to JAC, 19 Nov. 1856), and her two children. After Frankau's death, Neuberg was connected with Frankau's company of importers of meerschaum pipes and foreign fancy goods at 25 Clements Lane, Lombard St., London.

Newnham, Ann, b. Mattock (b. 1809), cook who sometimes helped out at Cheyne Row; see JWC to MR, 29 March 1858. She m., 1839, Samuel Newnham (b. 1807); they had four children: Samuel Richard (b. 1843), Ann (b. 1846), Hannah (b. 1848), and Benjamin (b. 1854).

Orlich, Leopold von (1804–60), Prussian military historian.

Palmerston, Henry John Temple (1784–1865; ODNB>), 3d Viscount Palmerston, politician; m., 1839, Emily, b. Lamb, formerly Lady Cowper (1787–1869). Whig prime minister 1855–57 and 1859–65.

Pepoli, Elizabeth, b. Fergus (1792–1862; see JWC to TC, [12 Oct. 1835], and JWC to TC, [9 April 1841]), old Kirkcaldy friend of the Carlyles; m., 1839, Count Carlo Pepoli (1796–1881; see JWC to JCA, [mid Aug. 1835]), poet, prof. of philosophy at Bologna, and political exile after the revolution against papal govt., 1831; he returned to Bologna, 1859.

Piper, John (1817–83?; see JWC to TC, [11 Sept. 1847], and JWC to TC, 11 Sept. 1847), from Eltham, Kent, the Carlyles' postman; living at 15 Radnor St., King's Rd., Chelsea, possibly moved to a different area autumn 1857, due to changes in the postal service; see TC to JWC, 1 Sept. 1857. He regularly took Nero for walks. His wife, Eliza Jane (ca. 1817–1855; see TC to JAC, 15 Dec. 1855), had occasionally helped at Cheyne Row; they had four children: Jane (b. ca. 1842), Edward (b. ca. 1847), John (b. ca. 1849), and James (b. 1850). Piper was in the Middlesex Lunatic Asylum in 1881, according to the census of that year.

Pringle, Janet, b. Hunter (1827–1912), JWC's cousin (see JWC to MR, [30 Dec. 1853], and JWC to MR, 3 March 1854); m., 1847, Dr. Andrew Pringle (1820–58) of Lann Hall, nr. Thornhill. They had three sons: Andrew (b. 1850), Robert Hunter (b. 1852), and John James (b. 1855); see JWC to MR, 30 Dec. 1854. She m., Nov. 1859, Gideon Pott (1824–1905), farmer of Knowesouth, nr. Jedburgh.

Rennie, George (1802–60; ODNB), sculptor and politician; Liberal MP for Ipswich, 1841–47; gov. of the Falkland Islands, 1847–55, now living in London. Old Haddington admirer of JWC; see JBW to EA, [Jan. 1822]. JWC thought his wife, Jane, “a perfect fool” (CL JWC to EA, [ca. Aug. 1834]). They had two sons: William Hepburn Rennie (1829–74), acting col. secy. to Falkland Islands (1856–57) and lt. gov. of St. Vincent (1871–72); and Richard Temple Rennie, who became a barrister in Shanghai. There was possibly a third son who may have died before Rennie.

Ripon, George Frederick Samuel Robinson (1827–1909; ODNB), 2d earl; radical politician and Christian socialist; son of Frederick John Robinson (1782–1859; ODNB), 1st earl of Ripon, and Sarah Albinia Louisa, b. Hobart (1793–1867). He was known as Viscount Goderich until his father's death, 28 Jan. 1859, then earl of Ripon until his uncle's death, Nov. 1859, when he took the title Earl de Grey; created 1st marquess of Ripon in 1871. He m., 1851, Henrietta Anna Theodosia, b. Vyner (1833–1907); they had one son, Frederick Oliver (1852–1923).

Robson, Charles, of Robson, Levey, & Franklyn, printers, 23 Gt. New St., Fetter Lane. Robson had been TC's printer since 1837.

Rouse, James (ca. 1827–95; see 31:biographical note), the Ashburtons' doctor; TC liked him.

Royston, William Haylett (1822–71), m., 1847, Isobel Morgan, b. Harris; they lived at 1 Cheyne Row.

Ruskin, John (1819–1900; ODNB), author, artist, and social reformer; m., 1848, Euphemia Chalmers, b. Gray (1828–97); marriage annulled 1855. He wrote Modern Painters (1843–56), The Seven Lamps of Architecture (1849), and The Stones of Venice (1851–53). He was J. M. W. Turner's foremost admirer. A friend of TC, he was strongly influenced by him.

Russell, Mary, b. Dobbie (1802–75; see TC to AC, 7 April 1832), close friend of JWC and her mother. She m., 1829, Dr. James Russell (ca. 1796–1878), M.D. Edinburgh Univ.; of S. Drumlanrig St., Thornhill; they had moved to Holmhill, nr. Thornhill, by Oct. 1859. Her father was Rev. Edward Dobbie (1773–1857; see TC to JWC, 9 March 1842).

Sandwich, Mary Anne Julia Louisa Harriet, b. Lowry-Corry (1781–1862; see TC to MAC, 3 Sept. 1848), dowager countess; m., 1804, George John Montagu (1773–1818), 6th earl of Sandwich; mother of Lady Harriet Ashburton and John William Montagu (1811–84), 7th earl. Her son m., 1838, Mary, b. Paget (ca. 1823–20 Feb. 1859); they had six children: Edward George Henry (1839–1916), Victor Alexander (1841–1915), Sydney (1842–60), Oliver George Paulet (1844–93), Emily Caroline (1847–1931), and Anne Florence Adelaide (1849–1940).

Scott, Alexander John (1805–66; ODNB); Christian Socialist and educationist; known to TC through Edward Irving since 1831 (see TC to JWC, 22 Aug. 1831). Principal of Owens Coll., Manchester, 1851–57; he helped to found the Manchester Working Men's Coll., 1858; he continued to act as prof. at Owens Coll. until his death. He m., 1830, Ann, b. Ker (d. 1888), whom TC at first found interesting, “in face and in character she reminded me of one [his sister Margaret (1803–30); see TC to JWC, 11 Sept. 1831] who now lies beneath the ground” but later called a “foolish hoohing woman” (see TC to JAC, 5 Aug. 1851).

Sinclair, Sir George (1790–1868; ODNB; see TC to SGS, 10 April 1849), politician; M.P. for Caithness 1811–41; m., 1816, Lady Catherine Camilla, b. Manners (1792–1863). They had three das., Emilia Magdalen Louise (1817–64), Adelaide Mary Wentworth (1822–73), and Olivia Sophia (1823–94), who later became a travel writer; and three sons.

Southam, Charlotte, b. Watson (1842–1905), the Carlyles' maid since April 1858; orphaned in childhood, she had been adopted by her uncle and aunt, Thomas (1806–64), a waterman, and Elizabeth (b. ca. 1805) Southam, whose surname she took; they lived in Lawrence St., around the corner from Cheyne Row. She worked for the Carlyles June 1858–Aug. 1860 and Nov. 1860–June 1861 and then continued to visit and correspond with them both. She m., 1866, Adolphus J. Mills (b. ca. 1842), a carpenter; they had five sons: Adolphus Berby (b. 1869), Thomas (b. 1871), Alfred George (b. 1875), Ernest (b. 1876), and Edward (b. 1880).

Spedding, Thomas Story (1800–1870), m., 1839, his second wife, Frances Emily, b. Headlam (ca. 1811–96); lived at Mirehouse Estate, nr. Keswick, Cumberland. He and his brother James Spedding (1808–81;ODNB; see JWC to JCA, [mid Aug. 1835], and TC to TSS, 20 Sept. 1845), literary editor and biographer, had been friends of TC's since the late 1830s. A lawyer, he devoted his life to local interests in Cumberland.

Stanley, Henrietta Maria, b. Dillon (1807–95; ODNB), m., 1826, Edward John (1802–69; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 27 Feb. 1840), Whig politician; created Baron Eddisbury of Winnington 1848, succeeded as 2d Baron Stanley of Alderley 1850; living at Alderley Park, Cheshire. Both were friends of the Carlyles, but she closer than her husband. Lord Stanley was nicknamed Lord Ben (unidentified at TC to JWC, 9 July 1853, and TC to LA, 4 Oct. 1854). Peter Edmund Stanley writes that although Lord Stanley was amusing, he was “at the same time, a very disagreeable character with a malicious tongue and nature which gained him the nickname in London of ‘Benjamin Backbite’” (The House of Stanley [Edinburgh, 1998] 400). The Stanleys had nine surviving children: Henry Edward John (1827–1903); Alice Margaret (1828–1910), m., 1853, Augustus Henry Lane Fox-Pitt-Rivers; Henrietta Blanche (see Airlie); Maude Alethea (1833–1915); John (“Johny”) Constantine (1837–78); Edward Lyulph (1839–1925); Katherine Louisa (1842–74); Algernon Charles (1843–1928); and Rosalind Francis (1845–1921).

Sterling, Anthony Coningham (1805–71; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 2 Dec. 1836, and later vols.), soldier; served in the Crimea, 1854–55; retired with the rank of col. 1857, but employed as military sec. to Colin Campbell, Lord Clyde, during the Indian Mutiny 1858–59. Friend of the Carlyles since 1837. He m., 1829, Charlotte, b. Baird (d. 1863), who suffered attacks of insanity and was jealous of JWC (see JWC to HW, [12 Nov. 1844], and JWC to HW, [9 Jan. 1845]). Guardian, 1844–53 (see JWC to KS, [19 Nov. 1853]), of das. of his brother John (1806–44; ODNB): Anna Charlotte (Lotta) (1833–67), Catherine Susan (Kate) (1834–60), Julia Maria (1836–1910), and Hester Isabella (b. 1843); though not of John's son, Edward Coningham Sterling (b. 1831; see JWC to HW, [9 Jan. 1845]). JWC had been particularly fond of Kate Sterling but strongly disapproved of her marriage, 1856, to Alexander J. Ross (1819–87); see JWC to TC, [27 July 1852], and JWC's Journal, 25 March 1856.

Struthers, John (1823–99; ODNB), anatomist, surgeon, medical reformer; M.D. and lecturer on anatomy, Surgeons' Hall, Edinburgh; prof. of anatomy, Aberdeen Univ., 1863. His wife was Christina Margaret, b. Alexander (1833–1907); they lived at 102 Lauriston Pl., Edinburgh, and had two sons, Alexander (b. 1858) and another b. Dec. 1859, and two das., b. in 1861 and 1862.

Tait, Robert Scott (1816–97), portrait painter (exhibited at the Royal Academy 1848–75) and pioneer photographer; a friend of the Carlyles since 1853; living at 5 Queen Anne St., Cavendish Sq. His first portrait of TC (now at Carlyle's House) was painted 1854–55, shown at the Royal Academy 1856; see TC to AGI, 6 May 1856. He took photographs of the Carlyles and their house and for TC's use in Frederick. His A Chelsea Interior (also at Carlyle's House), painted 1857–58, exhibited at the Royal Academy 1858, made use of photographs. He m., spring 1859, Harriet, b. Wilson (b. 1832); they had a da., Mildred (b. 1860).

Tennyson, Alfred (1809–92; ODNB), poet; poet laureate from 1850; friend of the Carlyles since the early 1840s; TC and Tennyson had a strong mutual regard; m., 1850, Emily Sarah, b. Sellwood (1813–96).

Thackeray, William Makepeace (1811–63; ODNB; see JWC to TC, [3 Aug. 1837], TC to JAC, 12 Aug. 1837, and later vols.), novelist; friend of the Carlyles since the 1830s. He m., 1836, Isabella, b. Shawe (1816–93), who was mentally ill from 1840. His das. were Anne Isabella (1837–1919) and Harriet Marian (1840–75); they lived at 36 Onslow Sq.

Therapeutes; see Brodie.

Thomson, James, farmer at Humbie Farm, with his mother, Janet (b. 1790), and his son or grandson Henry (b. 1842).

Till, Pearson (1809–81), owner of livery stables at corner of Church St. and Manor St., Chelsea.

Twisleton, Ellen, b. Dwight (1828–62), of Boston, Mass.; JWC's close friend and confidante; she wrote, 1855, an account of JWC's early life at Craigenputtoch (see Ellen Twisleton's Account). She m., 1852, Hon. Edward Turner Boyd Twisleton (1809–74; ODNB), also a close and respected friend of the Carlyles (see TC to JWC, 5 July 1853); they lived at 3 Rutland Gate.

Usedom, Count Karl Georg Ludwig Guido von (1805–84), Prussian diplomat and adviser at the court of Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia; living in Carsitz. His second wife, m. 1849, was Olympia (1811–87), da. of Sir John Malcolm (1769–1833; ODNB), diplomat, and Isabella Charlotte, b. Campbell (1789–1867); see Carlyle, Journey 18–19. They had a da., Hildegard (b. 1852).

Varnhagen von Ense, Karl August (1785–1858; see TC to KAVE, 31 Dec. 1837), Prussian soldier, diplomat, and biographer; see 34:biographical note.

Victoria (1819–1901; ODNB), queen since 1837; m. Albert 1840.

Watt brothers, John A. Carlyle's stepsons: Thomas Fowler (b. 1838), at sea from Oct. 1856 (see TC to IC, 12 Nov. 1856); Henry (b. 1839), at sea from June 1854 (see TC to JCA, 30 June 1854); Arthur (b. 1840), at school in Edinburgh from Nov. 1856; and William (b. 1842), at the Royal Military Coll., Woolwich, from Aug. 1858. The Watt brothers' birth dates are all corrected.

Wedgwood, Frances (Fanny), b. Mackintosh (1800–1889; see TC to HWE, 11 Dec. 1836), the Carlyles' friend, though now less close; m., 1832, Hensleigh Wedgwood (1803–91; ODNB; see TC to HWE, 11 Dec. 1836), mathematician and philologist, Erasmus A. Darwin's cousin. Their children were Frances Julia “Snow” (1833–1913), James Mackintosh “Bro” (1834–64), Ernest Hensleigh (1838–98), Katherine Euphemia “Effie” (1839–1934), Alfred Allen (1842–92), and Hope (1844–1935).

Welsh, Alexander (Alick) (b. 1816), son of JWC's maternal uncle John; m., ca. 1849, Sophy, b. Martin (b. ca. 1824). Their children were John (Jackie) (b. ca. 1853), Isabella Helen (b. 1856; see JWC to TC, [29 Aug. 1856]), Margaret (b. 1858), and Jean (b. 1860).

Welsh, Ann (1799–1877), Elizabeth Welsh (1792–1877), and Grace Welsh (1801–67), JWC's paternal aunts (see TC to JWC, 10 March 1842, and JCW to JW, [ca. 26 June 1843]), living at Craigen Villa, Morningside, Edinburgh.

Welsh, Grace, b. Welsh (1782–1842), JWC's mother; m., 1800, Dr. John Welsh (1776–1819; see JBW to EWE, 5 Oct. 1819), JWC's father, doctor in Haddington.

Welsh, Helen (ca. 1813–53), da. of JWC's maternal uncle John.

Welsh, Jeannie (ca. 1798–1828), JWC's maternal aunt; for her death, see TC to JAC, 16 April 1828, and Carlyle, Reminiscences 127–29.

Welsh, Jeannie (Babbie), da. of JWC's maternal uncle John; see Chrystal.

Welsh, John (d. 1853; see JWC to HW, [12 Oct. 1853]), JWC's maternal uncle, retired brass and copper founder, who had lived at 20 Maryland St., Liverpool; m., 1808, Mary, b. Colliver (d. 1838; see TC to AC, 15 Oct. 1838); their children were Helen, Walter, Alexander, Jeannie, John, Margaret, and Mary.

Welsh, John (1824–59; ODNB), F.R.S., meteorologist, superintendent of Kew Observatory; see also JWC to MW, [ca. 20 Aug. 1842]; famous for balloon ascents 1852 (see JWC to MW, [17 Aug. 1852]). Son of JWC's paternal uncle George and Margaret, b. Kissock; he d. from tuberculosis 12 May in Falmouth.

Welsh, John (1820–60), youngest son of JWC's maternal uncle John.

Welsh, John Amelia “Jackie” (ca. 1809–64), illegitimate da. of JWC's paternal uncle William (1790–1819; see TC to JWC, 25 March 1842) and Elizabeth Scott.

Welsh, Margaret, b. Kissock (1803–88; see JWC to MW, [late Feb. 1841], and JWC to MW, [Feb.–March 1846]), widow of JWC's paternal uncle George (1793–1835), living at 19 St. Johns Grove, Richmond, nr. London.

Welsh, Margaret (Maggie) (b. 1821), da. of JWC's maternal uncle John; lived in Auchtertool with her brother Walter.

Welsh, Mary (1823–79), da. of JWC's maternal uncle John; lived in Auchtertool with her brother Walter.

Welsh, Mary May (1829–85), da. of JWC's paternal uncle Robert; m., 25 March 1859, as his second wife, Dr. Robert Martin Craven (1824–1903), surgeon, Hull General Infirmary, and lecturer on anatomy, Hull School of Medicine; he had a long and distinguished career and was knighted 1896.

Welsh, Robert (1786–1841; see TC to JWC, 29 April 1841, and JWC to MW, [8 July? 1842]), JWC's paternal uncle, Edinburgh solicitor; m., 1821, Mary, b. May (b. 1796). Their children were John May (1824–56; see JWC to MR, 12 July 1845), Sarah (b. 1825), Elizabeth (b. 1828), Mary May (see above), Sarah (1832–56), Robert (b. 1833), Annabella (1834–55), and Grace (1836–63), m., 1859, William Henry Dobie (b. ca. 1809).

Welsh, Rev. Walter (1815–79; see JWC to JW, 8 Jan. 1843), son of JWC's maternal uncle John, minister at Auchtertool, Fife, since 1842. Two of his sisters, Margaret (Maggie) and Mary, lived with him (see above).

Wilhelm of Prussia (1797–1888; see TC to JAC, 21 Aug. 1844), prince; m., 1829, Augusta of Saxe-Weimar (1811–90); served as regent 1858–61, after his brother Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia (1795–1861) suffered a disabling stroke July 1857. In 1861 he became Wilhelm I.

Woolner, Thomas (1825–92; ODNB; see TC to TWO, [21 Feb. 1851], and TC to LA, 20 Oct. 1854), sculptor and poet, living at 27 Rutland St., Hampstead.

Wynn, Charlotte Williams (1807–69; ODNB; see TC to JAC, 17 July 1845), diarist, friend of Varnhagen von Ense.

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