January-October 1859

The Collected Letters, Volume 35


KEY TO REFERENCES; 2007; DOI: 10.1215/ed-35-key-to-references; CL 35: xxi-xxvi


Allingham. H. Allingham and E. Williams, eds. Letters to William Allingham. London: Longmans, Green, 1911.

Annals. Joseph Irving. The Annals of Our Time. London: Macmillan, 1890.

Arbuckle. Elisabeth S. Arbuckle, ed. Harriet Martineau's Letters to Fanny Wedgwood. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford Univ. Press, 1983.

Armstrong Browning. Armstrong Browning Library, Baylor Univ.

Ashton. Rosemary Ashton. Thomas and Jane Welsh Carlyle: Portrait of a Marriage. London: Chatto and Windus, 2002.

T. Bacon, Delia Bacon. Theodore Bacon. Delia Bacon: A Biographical Sketch. London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle and Rivington, 1888.

Berg. Berg Collection, New York Public Library.

Bliss, JWC. Trudy Bliss, ed. Jane Welsh Carlyle: A New Selection of Her Letters. London: Gollancz; New York: Macmillan, 1950.

Bliss, TC. Trudy Bliss, ed. Thomas Carlyle: Letters to His Wife. London: Gollancz; Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1953.

Blunt, CCH. Reginald Blunt. The Carlyles' Chelsea Home. London: George Bell and Sons, 1895.

Blunt, “CLC.” Reginald Blunt. “Mrs. Carlyle and Her Little Charlotte.” Strand Magazine 49 (March and April 1915): 281–91, 413–20.

Blunt, CR. Reginald Blunt. By Chelsea Reach. London: Mills and Boon Ltd., 1921.

Böltes Briefe. Walther Fischer and Antje Behrens, eds. Amely Böltes Briefe aus England an Varnhagen von Ense (1844–1858). Düsseldorf: Michael Triltsch, 1955.

Boswell's Life of Johnson. James Boswell. Boswell's Life of Johnson. Ed. G. Birkbeck Hill; 2d edn. rev. and enl., ed. L. F. Powell. 6 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1964–71.

Brookfield, Circle. Charles Hallam Brookfield and Frances Brookfield. Mrs. Brookfield and Her Circle. 2 vols. London: Isaac Pitman; New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1905.

A. Carlyle, CB. Alexander Carlyle, ed. “Correspondence between Carlyle and Browning.” Cornhill Magazine n.s. 38 (1918): 642–69.

A. Carlyle, CMSB. Alexander Carlyle, ed. Letters of Thomas Carlyle to John Stuart Mill, John Sterling, and Robert Browning. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1923.

A. Carlyle, CS. Alexander Carlyle, ed. “Thomas Carlyle and Thomas Spedding.” Cornhill Magazine n.s. 50 (1921): 513–37, 742–68.

A. Carlyle, NL. Alexander Carlyle, ed. New Letters of Thomas Carlyle. 2 vols. London and New York: John Lane, 1904.

A. Carlyle, NLM. Alexander Carlyle, ed. New Letters and Memorials of Jane Welsh Carlyle. 2 vols. London and New York: John Lane, 1903.

Carlyle, Journey. Thomas Carlyle. Journey to Germany, Autumn 1858. Ed. Richard A. E. Brooks. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1940.

Carlyle, On Heroes. Thomas Carlyle. On Heroes, Hero-Worship, and the Heroic in History. Ed. Michael K. Goldberg. Text established by Michael K. Goldberg, Joel J. Brattin, and Mark Engel. Strouse Edition. Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: Univ. of California Press, 1993.

Carlyle, Reminiscences. Thomas Carlyle. Reminiscences. Ed. K. J. Fielding and Ian Campbell. New and complete edn. Oxford and New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1997.

Carlyle, Sartor. Thomas Carlyle, Sartor Resartus. Ed. Rodger L. Tarr. Text established by Mark Engel and Rodger L. Tarr. Strouse Edition. Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: Univ. of California Press, 2000.

Carlyle, Works. Thomas Carlyle. Works. Ed. H. D. Traill. Centenary Edition. 30 vols. London: Chapman and Hall, 1896–99.

Carlyle's House. Illustrated Memorial Volume of the Carlyle's House Purchase Fund Committee, with Catalogue of Carlyle's Books Manuscripts Pictures and Furniture Exhibited Therein. Original edn., London: Carlyle's House Memorial Trust, 1895; facsimile edn., London: National Trust, 1995.

Cate. G. A. Cate, ed. Correspondence of Thomas Carlyle and John Ruskin. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford Univ. Press, 1982.

Clarke. Norma Clarke. Ambitious Heights: Writing, Friendship, Love—The Jewsbury Sisters, Felicia Hemans, and Jane Welsh Carlyle. London: Routledge, 1990.

Clough. The Correspondence of Arthur Hugh Clough. Ed. Frederick L. Mulhauser, 3 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1957.

Conway, Carlyle. Moncure Daniel Conway. Thomas Carlyle. New York: Harper, 1881.

Copeland. Charles Townsend Copeland, ed. Letters of Thomas Carlyle to His Youngest Sister. London: Chapman and Hall; Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin, 1899.

Dasent, Delane. Arthur Irwin Dasent. John Thadeus Delane, Editor of “The Times": His Life and Correspondence. 2 vols. London: John Murray, 1908.

Davidson, Memories. David Davidson. Memories of a Long Life. Edinburgh: David Douglas, 1890.

Davies, John Forster. J. A. Davies. John Forster: A Literary Life. Leicester: Leicester Univ. Press, 1983.

DL. The Letters of Charles Dickens. Ed. Madeline House, Graham Storey, et al. Pilgrim Edn. 12 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1965–2002.

DNB. Dictionary of National Biography. Ed. Leslie Stephen et al. London: Smith, Elder, 1885–1917; Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 1917–1990.

Duffy. Sir Charles Gavan Duffy, K.C.M.G. Conversations with Carlyle. New edn. London, Paris, and Melbourne: Cassell, 1896.

Duke. Duke Univ. Library.

Dunn, Froude. Waldo Hilary Dunn. James Anthony Froude: A Biography. 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1961–63.

Eliot, Letters. The George Eliot Letters. Ed. Gordon S. Haight. 9 vols. New Haven, Conn.: Yale Univ. Press, 1954–78.

EUL. Edinburgh Univ. Library.

Espinasse. Francis Espinasse. Literary Recollections and Sketches. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1893.

FC. Forster Collection, Victoria and Albert Museum.

Fielding, FR. K. J. Fielding. “Froude's Revenge, or The Carlyles and Erasmus A. Darwin.” Essays and Studies n.s. 31 (1978): 75–97. London: John Murray for The English Association.

Fielding, “Vernon Lushington.” K. J. Fielding. “Vernon Lushington: Carlyle's Friend and Editor.” Carlyle Newsletter no. 8 (1978): 7–18.

Fielding and Sorensen. K. J. Fielding and David R. Sorensen, eds. Jane Carlyle: Newly Selected Letters. Aldershot, Hants: Ashgate, 2004.

Ford Madox Brown. Joseph Leopold Ford Hermann Madox Hueffer, Ford Madox Brown: A Record of his Life and Work. London: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1896.

Froude, Carlyle. J. A. Froude. Thomas Carlyle: A History of the First Forty Years of His Life, 1795–1835; A History of His Life in London, 1834–1881. 4 vols. London: Longmans, Green, 1882, 1884.

Froude, LM. J. A. Froude, ed. Letters and Memorials of Jane Welsh Carlyle: Prepared for Publication by Thomas Carlyle. 3 vols. London: Longmans, Green, 1883.

Gilchrist. H. H. Gilchrist, ed. Anne Gilchrist: Her Life and Writings. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1887.

GV. Gesamtverzeichnis des Deutschsprachigen Schriftums, 1700–1910. Münich, London: Saur, 1979–87.

Hanna. William Hanna, ed. Letters of Thomas Erskine of Linlathen. 2 vols. Edinburgh: David Douglas, 1877.

Hansard. Hansard's Parliamentary Debates. 3d ser. 356 vols. London: T. C. Hansard, 1830–91.

Hansons, NE. Lawrence Hanson and Elisabeth Hanson. Necessary Evil: The Life of Jane Welsh Carlyle. London: Constable, 1952.

HCC. Harvard Carlyle Collection.

Hilles. Frederick W. Hilles Manuscript Collection, General Collection, Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale Univ.

Hornel. Hornel Collection, Broughton House, Kirkcudbright, Dumfries and Galloway.

Houghton. Houghton Library, Harvard Univ.

Howe. Susanne Howe, Geraldine Jewsbury: Her Life and Errors. London: George Allen and Unwin, 1935. Huxley, JWCLF. Leonard Huxley, ed. Jane Welsh Carlyle: Letters to Her Family, 1839–1863. London: John Murray; New York: Doubleday, Page, 1924.

Huxley, LJWC. Leonard Huxley. “Letters from Jane Welsh Carlyle.” Cornhill Magazine n.s. 61 (1926): 493–510, 622–38.

Ireland. Mrs. Alexander [Annie E.] Ireland, ed. Selections from the Letters of Geraldine Endsor Jewsbury to Jane Welsh Carlyle. London and New York: Longmans, Green, 1892.

JWC. Jane Welsh Carlyle.

Kimball. Leroy Elwood Kimball. “Thomas Carlyle and Charles Butler of Wall Street.” Essays and Studies in Honor of Carleton Brown. New York: New York Univ. Press, 1940.

Knighton, CWC. William Knighton. “Conversations with Carlyle.” Contemporary Review 39 (1881): 904–20.

Landor. R. H. Super. Walter Savage Landor. New York: New York Univ. Press, 1954.

Larkin, BQR. Henry Larkin. “Carlyle, and Mrs. Carlyle: A Ten-Years' Reminiscence.” British Quarterly Review 74 (1881): 28–84.

Last Words. Last Words of Thomas Carlyle. London: Longmans, Green, 1892.

Mantell. Walter Mantell Papers. Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand.

Marrs. Edwin W. Marrs Jr., ed. The Letters of Thomas Carlyle to His Brother Alexander with Related Family Letters. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1968.

Mineka. Francis E. Mineka, ed. The Later Letters of John Stuart Mill, 1849–1873. 2 vols. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press; London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1972.

MUL. McMaster Univ. Library.

NLI. National Library of Ireland.

NLS. National Library of Scotland.

Norton, CE. Charles Eliot Norton, ed. The Correspondence of Thomas Carlyle and Ralph Waldo Emerson, 1834–1872. 2 vols. London: Chatto and Windus; Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin, 1894.

ODNB. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Ed. H. C. G. Matthew and Brian Harrison. 61 vols. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press, 2004. Also available online:

Ray. Gordon N. Ray, ed. The Letters and Private Papers of William Makepeace Thackeray. 4 vols. London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1945–46.

Reid, RMM. T. Wemyss Reid. The Life, Letters and Friendships of Richard Monckton Milnes, First Lord Houghton. 2 vols. London: Cassell, 1890.

Ritchie. David G. Ritchie, ed. Early Letters of Jane Welsh Carlyle. London: Swan Sonnenschein, 1889.

Rusk. Ralph L. Rusk, ed. The Letters of Ralph Waldo Emerson. 6 vols. New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1939.

Ruskin's Works. The Works of John Ruskin. Ed. E. T. Cook and A. Wedderburn. 39 vols. London: G. Allen, 1903–12.

RWEMA. Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorial Association, Harvard Univ.

Sadler. Thomas Sadler. “Carlyle and Neuberg.” Macmillan's Magazine 50 (1884): 280–97.

Sanders, “Carlyle's Letters to Ruskin.” C. R. Sanders. “Carlyle's Letters to Ruskin: A Finding List with Some Unpublished Letters and Comments.” Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 41 (1958–59): 208–38.

Sanders, CB. C. R. Sanders. “Some Lost and Unpublished Carlyle-Browning Correspondence.” Journal of English and Germanic Philology 62 (1963): 323–35.

Sanders, CF. C. R. Sanders. Carlyle's Friendships and Other Studies. Durham, N.C.: Duke Univ. Press, 1977.

Scritti. Giuseppe Mazzini. Scritti editi ed inediti di Giuseppe Mazzini. 94 vols. Imola: Cooperativa Tipografico-Editrice Paolo Galeati, 1903–43.

Scudder. Townsend Scudder, ed. Letters of Jane Welsh Carlyle to Joseph Neuberg, 1848–1862. London and New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1931.

Shepherd, Carlyle. Richard Herne Shepherd, ed. Memoirs of the Life and Writings of Thomas Carlyle. 2 vols. London: W. H. Allen, 1881.

Simpsons. Alan Simpson and Mary McQueen Simpson, eds. I Too Am Here: Selections from the Letters of Jane Welsh Carlyle. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1977.

Slater, CEC. Joseph Slater, ed. The Correspondence of Emerson and Carlyle. New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1964.

SND. Scottish National Dictionary. Ed. William Grant and David D. Murison. 10 vols. Edinburgh: Scottish National Dictionary Association, 1931–76.

Southern. David Southern. “ ‘A Perfect Man of Business’: The Financier and Broker Charles Butler and Thomas Carlyle's American Investments.” Carlyle Studies Annual 22 (2006): 255–81.

E. Strachey, LC. Edward Strachey. “Some Letters and Conversations of Thomas Carlyle.” Atlantic Monthly 73 (1894): 821–34.

Strouse. Norman and Charlotte Strouse Carlyle Collection, Univ. of California, Santa Cruz.

Tarr. Rodger L. Tarr. Thomas Carlyle: A Descriptive Bibliography. Pittsburgh: Univ. of Pittsburgh Press, 1989.

TC. Thomas Carlyle.

Terhune, LEF. A. M. Terhune and A. B. Terhune, eds. The Letters of Edward FitzGerald. 4 vols. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1980.

Trinity. Trinity College Library, Cambridge.

Twisleton, Letters. Letters of the Hon. Mrs. Edward Twisleton Written to Her Family, 1852–1862. Ed. Ellen Twisleton Vaughan. London: John Murray, 1928.

ULC. “Unpublished Letters of Carlyle.” Scribner's Magazine 13 (1893): 416–25.

Wellesley. Wellesley Index to Victorian Periodicals, 1824–1900. Ed. Walter E. Houghton et al. 5 vols. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press; London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1966–89.

Wilson, Carlyle. David Alec Wilson. Carlyle. 6 vols. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner; New York: E. P. Dutton, 1923–34.

Woolner. Amy Woolner. Thomas Woolner, R.A., Sculptor and Poet: His Life in Letters. London: Chapman and Hall, 1917.

Wright, EFL. W. A. Wright, ed. Letters and Literary Remains of Edward FitzGerald. 3 vols. London and New York: Macmillan, 1889.

Yale. Yale Univ. Library; see also Hilles.